Queda do homem

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Fall of Man by Lukas Cranach the Elder

A Queda do homem (Data::8 Ethanim 1 AM) foi um evento que é descrito no livro bíblico de Gênesis, durante o qual o primeiro homem e a primeira mulher (Adão e Eva) pecaram contra Deus, e caíram da graça. O evento é também conhecido como o Pecado Original. Conforme a Bíblia, esse pecado trouxe a morte ao mundo, mas os seres humanos permanecem seres imortais no céu ou no inferno, para serem ressuscitados para a vida eterna ou para o tormento eterno (Mateus 25:46). A Bíblia também parece indicar claramente que os seres humanos foram criados para viver imortalmente em seus corpos físicos antes de Adão e Eva cometerem o pecado original.

O comando de Deus

Em Genesis 2-3 , Deus deu a Adão e Eva instruções específicas para não comer da Árvore do Conhecimento ou morreriam. Apesar de este comando e aviso de Deus, Eva sucumbiu à tentação por uma serpente e comeu o fruto, em seguida, deu a Adao, "que estava com ela".

"E ordenou o Senhor Deus ao homem, dizendo: De toda árvore do jardim comerás livremente, mas da árvore da ciência do bem e do mal, dela não comerás; porque, no dia em que dela comeres, certamente morrerás..'" - Genesis 2:16-17

"Ora, a serpente era mais astuta que todas as alimárias do campo que o Senhor Deus tinha feito. E esta disse à mulher: É assim que Deus disse: Não comereis de toda árvore do jardim? E disse a mulher à serpente: Do fruto das árvores do jardim comeremos, mas, do fruto da árvore que está no meio do jardim, disse Deus: Não comereis dele, nem nele tocareis, para que não morrais. Então, a serpente disse à mulher: Certamente não morrereis. Porque Deus sabe que, no dia em que dele comerdes, se abrirão os vossos olhos, e sereis como Deus, sabendo o bem e o mal. E, vendo a mulher que aquela árvore era boa para se comer, e agradável aos olhos, e árvore desejável para dar entendimento, tomou do seu fruto, e comeu, e deu também a seu marido, e ele comeu com ela.." - Genesis 3:1-6

Este ato de desobediência foi a primeira vez que os seres humanos tinham pecado contra Deus, e é, portanto, chamado de pecado original. Uma vez que diz-se que Adão viveu até os 930 anos de idade, é importante examinar a natureza da pena de morte executada sobre a humanidade. Comer do fruto proibido deu a Adão e Eva a capacidade de julgar suas próprias ações como certas ou erradas, e eles instantaneamente reconheceram que tinham feito algo pecaminoso e se esconderam de Deus. Depois de questioná-los, Deus removeu Adão e Eva do jardim, e colocou um querubim com uma espada flamejante para guardar a Árvore da Vida de forma que eles não poderiam comer dela.

Permanece algum debate dentro da comunidade teológica e da ciência da criação sobre a natureza desta imortalidade. É importante notar que o hebraico nesta passagem é mais literalmente traduzido como "morrendo, tu morrerás", que sugere uma morte "progressiva". Uma tradução menos literal é "pois assim que comereis dela, sereis condenados a morrer". No entanto, porque eles não morreram imediatamente depois de comer do fruto, alguns cristãos interpretam esta passagem para significar que Adão e Eva morreram naquele dia, mas apenas espiritualmente. Alternativamente, muitas pessoas assumem que Adão e Eva começaram fisicamente imortais, e começaram a envelhecer pela primeira vez neste dia.

"Pelo que, como por um homem entrou o pecado no mundo, e pelo pecado, a morte, assim também a morte passou a todos os homens, por isso que todos pecaram. Porque até à lei estava o pecado no mundo, mas o pecado não é imputado não havendo lei." - Romanos 5:12-13

"Porque, se, pela ofensa de um só, a morte reinou por esse, muito mais os que recebem a abundância da graça e do dom da justiça reinarão em vida por um só, Jesus Cristo." - Romans 5:17

"Porque a ardente expectação da criatura espera a manifestação dos filhos de Deus. Porque a criação ficou sujeita à vaidade, não por sua vontade, mas por causa do que a sujeitou, na esperança de que também a mesma criatura será libertada da servidão da corrupção, para a liberdade da glória dos filhos de Deus. Porque sabemos que toda a criação geme e está juntamente com dores de parto até agora." - Romanos 8:19-22

God told Adam and Eve; "you may eat freely of every tree in the garden; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall die." However, after they ate the forbidden fruit, they did not immediately fall dead. Because of this seeming discrepancy, many Christian interpret this passage to mean that Adam died spiritually that day, or was originally immortal and became a mortal thereby beginning to die. The text would instead suggest that when they committed the original sin, God exacted an indirect penalty of death upon Adam and Eve. If the garden of Eden story is representative of history, humans were created to live forever in a physical body, but God removed their source of immortality on the day they sinned against Him. Overall, it is consistent that humans were doomed to mortality after the Fall.

Tree of Life

In addition to the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, God also placed a tree in the garden called the Tree of Life. The passage would seem to suggest that this tree was the source of physical immortality for humans, and although God had not forbidden Adam and Eve from eating its' fruit, they had not done so before they sinned. As soon as they ate of the tree of good and evil, God immediately removed Adam and Eve from the garden, and placed a flaming sword to guard the tree so they could not eat from it. In Predefinição:Bible ref, God is quoted as saying "and now, lest he put forth his hand and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever" therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden", clearly indicating that Adam was removed from the garden before he would have the opportunity for to eat of the tree of life and become immortal.

From this story in Genesis 2-3 , we can conclude that on the day Adam and Eve ate of the "Tree of Knowledge" they experienced their immortal death because God removed their access to the "Tree of Life". This tree, which had been originally placed there for them, would apparently provide some essential factor without which any human would eventually die. It is assumed that the "Tree of Life" was able to transform the biological nature of human beings who were alone designed to eat from the tree and live in this way. However, because our ancestors disobeyed God, they brought death to all mankind through their punishment. Christianity teaches that it is now only by faith in the LORD Jesus Christ that our sins will be forgiven, and we can regain our place with God through eternity.

"E o Senhor Deus fez brotar da terra toda árvore agradável à vista e boa para comida, e a árvore da vida no meio do jardim, e a árvore da ciência do bem e do mal." - Genesis 2:9

" Então, disse o Senhor Deus: Eis que o homem é como um de nós, sabendo o bem e o mal; ora, pois, para que não estenda a sua mão, e tome também da árvore da vida, e coma, e viva eternamente, o Senhor Deus, pois, o lançou fora do jardim do Éden, para lavrar a terra, de que fora tomado. E, havendo lançado fora o homem, pôs querubins ao oriente do jardim do Éden e uma espada inflamada que andava ao redor, para guardar o caminho da árvore da vida." - Genesis 3:22-24

"Quem tem ouvidos ouça o que o Espírito diz às igrejas: Ao que vencer, dar-lhe-ei a comer da árvore da vida que está no meio do paraíso de Deus." - Apocalipse 2:7

"E mostrou-me o rio puro da água da vida, claro como cristal, que procedia do trono de Deus e do Cordeiro. No meio da sua praça e de uma e da outra banda do rio, estava a árvore da vida, que produz doze frutos, dando seu fruto de mês em mês, e as folhas da árvore são para a saúde das nações." - Apocalipse 22:1-2

"Bem-aventurados aqueles que lavam as suas vestiduras no sangue do Cordeiro, para que tenham direito à árvore da vida e possam entrar na cidade pelas portas." - Apocalipse 22:14

Physical Immortality

Main Article: Immortality

It is important to note that physical immortality is theoretically possible for any lifeform, and the factors which cause organisms to begin to grow old and die remain largely hypothetical. Multicellular organisms are designed so that new cells replace older cells on a never-ending cycle. If a cell is provided all the metabolites and nutrients it needs to survive, its lineage should never die-out. But due to some unknown cause they simply cease.

Plants are actually or potentially immortal organisms that will live indefinitely provided their environmental requirements are met. In striking contrast to plants, humans and animals have a maximum life expectancy regardless of whether their needs are fulfilled. Although it is true that some plants grow as annuals, all plants are actually perennials by nature, and have adapted to a programmed life cycle in some instances to match growing seasons. Otherwise, plants only die because of biochemical starvation or disease. If their physical requirements are met, plants will grow indefinitely.

The most widely accepted theory to explain cellular mortality proposes that the ends of chromosomes (telomeres) degrade through time, and active genes eventually become affected by similar erosion. However, programmed cell death (apoptosis) is now known to occur, and clearly indicates a control mechanism is governing cellular mortality. Cells are responding to signals we do not yet recognize, and will essentially die on a preprogrammed schedule.

It is also now well established that plant and animal cell lines can be easily immortalized. Immortalized plant tissue can be obtained by simply isolating the plant's wound-response tissue called callus. When separated from the plant's signaling mechanism that tell the cells to die, callus will grow indefinitely in tissue culture.

Cancer cells are considered immortalized. They have become genetically unresponsive to the signals that would normally restrict cells from replicating their DNA and dividing. Unlike their host organism, immortalized cell lines will continue to grow and divide as long as their necessary elements are maintained.

Animal Immortality

Many creationists argue that both humans and the animals were immortal in the beginning, and no animals on Earth died prior to the fall of mankind. This view is based largely on the use of the phrase breath of life that is shared in common with animals (Predefinição:Bible ref), and the word life as in Predefinição:Bible ref (Hebrew neshesh), which some believe refers to the soul - asserting that animals also have a soul like humans.[1]

In The Genesis Record, Henry Morris states:

The word “life” occurs for the first time in this verse (Hebrew nephesh). Actually, this is the word also for “soul,” and is frequently used to refer to both the soul of man and the life of animals.[2]

"[T]he LORD God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being." - {{{2}}} {{{3}}}

"I am going to bring floodwaters on the earth to destroy all life under the heavens, every creature that has the breath of life in it. Everything on earth will perish." - {{{2}}} {{{3}}}

"Pairs of all creatures that have the breath of life in them came to Noah and entered the ark." - {{{2}}} {{{3}}}

This perspective is most often voiced by young earth creationists to contest the evolutionary interpretation of the fossil record as being evidence of millions of years of death and decay prior to the presence of humans.[3]

In The Genesis Record, Henry Morris continues:

Since death only “entered into the world” when sin came in through man (Romans 5:12), and since the whole creation was very good before man sinned, it is as obvious as anything could be that the fossil record now found in the sedimentary rocks of the earth’s crust could only have been formed sometime after man sinned. The fossils could not have been deposited either before the six days of creation (as in the gap theory) or during the six days of creation (as according to the progressive creation, day-age type of theory).[3]

It is also noted by proponents of this view that both humans and animals were designed to eat plants at the time of their creation - Predefinição:Bible ref. Carnivorous behaviors probably began as a result of the curse upon the Earth.[4] Likewise, God's own description of the created world was in terms of "very good", which to many is contradictory to the suffering which frequents death.[3]

Although the possibility of immortal animals is immediately rejected by many on the grounds that accidental death occurs on a regular basis for many small organisms today (like stepping on bugs). Under examination, such distinctions between humans and other creatures do not hold up. Accidental deaths are as likely for humans as for almost any other organism. There may be no generalized scenario that would cause the death of another organism that could not also happen to humans. In fact, humans are one of the most environmentally fragile of all organisms on earth. But, in contrast, the exoskeleton possessed by the average insect can handle several hundred times its weight.

Nevertheless, this arguments overlooks the obvious purpose of the tree of life, to provide the immortality that God intended humans to have. The fall of man resulted in the removal of Adam and Eve from the garden of Eden to prevent their access to the tree of life and immortality.

Plants

Those that hold to animal immortality typically exclude animals on the grounds that they do not have the "breath of life", or blood, which is used to define plants as non "living" in the same sense as animals. (Predefinição:Bible ref - Only you shall not eat flesh with its life, that is, its blood.)

In The Genesis Record, Henry Morris states:

In the Biblical sense, plants do not have real life, or soul (or consciousness); but both animals and men do.[2]

It is also noted that animals and humans alike were designed to eat plants and frequently kill them upon harvest.

"And to all the beasts of the earth and all the birds of the air and all the creatures that move on the ground—everything that has the breath of life in it — I give every green plant for food. And it was so." - {{{2}}} {{{3}}}

Other Curses

In Addition to being removed from the Garden of Eden and being separated from the Tree of Life, there were other curses exacted upon the creation as a result of the sin of Adam and Eve.

Farm for food

Farming in mass quantities to obtain food seems to have only been a requirement after Adam was cursed for his sin. As plants were created to be food for humans and animals alike (See: {{{1}}} {{{2}}} ), it is logical that we were both originally created with the ability to digest plant fiber (cellulose), and there was no need for us to grow crops in the beginning. This is further supported by the fact that humans have an appendix organ in the digestive system; it is vestigial today, but scientists agree that it was originally intended to digest plant fiber/cellulose.

Today, we must farm in order to obtain sufficient amounts of energy, which otherwise exists in abundance within cellulose. The entire plant is basically made of pure sugar, which is what virtually all organisms metabolize for energy, but most of the metabolites made by plants are indigestible by humans and animals. This conundrum is inexplicable from an intelligent design perspective aside from a cursed world.[5]

"To Adam he said, 'Because you listened to your wife and ate from the tree about which I commanded you, ʿYou must not eat of it,ʾ Cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat of it all the days of your life. It will produce thorns and thistles for you, and you will eat the plants of the field. By the sweat of your brow you will eat your food until you return to the ground, since from it you were taken; for dust you are and to dust you will return." - {{{2}}} {{{3}}}

Increased pain during childbirth

"To the woman he said, 'I will greatly increase your pains in childbearing; with pain you will give birth to children. Your desire will be for your husband, and he will rule over you.'" - {{{2}}} {{{3}}}

Serpent

"So the LORD God said to the serpent, 'Because you have done this, Cursed are you above all the livestock and all the wild animals! You will crawl on your belly and you will eat dust all the days of your life. And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; he will crush your head, and you will strike his heel.'" - {{{2}}} {{{3}}}

See Also

Reference

  1. Morris, Henry M., The Genesis Record. Grand Rapids MI: Baker Books, 1976. p.86.
  2. 2,0 2,1 Morris, Henry M., The Genesis Record. Grand Rapids MI: Baker Books, 1976. p.69.
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 Morris, Henry M., The Genesis Record. Grand Rapids MI: Baker Books, 1976. p.79.
  4. Morris, Henry M., The Genesis Record. Grand Rapids MI: Baker Books, 1976. p.78.
  5. "Designed to Eat Plants, Then Cursed to be Unable." Northwest Creation Network, n.d. Accessed October 24, 2008.

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