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Periodic table

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A representative element from the Periodic table showing the typical position of the atomic name, atomic symbol, atomic number, atomic weight, and electron configuration.

Periodic Table of Elements contains the currently identified chemical elements arranged based on their chemical properties. Elements have certain properties and tendencies to react that were found to repeat periodically when elements of increasing atomic masses were compared.

Each cell of the table contains a different element. The cells of most periodic tables contain the name and symbol of each element, the atomic number (the number of protons), and the atomic weight (average number of protons + neutrons). Some periodic tables will contain other information, such as the electron shell configuration of each element, or their state at room temperature (liquid, gas, or solid).

The electron configurations of atoms is the primarily determinant of their chemical reactivity, and particularly the outer-shell (or "valence") electrons. The elements in the periodic table are arranged into rows (known as groups or families) and columns (known as periods) based on how many shells of electron the atoms possess, and the number of electron in outer-shell, respectively.

Periodic Table of Elements

Click on the chemical symbols below for more information on a specific element.

Group → 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
↓ Period
1 1
H

2
He
2 3
Li
4
Be

5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3 11
Na
12
Mg

13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4 19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5 37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6 55
Cs
56
Ba
*
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7 87
Fr
88
Ra
**
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Uut
114
Fl
115
Uup
116
Lv
117
Uus
118
Uuo

* Lanthanides 57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
** Actinides 89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr


Chemical series of the periodic table
Alkali metals2 Alkaline earth metals2 Lanthanides1,2 Actinides1,2 Transition metals2
Poor metals Metalloids Nonmetals Halogens3 Noble gases3
  • 1Actinides and lanthanides are collectively known as "Rare Earth Metals".
  • 2Alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, actinides, lanthanides, and poor metals are all collectively known as "Metals".
  • 3Halogens and noble gases are also non-metals.

State at standard temperature and pressure

  • those with atomic number in red are gases
  • those with atomic number in blue are liquids
  • those with atomic number in black are solid

Natural occurrence

  • those with solid borders have isotopes that are older than the Earth (Primordial elements)
  • those with dashed borders naturally arise from decay of other chemical elements and have no isotopes older than the earth
  • those with dotted borders are made artificially (Synthetic elements)
  • those without borders have not been discovered yet

Predictive Equation

Jean-claude Perez has put forth a mathematical model of the periodical table wherein a simple equation generates and predicts the structure of the table of Mendeleev. Perez asserts this equation illustrates a law that unifies all the elements of nature.[1]

  • The equation predicts the number of elements of any layer of period "p" in the table according to the only value of this period "p". Beyond this mathematical modeling of the periodic table of the Elements,
  • The equation underlines, in its formulation, the " trace" of the 4 fundamental quantum Numbers.
  • The model predicts the structure of the hypothetical extensions of the table of Mendeleev towards possible Elements (real) unknown which would be located beyond the last known radioactive Elements.
  • The model also makes it possible to imagine an infinity of other Elements (virtual) which one could however predict positioning towards the low layers of the table, like their quantum properties.

To summarize, IF:

-c(p) a horizontal layer of elements of the table of Mendeleev, 
-"p" the period associated with this c(p) layer such as p = [ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 … ],
-Int(v) the whole part of the numerical value "v". exp: if v=2.35,then Int(2.35)=2.

THEN: one obtains c(p), the number of elements contained in the c(p) layer of order p, by applying the formula:

    c(p) = 2 [ Int ( (p+2) / 2 ) ]*2

Examples :

If p=1 then c(1)=2  
If p=2 then c(2)=8    If p=3  then c(3)=8
If p=4 then c(4)=18   If p=5  then c(5)=18
If p=6 then c(6)=32   If p=7  then c(7)=32
If p=8 then c(8)=50   If p=9  then c(9)=50
…/…                   If p=16 then c(16)=162

To conclude :

  1. The periodic table of the Elements is modelizable. It is structured by a numerical structure of whole numbers.
  2. This structure is deterministic and predictive, then, for any period p, it can be calculated by applying "the Perez's generic equation of Mendeleev".
  3. The generic equation is completely controled by the four quantum Numbers.
  4. This generic equation makes it possible to check the regularity of the common table of Mendeleev, but it can also "predict" and anticipate the existence of hypothetical Eléments now unknown, of which it makes it possible to determine the quantum properties, then electronic and chemical hypothetical properties.[2]


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