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General Info
Atomic Symbol Atomic symbol::Nd
Atomic Number Atomic number::60
Atomic Weight Atomic weight::144.24 g/mol
Chemical series Transition metals
Appearance slivery and soft metal
Group, Period, Block  ?, 6, f
Electron configuration [Xe]4f4, 6s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2
Electron shell neodymium.png
CAS number CAS number::
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density Density::7.0 g/ml
Melting point Melting point::1024°C
Boiling point Boiling point::3100°C
Isotopes of Neodymium
iso NA half-life DT DE (MeV) DP
142Nd 27.2% 142Nd is stable with 82 neutrons.
143Nd 12.2% 143Nd is stable with 83 neutrons.
144Nd 23.8% 2.29x1015y α 1.905 140Ce
145Nd 8.3% 145Nd is stable with 85 neutrons.
146Nd 17.2% 146Nd is stable with 86 neutrons.
148Nd 5.7% 148Nd is stable with 88 neutrons.
150Nd 5.6% 6.7x1018 y β−β− 3.367 150Sm
All properties are for STP unless otherwise stated.

Neodymium is a chemical element that is classified as a lanthanide in the periodic table of elements. It is bright and silvery and is the most reactive of the rare earth metals which causes it to readily tarnishes in air. This rare earth metal is the most popular metal in the rare earth metal family. In the crust of the earth, there are tons of neodymium but specially China is the main country that mine neodymium.

Nodymium alloys are used as permanent magnets and is in fact the strongest magnet known. This magnet is used to make small volume and low mass products such as microphones, professional loudspeakers, in-ear headphones and computer hard disks. Also neodymium magnet is used for the generator and electric motors.[1]


Physical Properties of Neodymium
Neodymium is one of the unique chemicals that can be found in normal equipment such as lamps, television, and glass. Also, it is the one of the chemicals in alloys to make flint. To make great permanent magnet, the main alloys are Neodymium, iron and boron. This magnet is used in many ways in our lives, such as computers data storing and parts in the automobile.[2] This atom is a soft and adaptable metal that can split into slender pieces. This atom can be cut and shaped without difficulty. Its atomic number is 60 and atomic mass is 144.24 amu.[3] This element's melting point is 1024°C and boiling point is 3030°C.

Chemical Properties of Neodymium
Neodymium reacts with water, air, acid, and all the halogens. It tarnishes in air and reacts slowly in cold water but reacts immediately in hot water to form neodymium hydroxide.[4] This metal reacts with all of halogens too and it is stored in oil and plastic then wrapped.

Chemical Reactions
As mentioned in the Property section, it reacts with air, acids, water, and halogens. Each of reactions forms different names and different equations.

  • Neodymium has reaction in air, it contaminates slowly but burns quickly. When it burns away, it forms neodymium (III) oxide (Nd2O3)

4Nd + 3O2 → 2Nd2O3

  • Neodymium reacts with water but depending on the temperature of water, it may react differently. Because of its electro positive characteristic. When it reacts with cold water, it slowly forms neodymium hydroxide, Nd(OH)3. When it reacts with hot water, it reacts rapidly to form hydrogen gas (H2).

2Nd(s) + 6H2O(g) → 2Nd(OH)3(aq) + 3H2(g)

have different equations and reactions. Fluorine forms neodymium(III) fluoride (NdF3), chlorine fomrs neodymium(III) chloride (NdCl3), bromine forms neodymium(III) bromide (NdBr3), and lastly iodine forms neodymium(III) iodide (NdI3). 2Nd(s) + 3F2(g) → 2NdF3(s) [violet]

2Nd(s) + 3Cl2(g) → 2NdCl3(s) [mauve]

2Nd(s) + 3Br2(g) → 2NdBr3(s) [violet]

2Nd(s) + 3I2(g) → 2NdI3(s) [green]

  • Neodymium reacts in acids. It disappears quickly in liquefied sulphuric and lilac aquated Nd(III) ion with hydrogen gas, H2 is formed. In that compound, the Nd3+(aq) abides in the complex ion [Nd(OH2)9]3+.

2Nd(s) + 3H2SO4(aq) → 2Nd3+(aq) + 3SO42-(aq) + 3H2(g)



neodymium in the glass

Neodymium is one of the most abundant rare earth metals in the world. In the earth's crust, there are approximately 38 mg/kg which means that Neodymium is second more numerous rare-earth element after cerium. It is hardly less ample than zinc and copper. [6]Also, it is one of the lanthanide series. Lanthanide series can divide into large two groups depend on the atomic number. Atomic numbers from 57 to 63 comprise the cerium group and are considered as light rare-earths metals. The atomic numbers from 64 to 71 comprise yttrium group and are considered as heavy rare-earth metals. Monazite and bastnasite are the most banal ores of neodymium, also those ores are common for other earth metals. Also, neodymium is common in Misch metals. [7] Neodymium's main occurrences are China, United States, Brazil, Australia, India and Sri Lanka. Most of neodymium is from China because their government knows the importance of neodymium.[1]

Discovery of Neodymium

Carl Auer von Welsbach

In the 1700s, two significant minerals were discovered in Sweden. One named yttria was discovered in the town of Ytterby. It was found out to possess nine new elements. The other important mineral was discovered around the town of Bastnas and called cerite. It was found out to possess seven new elements. The Swedish chemist Carl Gustav Mosander (1797-1858) studied about cerite and in 1839, he separated cerite into two parts. Which are cerium and lanthanum. Mosander strongly thought that he discovered the two new elements but later, he realized that lanthanum was not a element. However, lanthanum was a mixture of two parts and he named those two mixtures as lanthanum and didymium. After his death, chemist ratified that two of Mosander's discoveries were really new elements. Based on the Mosander's discovery, the Austrian chemist, Carl Auer von Welsbach found that didymium has characteristics that it has two simple materials which are neodymium and praseodymium. The name neodymium is from Greek word that neos means new and didymos means twin. Also, praseodymium's name is from Greek word that praseo means green and didymos is same as neodymium's. During Mosander or Auer's time, there were no such equipments to find new elements so they had reliance on environmental methods. In 1925 the first pure samples of neodymium were produced. [8]


There are seven neodymium isotopes that naturally occur. Six of the Neodymium isotopes are stable but the Nd-144 is radioactive and every isotopes are different depend on their atomic number. The neodymium isotopes are used as the application for the science. Nd -142 is used Tm and Yb isotopes, Nd-146 was mainly suggested in the process of producing Pm-147 and Pm-147 is a source for the radioisotopic power generation. Other than Nd-146, neodymium isotopes are used for Pm isotopes. Lastly, Nd-150 is one that for the double beta decay to study about it. Also, there are seven radioactive neodymium isotopes that break down and discharge the radiation. When small particles are burnt out at atoms then the radioactive neodymium is produced. The fired small particles stick to atoms and make them have the characteristic of radioactive. [9]

Nominal mass Accurate


 % Natural abundance Chemical


Enrichment available %
142 Nd 141.907719 (4) 27.2 (5) oxide 95 - 99
143 Nd 142.909810 (4) 12.18 (2) oxide 83 - 96+
144 Nd 143.910083 (4) 23.80 (3) oxide 85 - 98+
145 Nd 144.912570 (4) 8.30 (1) oxide 70 - 94+
146 Nd 145.913113 (4) 17.19 (3) oxide 97 - 98+
148 Nd 147.916889 (4) 5.76 (1) oxide 74 - 97+
150 Nd 149.920887 (4) 5.64 (2) oxide 89 - 97+


Neodymium Magnet

nickel-plated neodymium magnet cubes

Neodymium magnets are the stronger permanent magnets than any other magnets and they are well known to people. Also, this magnet is really strong that few grams of this magnet can lift a thousand times its own weight. The formula for this magnet is Nd2Fe14B, two atoms of neodymium, fourteen atoms of iron and one boron. Neodymium magnet is a part of rare-earth magnet and there is one another type of rare-earth magnet which is samarium-cobalt magnets. Rare-earth magnets are really fragile and easy to get disintegration so mostly they are covered to prevent from disintegration. Also, rare-earth magnets have distinct characteristics that comprise atoms from lanthanide or actinide series in the periodic table. Neodymium magnets, are used in various ways such as headphones, guitars, computer's hard disks, and microphones. Also, neodymium magnets are used to make air planes. Lastly, neodymium magnet is a powerful and useful magnet to human but it also has a downside. When this magnet is in the place where the temperature is high, its magnetic field losses intensity of it. [11]

  • Properties of Neodymium magnet

· (Br) indicates a remanence which is a measurement for check the strength of the magnetic field

· Hci (kA/m) is a coercivity which is the material's resistance to become demagnetized

· (BH)max is an energy product that represents the density of magnetic energy

· Tc is a curie temperature. It is a temperature that show the loosing of its magnetism.

Magnet Br (T) Hci (kA/m) (BH)max (kJ/m3) Tc (°C)
Nd2Fe14B (sintered) 1.0–1.4 750–2000 200–440 310–400
Nd2Fe14B (bonded) 0.6–0.7 600–1200 60–100 310–400


Chemical compound

Neodymium can combine with oxygen, halogens, hydrogen, and other elements to produce important compounds. The oxidation number 3 is the most common for neodymium.

Neodymium trifluoride (NdF3)

Neodymium dichloride (NdCl2) Neodymium trichloride (NdCl3)

Neodymium tribromide (NdBr3)

  • Iodides

Neodymium triiodide (NdI3) Neodymium diiodide (NdI2)

Dineodymium trioxide (Nd2O3)

Neodymium sulphide (NdS) Dineodymium trisulphide (Nd2S3)

Neodymium selenide (NdSe)

Neodymium telluride (NdTe) Dineodymium tritelluride (Nd2Te3)

Neodymium nitride (NdN)



  • powerful permanent magnets
  • lasers
  • in astronomy to calibrate spectral lines
  • alloys
  • coloring glass to make welder's goggles
  • hard disk
  • microphone
  • professional loudspeaker
  • in-ear headphone
  • generator
  • electric motor
  • small toys(Small neodymium magnets)



[15] [16]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Neodymium by Wikipedia, Accessed January 12, 2011.
  2. Neodymium - Nd by Lenntech Water treatment & purification Holding B.V, unknown author.
  3. Neodymium by Yinon Bentor.
  4. Element Neodymium - Nd by Kenneth L Barbalace (J.K. Barbalace, inc). Environment Chemistry.
  5. Neodymium: Chemical reaction data by Mark Winter, The University of Sheffield and WebElements Ltd, UK, 1993-2010.
  6. Occurrence unknown author, 2010 Advameg, Inc.
  7. occurrence of neodymium unknown author.
  8. discovery and naming of neodymium Thomson Gale, U•X•L, 2005-2006 .
  9. Isotopes of neodymium Advameg, Inc, unknown.
  10. Isotopes of neodymium Mark Winter, [The University of Sheffield and WebElements Ltd, UK, 1993-2010.
  11. neodymium magnet Michael Anissimov, Niki Foster, 26 November 2010.
  12. Rare-earth magnet Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
  13. Neodymium compounds Mark Winter, The University of Sheffield and WebElements Ltd, UK,1993-2010.
  14. uses of neodymium Mark Winter,[The University of Sheffield and WebElements Ltd, UK, 1993-2010.
  15. neodymium supermagnets, beads: amoebas YouTube
  16. Neodymium Magnet Generator YouTube

Additional Information