Paleoantropologia

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A paleoantropologia é um ramo especializado da antropologia e paleontologia físicas envolvido com o estudo dos antigos seres humanos. Os paleoantropólogos investigam a origem e posterior evolução da humanidade, examinando restos fósseis e outras evidências antigas. A paleoantropologia com base na evolução afirma que a humanidade evoluiu a partir de ancestrais semelhantes a macacos, e, portanto, a subdisciplina freqüentemente inclui o estudo da vida e primatas extintos. Por outro lado, a paleoantropologia bíblica baseada na criação sustenta que a humanidade foi criada por Deus, como descrito no livro do Gênesis.

Os paleontólogos seculares afirmam que os hominídeos começaram a evoluir a partir de outros primatas começando por volta de 8-6 milhões de anos atrás. Evidência de atividade de hominídeos entre 8 e 2,5 milhões de anos geralmente consiste apenas de restos de ossos disponíveis para estudo. Devido a essa imagem muito incompleta do período de tempo a partir do registro fóssil, vários aspectos da antropologia física (osteometria, anatomia funcional, o quadro evolutivo) são essenciais para explicar a evolução durante estes primeiros milhões de anos. A evolução durante este tempo é considerada como o resultado de forças naturais apenas.[1]

Os paleontólogos criacionistas examinam a Bíblia para a introspecção na história humana. O relato da criação no livro do Gênesis diz-nos que os seres humanos e todos os animais terrestres foram criados no mesmo dia. Isso está em contraste gritante com as afirmações da paleontologia evolucionária, que sustenta que os hominídeos foram evoluindo ao longo de milhões de anos e o Homo sapiens aparecendo apenas algumas centenas de milhares de anos atrás.[2]. O relato da criação também revela que os seres humanos são diferentes dos animais e formados exclusivamente na imagem de Deus.[3]

Bíblica

A paleoantropologia bíblica se preocupa com dois períodos distintos da civilização humana: os seres humanos que viveram antes do dilúvio global e aqueles que viveram na sequência. O livro de Gênesis começa com um relato do mundo original e sua civilização que não existe mais. Detalhes sobre esta primeira civilização são mínimos, exceto por uma genealogia concisa, relatos de homens como Enoque, e referência a uma raça misteriosa conhecida como Nefilim. Gênesis relata que esta original civilização antediluviana se tornou intensamente perversa e para isso foi destruída por um dilúvio global enviado por Deus cerca de 4500 anos atrás. Nenhuma evidência fóssil verificada desta civilização humana pré-dilúvio foi encontrada e é duvidoso que qualquer vestígio tenha sobrevivido à devastação.

Uma distinção muito importante entre os seres humanos pré e pós-inundação foi a sua longevidade. Prior to the flood, Predefinição:Bible ref records that people lived extraordinarily long lives: routinely over 900 years. Methuselah is known for living longer than any other human in history, dying at the age of 969. This longevity is believed to be so extraordinarily long in part because environmental conditions were optimal for longevity before the Earth was destroyed, perhaps maintained by a dense atmosphere which collapsed during the flood. After the flood, the lengthy human lifespans gradually declined to over several generations. This Biblical insight offers an explanation for the robust human morphology seen in some post flood groups such as the Neanderthals and Homo erectus.

Origin of Races

Subsequent to the flood, Predefinição:Bible ref records the Table of Nations; a genealogical record that names and describe a number of individuals that established early civilizations. The account is by no means exhaustive, but does name people who are reputed to have established Egypt, Greece, Canaan, and Sheba, as well as cities such as Tyre.

The key post-flood Biblical event that factors into the development of human races and language is the Tower of Babel. According to Predefinição:Bible ref, all humans spoke the same language immediately following the global flood. Those who migrated to the east and settled in the land of Shinar decided to build a city and a great tower out of baked bricks to make a name for themselves. It may be argued that because there is no archaeological evidence of buildings from antediluvian civilizations, the Tower of Babel was the first major monument ever built of which any evidence might remain.

God intentionally scattered mankind to retard their technological advancement by confusing their speech. The origin of the various root languages is presumably linked to this event. God apparently created several unique languages to scatter humans throughout the world. This action almost speciated humans into several groups allowing physical differences to develop. All human ancestry traces back to Noah and his family only 4500 years ago, and then even further back to Adam and Eve. We are all close relatives, and the differences that distinguish the human races should be considered superficial at best.

Jonathan Sarfati comments on the relation of these post Babel humans to so called "cave men".

Also, some people groups would be isolated from civilization. Consider even the typical small extended family group today, if suddenly isolated from civilization, e.g., on a desert island. Many such groups would not have the ability to smelt metals or build houses. Therefore, they would have to use the hardest material available (stone) and make use of already-existing structures (caves). Different family groups would also have different levels of artistic ability. So it shouldn’t be too difficult to accept that humans such as Homo erectus and Neandertals were probably post-Babel humans who became isolated from major cities, and developed certain physical characteristics because certain genes became fixed due to the small population and selective factors. The notion of a ‘stone age’ is fallacious—rather, it’s a cave/stone technology stage of different people groups. Some people even today have this level of technology, but they live at the same time as us, and are just as human.[4]

Evolução

From Thomas Huxley's Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature (1863)

Evolutionists believe that humans evolved from an ape-like ancestors that descended from chimpanzees, and assign both humans and apes to the same taxonomic Family - Hominidae. Most creationists would deny that humans have evolved in this manner, and instead believe that these ancient hominids were either fully ape or fully humans. The two primary taxonomic genera of ape-men clearly delineate this distinction. With rare exception the taxonomic genus homo contain groups identified as true humans (as with Homo neanderthalensis, and Homo erectus), and those assigned to Australopithecus being true ape.

Dr. David Menton states that there are three approaches that account for all of the attempts by evolutionists to fill the unbridgeable gap between apes and men with fossil apemen. 1. Combine ape fossil bones with human fossil bones and declare the two to be one individual—a real “apeman.”
2. Emphasize certain humanlike qualities of fossilized ape bones, and with imagination upgrade apes to be more humanlike.
3. Emphasize certain apelike qualities of fossilized human bones, and with imagination downgrade humans to be more apelike.[5]

Peter Line summarizes the case of human evolution poignantly in the Journal of Creation:

The differences in morphological features of the fossil species included in Homo, excluding the invalid taxon Homo habilis, are believed to represent, among other factors, genetic variation within the one human kind...If fossils such as those categorized as Homo erectus and Neandertals were all fully human, then the case for human evolution essentially collapses, as there is an unbridgeable morphological gap between the australopithecine apes and these humans.[6]

Although it would seem that evidence for human evolution is announced in the popular media with regularity, this is largely due to a practice known as taxonomic splitting. Evolutionary paleoanthropologists seek desperately to identify a true transitional form between man and apes, and much fame and prestige can be obtained from finding a new species of hominid. As a result, any fossil that is found with a minor variation is claimed by its discoverer to be a new species of ape-man. Concerns regarding the widespread practice of taxonomic splitting are summarized by Tim White, co-director of the Laboratory for Human Evolutionary Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. There’s been a recent tendency to give a different name to each of the fossils that comes out of the ground, and that has led to what we think is a very misleading portrayal of the biology of human evolution.[7] The following is a summary of some of the species of humans declared from fossil evidence alone.

Notícias

Referências

  1. Introduction to Paleoanthropology/Definition Wikibooks, Acessado em 26 de setembro de 2011.
  2. Homo erectus 'to' modern man: evolution or human variability? by A. W. (Bill) Mehlert, Journal of Creation 8(1):105–116, April 1994.
  3. Predefinição:Bible ref
  4. Sarfati, Jonathan. Refuting Evolution 2 Chapter 12 - Argument: Evolution of mankind. Greenforest AR: Master Books, 2002. p192
  5. Menton, David. The New Answers Book,Chapter 8: Did Humans Really Evolve from Apelike Creatures? February 25, 2010.
  6. Fossil evidence for alleged apemen—Part 1: the genus Homo by Peter Line, Journal of Creation 19(1):22–32, April 2005.
  7. Skull wars: new ‘Homo erectus’ skull in Ethiopia by Carl Wieland, Creation Ministries International. March 22, 2002.

Ligações externas

Ver também