Y-DNA Haplogroup C4 (C-M347)
Origins of the American Indians
There are scores of Amerindian tribes (somewhere in the vicinity of 178 major tribal grouping). They cannot, must not, be lumped together under one description. They are very individualistic and do not all share common languages or customs. The Indian tribes have never been homogeneous. In California alone, there are distinctive types in head form, facial features, and the nose. Here we find the shortest and the tallest of all American Indians. Many books lump them together as entirely Mongoloid but, many of them are so very different: They differ in features, skin coloring, blood types, Y-DNA haplogroups and in other areas.
In this article we shall discover the part Canaanite origins of the Sioux, Akiri, and Chivite Indians. Others in Alaska and in South America look much like the Mongoloids of Asia and no doubt either a branch of Tiras migrated via that route with Mongoloid peoples descended from Magog and the Turkic (Togarmahite and Edomite) tribes migrated via that route. The fascinating migration of the Dené and Na-Dené from Asia is detailed in The Dené and Na-Dené Indian Migration - 1233 AD by Ethel Stewart. She delves into the origin of the various American Indian tribes who were ousted by Genghis Khan but who fled to the Americas in the 13th century. In this large book of over 500 pages, proofs utilized include linguistics, folklore, religion and knowledge of Central Asia whence they sprang. One of these tribes, the Navajo, may be a derivation of Nabajoth, whose sister, Esau married (Genesis 36:3 ). Nabajoth was a son of Ishmael and as such the family name may have carried also via Esau. In fact, write Broek and Weber, many Indians look like southeast Asians. They may have been referring to such tribes as the Navajo. Undoubtedly, there was a relationship between the American Indians and southeast Asia. The peoples of Milyæ were in southeast Asia; another branch may be in America today (the Dyakids of Borneo, for instance, have blow-guns and bird dances in similitude to certain South American tribes).
Physical anthropologists recognize the diverse origins of the Indians, and have thus attempted to classify them into three broad groups: Zentralid (Mexico, USA), Andid (Peru), Brasilid (Brazil). From where did they originate? And why is there but, one brief reference to Tiras in the Bible and that is in the Table of Nations? He then disappears from Scripture, unlike the other nations, which persist in the Near East for some time. Is it because he disappeared so far from the Near East that he had no consequence on the course of events in the Old World? If this is the case, then we should look for a people far removed from the Old World.
The Red-Skins of Thrace
Baikie, in a book published in 1926, wrote of the ancient peoples of Thrace that they were of reddish-brown complexion with their long black hair done up in a crest. How like the American Indian! But who was their forefather? Josephus tells us: "Tiras also called those whom he ruled over Thirasians; but the Greeks changed the name into Thracians."
The 1946 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica describes the people who anciently inhabited this region. In the article on Thrace, we read—
|“||"The name Thrace, because it has been used as a geographical term as well as an ethnic description, has added to the confusion. Thrace was inhabited by indigenous tribes, as well as by Celtic Tribes such as the Getas. The aboriginal inhabitants were the red-skinned Thracians mentioned by the Greek writers and they differed from the Celtic tribes not only in complexion but also in customs and religion (Herodotus, V. 14.) ... The most outstanding archaeological monuments of this prehistoric period are the mound-like tombs, that were generally located in the outskirts of the ancient cities ... There is no well-defined difference between the aboriginal Thracians and the native Illyrians. All of the Thracian tribes and the Illyrian tribes practiced tattooing, which distinguished them from the Celtic tribes that had from time to time dominated them."||”|
Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia defines the boundaries of Thrace in much the same manner, adding that "the Thracians were a barbaric, warlike people who established their own kingdom in the 5th century BC." Also, the Thracian tribes tattooed themselves, thus being distinguished from the Celtic tribes.
Going now to The Universal Encyclopedia Illustrated, we read:
|“||A custom unique to the Thracians was tattooing. The nobles painted the hair of their head blue.||”|
A city called Tiraspol exists today in Moldova, near the Romanian border in the region of Ancient Thrace. Although it was built just over 200 years ago, in 1792, the name nevertheless seemingly recalls the early name of that region; and the Tearus or Tyras River (Dniester) ran through the region of Thrace according to Herodotus. This is where one branch of Tiras dwelt before migrating into Central Asia.
Most theologians cannot trace the descendants of Tiras. Professor Archibald Sayce makes a statement fairly indicative of most theologians and historians:
|“||Tiras is the only son of Japhet whose name continues to be obscure. Future research can alone be expected to settle the question.||”|
Well let us settle that question once and for all. Let us discover where the descendants of Tiras migrated to.
From whence sprang the Indians of the Americas? Who is their forefather in Genesis chapter 10? Is it at all possible to trace these amazing tribes and peoples to an ancient source in the Middle East?
The Ancient Minoan Civilization
Another branch of Tiras's descendants dwelt in the Aegean.
Archaeologists and historians attest to the fabulous Minoan civilization on Crete and on colonies in the nearby Aegean Islands. Due to cataclysmic disasters (c. 1450 BC) including earthquakes, poisonous ash from Thera or the Santorini volcano and tidal waves, the civilization declined dramatically and within 50 years or so after the disasters it disappeared forever.
The survivors were driven out by Mycenaean Greek invaders from Greece and many appeared soon thereafter in Egypt before disappearing from the face of the earth. They brought with them precious objects. Indeed, Minoan civilizations was extremely wealthy and replete with gold. For instance, no human bones and very few golden objects have been found at the palace of Zakros despite the wealth of palace. These Minoans were related to the early Canaanite Hittites who were broad-headed and allied with the Amazon tribes of that region (it may be no coincidence that the name "Amazonia" appears in South America). As a result of this vacuum in the region caused by these crises, the old Hittite Kingdom in Anatolia was invaded and the Phoenician enterprises beyond Gibraltar came to an end. This allowed the infamous sea peoples to invade the coastlands of the Near East. What did the Minoans look like?
|“||Judging from the surviving inscriptions, the Minoan men were bronzed, with dark hair and beardless faces.||”|
|“||The tufts of feathers offer incontrovertible evidence, because no other people have worn them.||”|
Both quotes reveal quite clearly that the Minoans were similar to American Indians. Here settled one branch of Tiras, the other, as already mentioned, lived in Thrace. The Thracians were known as "red men" by Greek writers and inhabited the Mediterranean islands or the "four great islands in the midst of the sea, which approach of the portion of Ham (Africa)" (Book of Jubilees 9:13).
The Anchor Bible tells us that Tiras was probably the father of the Tyrsenoi on the Aegean Isles. Another author, Graves, speaks of the people of Tiras being called Tarsha in a 13th century BC Egyptian document. These he equates with the Tyrsenians, a pirate people, who held certain islands in the Aegean.
We find the name throughout the Mediterranean: Tiryns in southern Greece, Torre in southern Italy and Tarraco in Spain although Torre may, alternatively, derive from Tyre. One of the Aegean Isles is called Thirasia and the island of Santorini is still also known as Thíra. The Romans called the descendants of Tiras Thirasians (Thracians), the Greeks Tyrsnoi and to the Egyptians they were known as Tusha or Turusha as we have seen.
What were the names of the islands of the Tyrsenoi? The names of these islands bear amazing resemblance to the names of various Indian tribes. Please notice first, that people of one race do not always call the people of another race by the same pronunciation and spelling of that race. The White man, upon hearing the Indian names, arranged or re-arranged them according to the phonetic sounds of their own languages; for example, the Spaniards called the Sioux, "Xious" (Shooz). With that in mind, let us turn to the names of various islands in the Aegean, many of which were Minoan colonies and notice how similar they are to the names of certain Indian tribes:
|Islands of the Aegean||American Indian Tribal Names|
| Ios or Xious
Androa tribe in Oregon. The name means "One which lives amongst trees," as does Andros
Patoes tribe in Colombia
Lecos of Brazil
Piros of Chihuahua
The Hahos tribe
Aquios (Haquios) of Guatemala
The Siquias of Honduras
Anafes of Brazil
The Karpazos from Colorado
Could all this be mere coincidence? Surely not. Many (though not all) American Indians are ultimately from the Aegean Islands of the Tyrsenoi. Amongst other evidence a few are listed below.
- The ancient peoples of the Aegean built mounds and painted themselves in a very similar fashion to those that built the civilizations of the Mississippi and Mexico.
- Mayan hieroglyphics show affinity with those of Egypt and also to Cretan scripts. Even certain Mayan names of days resemble the names of letters in the Phoenician alphabet. Stone scripts with markings and language similar to the Minoan has also been found at Fort Benning, Georgia.
- The main streets of the Mayans were bordered by fountains from which sprung hot and cold water. Similar installations of like design have been found beneath the ruins of Minos's palace in Crete.
Indians in Ancient Scotland?
Tiras, like all other peoples, once lived in the Middle East, where they gave their name to the Taurus Mountains in southern Turkey. When they migrated outwards, one branch settled in Crete and the Aegean, the other migrating towards the north, perhaps settled in Thrace. In those times the river running through Thrace was known as the Tyras River (modern Dniester), and the city at its mouth was called Tyra or Tyras.
An early writer, Julius Firmicus Maternus, wrote:
|“||"In Ethiopia all are born black; in Germany, white; and in Thrace, red."||”|
Wainwright in his The Problems of the Picts says they originated in Illyria and Thrace, though other traditions place them in Spain. The Picts tattooed themselves and even used the totem-pole in Scotland.
Proof mounts upon proof. Voltaire wrote of these early tribes in Britain:
|“||"When Caesar crosses into England he finds [some in] this island still more savage than Germany. The inhabitants scarcely covered their nudity with a few skins of beast. The women of a district belonged equally to all men of the same district. Their houses were huts made of reeds, and their ornaments were shapes that the men and women imprinted on the skin by pricking it and pouring on to it the juice of herbs, as the savages of America still do." [emphasis added]||”|
One researcher relates how according to Danish tradition, the first Odin or Votan (Dan I) in c. 1040 BC, brought certain tribes from southeastern Europe into Denmark. They, along with other similar peoples, were called the Agathyrsi and were settled in Scotland under, according to the Pictish Chronicle, their leader Cruithne mac Cinge, after whom they were called Cruithnians or Cruithne. They ruled over their fellow Pictish tribes and thereby also became known as Picts. The Picts and Thracians had a matriarchy (as do the Ohwachia Iroquois) and tattooed and painted themselves. In Scotland where geographical place-names such as the bay, town, and river of Thurso, Tharsuinn Mountain, and Tarras River.
The Attacotti Disappear
Most of the Attacotti suddenly disappeared in 503 AD with the arrival of the Scots (Gaels) under the leadership of Fergus Mór mac Eirc. They left behind mounds of flint knives, stone-hewn tombs, and carvings.
They were driven out of Britain and settled in Greenland for a time. Some may have migrated directly to Central America. Toltec tradition say that they arrived in c. 503 AD to the already settled areas where Mexico City stands today. It should be mentioned that there was not one, large monolithic movement of tribes to the Americas. Some would have settled shortly after the flood, with others continually arriving over the centuries.
The Toltecs were basically a people of White appearance, features and characteristics, while the nobility of the Aztecs were European-looking, not Amerindian and likely were descendants of Arpachshad. Undoubtedly many of the Caucasians who served under Dan I associated with the Picts and migrated with them. Histories record that some remained behind after 503 AD. There are several sources to prove that. They refer to the original inhabitants of Scotland as very dark, wild people with prominent cheek bones, living in the islands off Scotland. They have either now died out or had left centuries ago.
Let us quote one source which states:
|“||"Some were as black [i.e. dark] and wild in their appearance as any American savages whatever ... like wild Indians, that a very little imagination was necessary to give one an impression of being upon an American river"||”|
Anthropologists and historians speak in terms of a Turanid people which once populated Scotland. Who are the Turanid or Turanian peoples today? These are the Turkic peoples which occupy Central Asia and the territory north of the Caspian to the Black Sea, bordering on Thrace. This is mentioned because certain Turkic or Turanid tribes of Central Asia claim descent from Tiras. If so, the small Tirasian element would be totally absorbed by now into the Turkic masses or migrated eastwards as we have seen above and made it via the Bering Strait into North America. Another scholar writes:
|“||"Close to the Black Sea are the Kabards and Abkasians, who speak a curious agglutinative speech. Its nearest allies are in far-off North America, though Basque is slightly akin in structure ... These Caucasus people might be related to the North Amerinds ... It may be noted that Roland Dixon finds the same type of skull in those two regions."||”|
John Beddoe, famous anthropologist of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, wrote in the classic work The Anthropological History of Europe, that a Mongoloid race (i.e. Japetic, of which Tiras was a branch) once occupied Scotland as its earliest inhabitants. Further, he mentioned that traces of Turanian speech are still evident in the Scottish Gaelic language.
To Beddoe, it remains a mystery how these Picts suddenly disappeared. To Beddoe and others, yes. But if we look long and hard enough, basing our our search on Holy Scriptures, we see that they migrated to the Americas, forming part of the early North Americans as may be seen in the National Geographic magazine.
It is relatively unknown among the public that they built thriving cities, raised huge mounds that rivaled the size of the pyramids in Mexico, and even sophisticated trade network extending from the Great Lakes all the way to the Gulf Coast.
No, not all Indian tribes were savage. Take for example the Zapotecs who constructed Monte Albán in southern Mexico. To construct it they had to level a mountain (this happened c. 1000 BC). The same tribe plotted the stars and devised one of the first calendars in the Americas. Their artwork is so exquisite as to be comparable to the craftsmanship of the finest works if the Egyptians, Greeks, and Chinese.
White Visitors to the Americas
|“|| "They also multiplied there in the east ... All lived together, they existed in great numbers and walked there in the east ... There they were then, in great numbers, the black man and the white man, many of many classes, men of many tongues ... the speech of all was the same. They did not invoke wood nor stone, and they remembered the word of the Creator and the Maker ...
They came from the East ... they left there, from that great distance ... they crossed the sea."
In the Popul Vuh the migrations and wanderings of their ancestors are recorded. Notes Herman L. Hoeh: "It traces their origin eastward across the Atlantic Ocean to the Old World. Other Indians had similar origins of having to cross a great body of water from the northeast to reach their present land." Briefly summarized, the Popul Vuh and other Mesoamerican traditions relate that humans were created in the east and lived there in darkness. The ancestors of the Maya left the East "crossing the sea in a fleet of seven vessals carrying 'many companies,' and sailed along the Gulf of Mexico coast to its farthest westward point, at Panuco, where the people debarked." They were evidently led to Tula by priests who carried their symbols of rank and their gods with them.
|“||"... certain nations of people, who arrived by way of Panuco, came from the north ... [after skirting the Gulf of Mexico] These people moved onward from Panuco with good diligence without either a warlike encounter or a battle ... by chance coming as far as Tulla (where they arrived and were received and given lodging by the natives of that province)... when these people arrived in Tullan [Tula], they brought with them a very important person as chief, who governed them, and whom they called Quetzalcohuatl (whom afterwards the Cholultecas worshipped as a god)."||”|
Torquemada also notes that Quetzalcoatl, whom "they brought with them as their chief and head", was "a fair and ruddy complexioned main, with a long beard." This is why the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II initially believed the landing of Hernán Cortés in 1519 to be Quetzalcoatl's return. Other Spanish chroniclers from the 16th century claimed that when the conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro first encountered the Incas they were greeted as gods—"Viracochas"—because their lighter skin resembled their god Viracocha. This story was first reported by Pedro Cieza de León (1553) and later by Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa. Similar accounts by Spanish chroniclers (e.g. Juan de Betanzos) describe Viracocha as a "White god," often with a beard. The Mayans further claim that a great king, Votan, brought them over and settled them in Mexico c. 1000 BC. This can be none other than Dan I, mentioned earlier in this article. Dan I (Odin, Wotan, or Votan) ruled Denmark c. 1040-999 BC. Herman L. Hoeh comments that
|“||"This Votan—who was also worshipped as a god—was famous for having himself journeyed to a land where a great temple was being built. Do we have a king in Europe, living at the time Solomon's Temple was being built (around 1000 BC), who had dominion over the seas, who was worshipped as a God, and whose name sounded like Votan? Indeed—Woden or Odin, King of Denmark from 1040-999 [BC]. He was worshipped later as a great god. Scandinavian literature is replete with accounts of his distant journeys which took him away from his homeland for many months, sometimes years."||”|
The book Fingerprints of the Gods mentions that "there were other gods, among the Maya ... whose identities seemed to merge closely with those of Quetzalcoatl. One was Votan, a great civilizer, who was described as pale-skinned, bearded and wearing a long robe. Scholars could offer no translation for his name but his principal symbol, like that of Quetzalcoatl, was a serpent." This Votan was also known as Itzamana; and the Mayan religious texts known as the Books of Chilam Balam, reported that "the first inhabitants of Yucatan were the 'People of the Serpent.' They came from the east in boats across the water with their leader Itzamana, the 'Serpent of the East' ..." Mayan and Aztec texts state that this man, claiming descent from the sun, arrived from the Gulf of Mexico with a complement of astronomers, architects and priests. The Aztecs called him Quetzalcoatl, and the Mayans called him Kukulkan. These men wore sandals and robes and taught the natives to write, build, weave and worship the sun. The texts also reveal that they built schools primarily for teaching history.
This "Quetzalcoatl" or "Kukulkan" could be identified as Odin or Wotan of Scandinavia who, ostensibly, introduced idolatry and human sacrifice into Mesoamerica. So here we have the records of a Danish king sailing across the ocean to Mesoamerica and planting colonies of "red men" from Thrace in the Yucatan and the Guatemalan Highlands—as early as 1000 BC. After vesting the visiting descendants of the priest-kings who founded Tula with the symbols of royalty and rulership, Odin traveled back to Mesoamerica with them, planting new colonies of Canaanites in the Yucatan and Guatemalan highlands. The newly vested priest-kings were placed in rulership over them. Perhaps the "forest of Dan" in the land of K'iche' Maya is named after him. The earliest capital built by these Indians, under foreign leadership was called Amag-Dan in Guatemala. They claim in their traditions to have been ruled over by fair-skinned persons, many of whom had fair hair. How could one argue with their histories?
Many of the Mandan Indians of North Dakota were of mixed descent and blonde. In fact, many of the Mandans still have blue eyes—and that is not due to recent Caucasian influences. Is it mere speculation that the Mandans migrated out if Maya country, being in part, descendants of Dan and his party? All anthropologists can say with certainty is that the Mandans may be traced to the southern parts of the United States of America.
Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas, in his Historia general de los hechos de los castellanos en las Islas y Tierra Firme del mar Océano que llaman Indias Occidentales relates the same story—
|“||"After the foundation of Mexico, and all the land, new peoples came, from toward the north, they landed at Panuco, they wore long clothes, open in front, without cowls, (with) low-cut collars, short sleeves, and wide, which until this time the natives used in their dances, imitating that nation, which without opposition passed as far as Tulo, where they were well received, for it was a people of much industry in whatever art, and in cultivating the land, and thus they were loved by all; and not being able to sustain themselves in Tulo, for being very populated, they passed to Cholulan, where they established themselves, and from there they settled in Guaxaca (Oaxaca), and in Mixteca Baxa, and (Mixteca) Alta, and Capotecas: they taught good administration (mucha policia) in all the land: and for this (reason), in being some men of prudence, and industry, they called them Tolotecas, for in Tulo they commenced to teach; and it is thus, that the Tolotecas are charitable ..."||”|
In most versions, these culture-bearer ancestors came to Tula. The Aztecs and the Mayans both seem to have inherited the legend from the Toltecs; and one version places the arrival of these ancestors during the Olmec period.
Long before Columbus, the Americas was visited by a fair-skinned people. Most people do not know that. The Toltecs and Dan I and his party have already been referred to. An Irish chronicle, the Imanas, makes references to the expeditions of St. Brendan the Navigator in 577 AD to the Americas with seventeen other monks on an evangelizing mission. Also, Erik Gnupson, Bishop of Greenland, visited the New World in 1121 AD. Previously, Leifr Eiríksson (c. 1001 AD) landed on the shores of Canada. Various Vikings explorers both preceded and followed him and remains of their settlements have been uncovered in Labrador.
"America" may have taken its name from these "Erics." Amterica in the Old Norse language means the "land of Eric"—Amt means land and a at the land of Eric denotes possession. This is what some of the Indians were calling the land when Amerigo Vespucci came there. Yair Davidy of Israel has introduced other, just as legitimate, suggestions for the origin of the name. Multiple origins cannot be ruled out.
Reader's Digest's book, The World's Last Mysteries, mentions how many White, or part White, tribes have been found occasionally in Venezuela and other parts of South America. One such tribe was found to be red-bearded. It was discovered by the builders of Brazil's Trans-Amazonian Highway. Their name was the Assurinis. They could be, in part, descendants of Assyrian traders or former Assyrian slaves in the ancient Middle East. It is known that some Canaanites in ancient Asia Minor were blonde, probably due to intermarriage and some Canaanite (Phoenician) tribes landed in America.
There is nothing new in the belief that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians settled in America. Samuel Bochart and Pierre Daniel Huet claimed this in the 16th century. Anthropologists and historians will also tell you that, although the Minoans were mainly dark-haired and eyed, some had blonde hair due to intermarriage with Indo-Europeans.
There is much evidence that the first settlers of the Americas were, in fact, Europeans from the region of France, who have been dubbed the Solutreans by archaeologists. They are believed to have crossed a land bridge or perhaps a large ice sheet that once connected Europe and North America in the area of what is now known as the GIUK Gap, which is an area in the northern Atlantic Ocean between Greenland, Iceland, and the United Kingdom. Such is evidenced by the discoveries of Kennewick Man in the state of Washington, the Spirit Cave Mummy in Nevada, the Wizard's Beach Man also found in Nevada, and the Peñon Woman III found in Mexico City. All of these ancient human remains, which are believed to predate those of the ancestors of modern Amerinds, show clear Caucasoid racial traits suggesting that Europeans were, in fact, the first "Native Americans."
The Missing Link
Why has it not been generally recognized that the American Indians originated in Thrace and in the Aegean? The major reason is that the bulk of evidence has been destroyed. The Santorini incident sunk much of the Minoan civilization to the bottom of the sea. Others have speculated that the lost continent of Atlantis situated just west of the Azores may indeed be the missing link between the American Indians, northwest Africa (the Mauri?) and the Aegean. Could this be the case? Another territory off Heligoland, perhaps the original Thule, later became known as Atlantis. This too, may be a missing link between Europe and the Americas, long since disappeared beneath the waters. Thule is mention by Ptolemy (AD 140) as being between Scotland and the Shetland Isles. Also, evidence of great human-built walls, now underwater, off the island of Bimini in the area of the Bahamas is further evidence of worldwide catastrophes which were unleashed upon planet Earth thousands of years ago. One day, as technology improves, and we explore some of these underwater treasure-troves, historians and archaeologists will be forced to rewrite world history and admit that many of the American Indians came from the east, as their traditions say, and not the west alone.
Smith's Classical Dictionary tells us that the family of Tiras subdivided into various tribes. They are listed as follows:
- Calybes (Caribes)
Others were Ketei, Tosk, and Moskas, similar to the names of the nations in Asia Minor. The name of the Moskas may derive from a branch of Tiras which dwelt next to the Moschi in Asia Minor, the Tosks from the Etruscans and Ketei from some of the Hittites. Perhaps there is even a relationship between the Tarascos of Michoacan, Mexico and Tuscarora Indians with a section of the Etruscans.
The Dyras are called Dures and Dorasquas; Teres is named Turas; and Tauri is the Dauri in South America. Undoubtedly, the Trios and Atures Indian tribes are also related to Teres and Tauri. Calybes gave rise to the Calybes or Caribes in the Caribbean. The Tinne, called Thyni by the Greeks, are in Canada. The famous Amazons are to be found in South America. It may be that some of these were somehow related to those which allied with the Hittites against the Phrygians.
Maias fathered the Mayans; Ketei, Tosk, and Moskas (called Ketei-Moskas by the Greeks) gave rise to the Chahta-Muskoki Indians in the United States. A tribe called the Tarasca dwell today in the Michoacan Province, southern Mexico. They are named after their god, Taras, who can be no other than Tiras deified. Similarly we find the Touros in Brazil and Terrazas city in Mexico.
No mention is made of Tiras in prophecy. Why? Simply because God knew that they would be a subjected people; their lands swamped by other races.
An interesting item appeared in a scientific journal in April 1998 on "Genes may link Ancient Eurasians, Native Americans" in Science journal by Virginia Morrell:
|“||Anthropologists have recently been puzzled by surprising features on a handful of ancient American skeletons those of Europeans rather than Asians, the presumed ancestors of the first people to cross the Bering Strait into the Americas. Now a new genetic study may link native Americans and people of Europe and the Middle East, offering tantalizing support to a controversial theory that a band of people who originally lived in Europe or Asia Minor were among this continent's first settlers. The new data come from studies of a genetic marker called Lineage X, which has been found both in living Native Americans and in certain groups in Europe and Asia Minor, including Italians, Finns, and certain Israelis - but not in any Asian population.||”|
The research referred to above and that by Cavalli-Sforza et al (The History and Geography of Human Genes) will not only assist in tracing the movements and migrations of tribes and nations, but also will provide further support to the Biblical record. Further work on human genetic history will no doubt give further credence and substance to this argument.
To sum up, the American Indian tribes have a range of origins including Tiras and Magog and to a lesser extent, Canaan and Esau. They are a diverse people and must not be thought of as being descended from the same source.
- Steward, JH & Faron, LC (1959) Native Peoples of South America. McGraw-Hill, New York: p. 12
- Reynolds, D (1974) "The Roots of Prejudice: California Indian History in School Textbooks" in Spindler, G (ed), Education and Cultural Process. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York: p. 506
- Ibid: p. 511
- Ibid: p. 512
- Broek, J & Weber, (1968) A Geography of Mankind. McGraw-Hill, New York: p. 83
- Baker, J (1974) Race. Foundation for Human Understanding, Athens, Georgia: p. 625
- Baikie, J (1926) The Sea-Kings of Crete. London: p. 74
- Josephus, Antiquities 1:6:1
- "Thrace," Encyclopædia Britannica. 1946 Edition. Vol. 22: p. 159
- Funk & Wagnall's New Encyclopedia 1983 Edition. Vol. 23: p. 140
- "Thracia," La Encyclopedia Universal Illustrada, Europeo-Americana, Vol. LXIII, p. 329
- Herodotus, Histories 4:89
- Mitchell, J (1976) Rigby Joy of Knowledge Library: History & Culture. (Vol 1). Rigby Ltd, Sydney. (ed): p. 38
- McEvedy, C (1967) The Penguin Atlas of Ancient History. Penguin Books, Middlesex: p. 28
- Ibid: p. 38
- Heyerdahl, T (1978) Early Man and the Ocean. George Allen & Unwin: p. 325
- Baikie, J (1926) The Sea-Kings of Crete. London: p. 212
- Rea, B (1968) The True Origin of the American Indian. Pasadena, Calfornia. (Unpublished manuscript): p. 14
- Coon, CS (1948) Races of Europe. MacMillan, New York: p. 141-42
- Speiser, EA (1964) The Anchor Bible. Genesis. Doubleday Publishers, New York: p. 66
- Graves, R (1964) Hebrew Myths. The Book of Genesis. Cassell, London: p. 124
- Douglas, JD (1972) New Bible Dictionary. Inter-Varsity Press, London. (et al): p. 1283
- Grant, M (1971) Ancient History Atlas. 1700 BC to AD 565. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London: p. 5
- Rea, B (1968) The True Origin of the American Indian. Pasadena, Calfornia. (Unpublished manuscript): p. 19
- Ibid: p. 18
- Kolosimo, P (1970) Not of this World. Soevenir Press, London: p. 177
- "Newspaper illustrator Robert Ripley said the Greek alphabet was the same as a Mayan epic poem. " Creation Ex Nihilo, Vol. 15, No. 3.
- Ibid: p. 174
- Gordon, C (1971) Before Columbus. Crown Publishers, New York: p. 82. Dr. Gordon even believes that the Minoans were related to the Phoenicians (Ibid: pp. 1-4, 20).
- Grant, M (1971) Ancient History Atlas. 1700 BC to AD 565. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London: p. 2
- Shepherd, WR (1956) Shepherd's Historical Atlas. George Philip & Son, London: p. 35
- Quoted in Hoeh, HL (1969) Compendium of World History. (Vol 2). Pasadena, California. First published 1963: p. 86
- Wainwright, FL (ND) The Problem of the Picts: p. 132. Illyria is where Lud settled (a part of the Etruscans)
- Rea, B (1968) The True Origin of the American Indian. Pasadena, Calfornia. (Unpublished manuscript): p. 23
- Quoted in Baker, J (1974) Race. Foundation for Human Understanding, Athens, Georgia: p. 270
- Hoeh, HL (1969) Compendium of World History. (Vol 2). Pasadena, California. First published 1963: p. 83
- Holmes, TRE (c. 1900) Ancient Britain and the Invasions of Julius Caesar: p. 388
- Hoeh, HL (1969) Compendium of World History. (Vol 2). Pasadena, California. First published 1963: p. 92
- ibid:86-7. These works include Martin in Western Islands of Scotland (18th Century); Croker's Boswell (1848); Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal (No. VII) and Pennant's Second Tour (1772).
- Croker (1848) Boswell: pp. 316, 352
- Quoted in Hoeh, HL (1969) Compendium of World History. (Vol 2). Pasadena, California. First published 1963: p. 87
- Lawless, E (c. 1887) The Story of the Nations. Ireland. Fisher Unwin, London: p. 5
- Baker, J (1974) Race. Foundation for Human Understanding, Athens, Georgia: p. 225
- The Nations of Genesis 10, p. 2
- Taylor, G (1937) Environment, Race and Migration. University of Toronto Press, Toronto: p. 214 See also page 170. Barry Fell in his America B.C. finds definite links between Basque and various Indian languages. According to Anderson's The Story of Extinct Civilizations of the West: "Whitney, an American scholar, concludes that 'No other dialect of the Old World so much resembles the American languages in structure as the Basque.'" (page 33-34)
- Beddoe, J (1912) The Anthropological History of Europe. Reprinted by the Cliveden Press, USA: p. 160
- Ibid: p. 147
- Ibid: p. 157
- Stuart, GE (1972) "Who were the Mound Builders?" National Geographic. December: pp. 783-801
- Elliott, L (1978) "Monte Albán, City of the Gods". Reader's Digest, April.
- Goetz, D & Morely, SG (1954) The Book of the People: Popul Vuh. Part III. Ch. 3. Plantin Press, Los Angeles: pp. 171-172, 181, 183
- Hoeh, HL (1969) Compendium of World History. (Vol 2). Pasadena, California. First published 1963: p. 88
- Jett, Stephen C (1991) "Precolumbian Transoceanic Contacts," The Diffusion Issue, Santa Barbara, CA
- Editorial Porrúa, México (1969), Vol. 1, pp. 254-255
- Mills, K (1998) Colonial Spanish America: A Documentary History. Rowman & Littlefield: p. 39.
- Mackenzie, D. (1996) Pre-Columbian America: Myths and Legends. Senate: p.268-270
- Hoeh, HL (1969) Compendium of World History. (Vol 2). Pasadena, California. First published 1963: p. 91.
- Hancock, G (1995) Fingerprints of the Gods Crown Trade Paperbacks, New York: p. 103
- Bancroft, H (1875) Native Races of the Pacific States of North America. (Vol. 5). New York: pp. 103, 549
- Coon, CS (1956) Living Races of Mankind. Jonathan Cape, London: plate 33
- Taylor, G (1937) Environment, Race and Migration. University of Toronto Press, Toronto: p. 246
- Herrera y Tordesillas, A (1601) Historia general de los hechos de los castellanos en las Islas y Tierra Firme del mar Océano que llaman Indias Occidentales. Asunción del Paraguay: Editorial Guaranía, 1944 (Vol. IV): pp. 108-109
- Hoeh, HL (1969) Compendium of World History. (Vol 2). Pasadena, California. First published 1963: p. 91
- NN (1977) World's Last Mysteries. Reader's Digest Association: p. 20
- Dankenbring, WF (1978) Beyond Star Wars. Triumph Publishers, Pasadena: p. 89
- Heyerdahl, T (1978) Early Man and the Ocean. George Allen & Unwin: p. 339
- Poliakov, L (1974) The Aryan Myth. New American Library, New York: p. 141
- Coon, CS (1948) Races of Europe. MacMillan, New York: p. 141. The Eskimos of the Coppermine River are also blonde according to Taylor, G (1937) Environment, Race and Migration. University of Toronto Press, Toronto: p. 246
- Ice Age Columbus: Who Were the First Americans? DVD
- Connor, Steve (3 December 2002). "Does skull prove that the first Americans came from Europe?" The Independent (London). Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- "The New World may be far older than it originally seemed." The Economist. 14 July 2005. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- Rea, B (1968) The True Origin of the American Indian. Pasadena, Calfornia. (Unpublished manuscript: pp. 13-14. See Scrutton, RJ (1977) The Other Atlantis. Neville Spearman.
- Smith, W (1894) Classical Dictionary. New York.
- Rawlinson, G (1878) Origin of Nations. Scribner, New York: p. 174
- McEvedy, C (1967) The Penguin Atlas of Ancient History. Penguin Books, Middlesex: p. 38
- Driver, HE (1969) Indians of North America. University of Chicago Press: map 44
- Brinton, DG (1891) The American Race. NDC Hodges, New York. Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Co., 1970:136
- In Search of ... the Origin of Nations by C.M. White. History Research Projects 2003.