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Deuterocanonical books

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The Deuterocanonical books (Greek: "Second Canon") are seven books, included in the Septuagint, which Catholics and Orthodox include in the Old Testament, but which Protestants generally do not. Classically they were called member of::Apocrypha by Protestants. But today the word Apocrypha denotes a class of literature that includes these deuterocanonical books plus several others of varying reputation for historical validity.

Catholicism

The term Deuterocanonical was first coined by Sixtus of Siena, a Roman Catholic theologian, in 1566. Catholics refer to these books are "deuterocanonical" because their canonicity was established after the protocanonical books. The Deuterocanonicals were affirmed as part of the Christian canon at Council of Rome in 382 AD, under Pope Damasus I and were reaffirmed at the Council of Carthage in 419 AD as well as the Second Council of Nicaea in 787 AD, Florence in 1442, Trent in 1546, and Vatican I in 1870.

The following books are regarded as deuterocanonical by the Catholic Church:

As well as:

These are the books which are more commonly referred to as the Deuterocanon. The Georgian Orthodox Church considers the Book of 4 Maccabees as part of their canon, while it is only an appendix to the Bible of the Greek Orthodox Church.

Eastern Orthodoxy

The Eastern Orthodox Church accepts the same books as the Roman Catholic Church listed above as deuterocanonical. These are called Anagignoskomena (ἀναγιγνωσκόμενα) by the Greek Church. In addition the seven books, already mentioned, the Orthodox accept three or four others as part of their Deuterocanon:

The Georgian Orthodox Church considers the Book of 4 Maccabees as part of their canon, while it is only an appendix to the Bible of the Greek Orthodox Church.

Oriental Orthodoxy

The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, an Oriental Orthodox Church, has an Old Testament Canon, written in Amharic and Ge'ez, that contains 81 books. These books are divided into a Narrower Canon and a Broader Canon. The Broader Canon includes the Old Testament books of Septuagint (accepted by most Christians as inspired and canonical) and the universally recognized New Testament, including the Gospels, Acts, the Pauline epistles, the General epistles, and Revelation. The Narrower Canon and is further divided into the Ethiopian Deuterocanon (Amharic: ዲዩትሮካኖኒካል, Deeyutrokanoneekal) which includes:

Old Testament Deuterocanon

New Testament Deuterocanon

  • The Book of the Covenant (Mäshafä Kidan)
  • Books of Sinodos
  • A Book of Clement (Qälëmentos)
  • The Ethiopian Didascalia (Didesqelya)

It should be noted that the books of 1-3 Meqabyan are distinct from the 4 LXX books of Maccabees.

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