Textual criticism (or lower criticism) is the attempt to piece together surviving fragments of manuscripts (MSS - i.e. copies), in order to represent accurately the original manuscript (MS) or what is called the autograph. Textual criticism of the Bible can start with the premise that the Bible is reliable history since as law professor John W. Montgomery puts it,
|“||In order to establish the credibility of a document, Aristotle's dictum is to be followed by the literary critic. This dictum states: The benefit of the doubt is to be given to the document itself, and not arrogated by the critic to himself. In other words, one must listen to the claims of the New Testament under analysis, and not assume fraud or error unless the authors disqualify themselves by contradictions or known factual inaccuracies.||”|
Textual criticism deals directly with the text, functioning as the analysis of ancient documents to determine at every point where scribal copying has produced differences. The practice is crucial and foundational to not just historical methods but also literary criticism as well. As is the case with any ancient document, none of the original autographs for the Old Testament remain - or if they do, we are not aware that they are the originals. It is possible that some particularly ancient fragments of the New Testament may in fact be fragments of the original autographs, given their age, such as the John Rylands Manuscript (P52 - dated 125 A.D.). Hence, textual criticism strives to determine which copies of the Old Testament are the most faithful to the original autographs, and which manuscripts (later copies) of the New Testament are either original (if such can ever be found) or at least faithful and correct to the original autographs.
|“||"When it comes to the manuscript authority of the New Testament, the abundance of material is almost embarrassing in contrast. After the early papyri manuscript discoveries that bridged the gap between the times of Christ and the second century, an abundance of other MSS came to light. Over 20,000 copies of New Testament manuscripts are in existence today. The Iliad has 643 MSS and is second in manuscript authority after the New Testament."||”|
- 1 History
- 2 Manuscripts
- 3 Biblical Manuscripts
- 4 References
- 5 External Links
Possibly the first person to undertake any form of textual criticism for a practical reason was James Ussher. He needed a reliable text to serve as an anchor for a unified treatment of ancient history. Ussher rejected the Septuagint for various reasons, chief among which was that the Septuagint was a translation into a language foreign to that in which the originals were written, and that the translation was a work by consensus. (Its very name, which translates as Interpretation According to the Seventy, so indicates.) Ussher selected the Masoretic Text, which was an attempt by second-century Hebrew scholars to reproduce a text in its original language.
In addition to Ussher, the Royal Commission on Bible Translation, in the reign of King James I of Great Britain, had to determine a proper text from which to produce a translation of the Bible into English. They worked largely from the Masoretic Text, but consulted the Septuagint occasionally when the meaning of the Hebrew was difficult to discern.
Textual criticism gained new impetus in the nineteenth century with the work of Brook Foss Westcott and Fenton John Anthony Hort. The questions they have raised remain today the subject of great and often bitter controversy.
The Old Testament
No modern scholar claims to have original texts of Old Testament books. Ptolemy II Philadelphus had them translated into the Greek of his day to produce the famous Septuagint at the Great Library of Alexandria. What happened to the originals from which the Seventy Interpreters worked has never been established. Tragically, much of the collections of the Great Library were lost in one or more fires that struck the Library at various times in its history. As a result, the New Testament writers quote the Septuagint, because that was all that was available.
The Masoretes, a group of Jewish scribes, would later correct that lack with their production of the Masoretic Text, a standardized form of Old Testament text, in place by the 6th Century A.D. That text remained for centuries the best extant Hebrew copy of the Old Testament. However, this text proved quite vulnerable to higher critics who doubted the authenticity or the dating of some of its books. Chief among these was the book of Daniel, which some alleged to have been written after the fact.
|“|| "Because of the great reverence the Jewish scribes held toward the Scriptures, they exercised extreme care in making new copies of the Hebrew Bible. The entire scribal process was specified in meticulous detail to minimize the possibility of even the slightest error. The number of letters, words, and lines were counted, and the middle letters of the Pentateuch and the Old Testament were determined. If a single mistake was discovered, the entire manuscript would be destroyed. As a result of this extreme care, the quality of the manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible surpasses all other ancient manuscripts. The 1947 discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls provided a significant check on this, because these Hebrew scrolls antedate the earliest Masoretic Old Testament manuscripts by about 1,000 years. But in spite of this time span, the number of variant readings between the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Masoretic Text is quite small, and most of these are variations in spelling and style."
-Kenneth Boa, Bible.org.
Among the principles that aided the Masoretes (and presumably the earlier Essene scribes who wrote the Dead Sea scrolls) was the elaborate procedures that the original scribes had used. These included checksumming of each line and the insistence that the making of a single mistake required throwing out the entire scroll and starting over.
Dead Sea Scrolls
- Main Article: Dead Sea scrolls
In 1947, in the midst of the War for the Independence of the Republic of Israel, came the discovery, at Qumran, of the first 7 Dead Sea scrolls by a Bedouin shepherd boy looking for his straying goat. Bedouin of the Ta'amra tribe discovered 7 scrolls in a cave now named "Cave 1" Khirbet Qumran on the Northwest shore of the Dead Sea. Three of these scrolls were then purchased by archaeologist Eliezer Lipa Sukenik for the Hebrew University and others were bought by Mar Athanasius Samuel for the Metropolitan of the Syrian Orthodox Church in Jerusalem. From 1949-1954, additional fragments of more than 950 different scrolls were found in 10 nearby caves by Bedouins and a joint archaeological expedition led by Professor Father Roland de Vaux for the École Biblique et Archéologique Française and the Rockefeller Museum.
The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, most of which dated from 200 B.C. to 68 A.D., drastically increased our assurance that the Old Testament we have today has been faithfully transmitted through the centuries. Some even date to 300 B.C. or older, like the Great Isaiah Scroll which was carbon-dated as old as 335 B.C. These scrolls have largely backed up the Masoretic Text, with rare exception.
The most manuscript fragments were found in Cave 4, over 15,000. The final cave, Cave 11, was discovered in 1956. The first 7 scrolls remain in the property of the Israel Museum, while most of the fragments are owned by the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA). There were actually five sites in all discovered contributing Dead Sea Scrolls. The first, at Qumran, consisted of 11 caves with over 15,000 fragments (according to the Dead Sea Scrolls Foundation there are over 100,000 fragments from 800 or 900 original manuscripts, typically dating from the 3rd to 1st centuries B.C. The second site, Wadi Al-Murabba'at - 11 miles south of Qumran, contained documents from army fugitives in the Second Jewish Revolt against Rome (A.D. 132-135) and included a well-preserved scroll of the Minor Prophets. The third site south of 'En Gedi included a Greek translation of the Minor Prophets from the 1st Century A.D. and some Biblical fragments. The fourth site, 8.5 miles north of Jericho, contained legal documents from Samarians massacred by soldiers of Alexander the Great in 331 B.C. The fifth site at Masada contained a copy of Ecclesiastes (75 B.C.) and fragments of Genesis, Leviticus, and Psalms.
The New Testament
In 1611, King James' Royal Commission had available to it a Majority Text, which may or may not be the same as the Textus Receptus, of manuscripts of which more copies existed than any others. This largely included the Byzantine Text family of manuscript copies that, strikingly, seem to agree in every particular with one another.
But Westcott and Hort pointed out the existence of many more manuscripts, including the Codex Alexandrinus and the Codex Sinaiticus, that disagree with the Majority Text in many key areas. Among the points of disagreement are:
- The authenticity of the Pericopa Adultura (John 8:1-11 )
- The person of the verb endings used in the Song of the Twenty-four Elders (Revelation 5:9-10 (KJV); see also Revelation 5:9-10 (NIV))
- The true length of the Gospel According to Mark
The reception of Westcott and Hort's work has varied from cordial to hostile. Many Bible defenders roundly condemn New Testament textual criticism, because they see in it the same kind of compromise of the truth that they decry on the part of the higher critics. This led the writers of the Catholic Encyclopedia, in 1908, to despair of ever having a fully reliable New Testament in the Greek language of its original authorship.
General reliability method
- Main Article: General reliability method
The general reliability method is apologetics from textual criticism that focuses on the textual features of the New Testament. As ancient literature the NT is compared with other literature from which there are surviving manuscripts. Specific categories of chronological criteria relative to biblical and non-biblical manuscripts are compared. The method formulated during the late 19th and early 20th centuries as archeological discoveries brought to light the manuscript and therefore textual data necessary to reason methodically. The general reliability method is underpinned by the whole range of practices within the field of textual criticism. So much so is the scholarly field so important for the general reliability method that the methodology is sometimes referred to as simply textual criticism of the New Testament. What that naturally amounts to is a unique status for the texts of the NT. The general reliability method is still used today by Christians but sophisticated treatments by apologists regard it in light of what was pioneered in the 1970's by Gary Habermas called the minimal facts method.
A manuscript (singular abbreviated as MS, and the plural as MSS) is a handwritten, thus manually created text by some person or people as opposed to being reproduced by printing, or some other mechanical means.
Types of manuscripts
New Testament manuscripts can be classified as follows:
The earliest manuscripts, these are written on papyrus, which is produced from the papyrus plant (Cyperus Papyrus). Ancient Egyptians used papyrus as well, as it grew commonly along the banks of the Nile River. Papyri are abbreviated as simply P followed by their number, for example P17, or Papyrus 17.
First kind of manuscripts written down on parchment. They are called as such because the text is written in capital Greek letters.
Miniscules use only the capital letters in the same fashion as modern day writing. Sentences begin with capital letters followed by lower-case letters.
Portions of scriptures that have been divided up into readings for church services.
List of Old Testament manuscripts
The following is a list of major Old Testament manuscripts older than 200 A.D.:
- DSS: Dead Sea Scroll
|Khirbet Qeiyafa Pottery||1000 B.C.||lines similar to Isaiah 1:17, Psalms 72:3, and Exodus 23:3||Inscription|
|KH1 & KH2 [Ketef Hinnom Amulets]||650 B.C.||Numbers 6:24-26, Deuteronomy 7:9||Inscription||Israel Museum, Jerusalem|
|1QIsa(b) [Great Isaiah Scroll]||350-100 B.C.||Book of Isaiah||DSS|
|1QIsa(a) [Great Isaiah Scroll]||335-100 B.C.||Book of Isaiah||DSS|
|Dead Sea Scrolls (Other)||250 B.C.-65 A.D.||entire Old Testament||DSS|
|Nash Papyrus||150 B.C.||Exodus 20:2; Deuteronomy 5:6; 6:4-9||DSS|
|Papyrus Fouad 266||125 B.C.||Deuteronomy 23:24(26)–24:3; 25:1–3; 26:12; 26:17–19; 28:31–33; 27:15; 28:2||Uncial|
|11Q1 [Leviticus Scroll]||100 B.C.||Leviticus 4, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 18-22||DSS|
|11Q5/11QPs-a) [Qumran Psalms Scroll]||40 A.D.||Psalms 93, 101-105, 109-110, 113-151, 154-155||DSS|
|P.Oxy.L 3522||50 A.D.||Job 42:11-12||Papyrus|
|P.Oxy.LXV 4443||100 A.D.||Esther 6-7||Papyrus|
|Greek John Rylands Papyrus 458||125 A.D.||Deuteronomy 23:24(26)–24:3; 25:1–3; 26:12; 26:17–19; 28:31–33; 27:15; 28:2||Uncial|
|P.Oxy.IV 656||150 A.D.||Gen 14:21–23; 15:5–9; 19:32–20:11; 24:28–47; 27:32–33, 40–41||Uncial|
|Wadi Murabba'at Scrolls||165 A.D.||Minor Prophets (all books) & fragments of Genesis, Deuteronomy, and Isaiah.||DSS|
|* Papyri.info, Oxyrhynchus , Columbia University|
|* Stephen Rives, Old Testament Manuscripts and 18 Tiqqune Sepherim and Looking Under the Hood: Origins of the Bible Slideshow|
|* Library of Congress. Scrolls from the Dead Sea: The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Scholarship|
|* John Rylands University Library, Image Collections, Bible Greek or Hebrew|
|* Israel Museum, The Digital Dead Sea Scrolls|
|* Papyrology Websites, Oxyrhynchus Online|
|* Wikipedia, Dead Sea Scrolls|
|* Martinez, F.G. & Tigchelaar, E.J.C., "The Dea Sea Scrolls Study Edition, Vol. 2.|
|* Wikipedia, Oxyrhynchus Papyri|
There are 127 papyri, 318 and 2882 Majuscule and Minuscule MSS, and 2436 Lectionary MSS that make up the at least 5,762 manuscripts of the Greek New Testament (current as of 2008). There are at least 24,000 manuscripts for the New Testament in all, including at least 8,000 in the Latin Vulgate and 1,000 in Syrian, Coptic, Armenian, Gothic, and Ethiopic, with 99.5% internal consistency. More manuscripts are being discovered and translated all the time.
List of New Testament codexes
The following are largely complete New Testament documents, as opposed to papyri which tend to be fragmentary, prior to 500 A.D.
|copSA [Sahidic Coptic]||250 A.D.||entire New Testament except Revelation||Version|
|syrS [Sinaitic Syriac]||300 A.D.||much of the Gospels||Version|
|GA01 [Codex Sinaiticus]||350 A.D.||entire New Testament||Uncial||British Library|
|GA03 [Codex Vaticanus]||350 A.D.||entire New Testament except I Tim. through Phlm. & Heb 9:14 through Rev.; entire Old Testament except Gen. 1:1-46:28 & Ps. 105:27-137:6||Uncial||Vatican Library|
|GA032 [Codex Washingtonianus]||400 A.D.||all 4 Gospels except Mark 15:13-38 & John 14:26-16:7||Uncial|
|GA 04 [Codex Ephraemi]||425 A.D.||most of New Testament, parts of Old Testament||Uncial||Bibliothèque nationale de France|
|GA 02 [Codex Alexandrinus]||450 A.D.||virtually complete Old and New Testaments||Uncial||British Library|
|GA 05 [Codex Bezae]||450 A.D.||Gospels except Mt. 1:1-20; 6:20-9:2; 27:2-12 & John 1:16- 3:26; Acts except 8:29-10:14 & 21:2-10,16-18; 22:10-20,29-end; James through Jude||Uncial||British Library|
|GA 16 [Codex Freerianus]||450 A.D.||most of Paul's epistles & most of Hebrews||Uncial||Cambridge University Library|
|syrC [Curetonian Syriac]||450 A.D.||Matthew 1:1-8:22; 10:32-23:25; Mark 16:17-20; John 1:1-42; 3:6-7:37; 14:10-29; Luke 2:48-3:16; 7:33-15:21; 17:24-24:44||Version|
List of New Testament manuscripts
The following is a list of early New Testament manuscripts, by date, prior to 300 A.D.
- A. Date means "Accepted Date", the typical consensus for the document.
- C. Date means "Controversial Date", newer dates viewed as controversial.
|Name||A. Date||Content||Type||Institution||C. Date|
|P52||125 A.D.||John 18:31-33; 18:37-38||Papyrus||John Rylands University Library||100 A.D.|
|P104, also P.Oxy.LXIV 4404||150 A.D.||Matthew 21:34-37,43,45||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P90||163 A.D.||John 18:36-19:7||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P64+67||163 A.D.||Mt. 3:9,15; 5:20-22,25-28; 26:7-8,10,14-15,22-23,31-33||Papyrus||Magdalen College||60 A.D.|
|P98||175 A.D.||Revelation 1:13-2:1||Papyrus||Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale|
|GA 0189||200 A.D.||Acts 5:3-21||Uncial||Berlin|
|P46||200 A.D.||most of Pauline epistles, Hebrews||Papyrus||Chester Beatty Library; University of Michigan||85 A.D.|
|P4||200 A.D.||Lk. 1:58-59,62-80; 2:1,6,7; 3:8-38; 4:1,2,29-32,34,35; 5:3-8,30-39; 6:1-16||Papyrus||Bibliotheque Nationale de France||100 A.D.|
|P32||200 A.D.||Titus 1:11-15; 2:3-8||Papyrus||John Rylands University Library||175 A.D.|
|P66||200 A.D.||most of John||Papyrus||Institut für Altertumskunde||125 A.D.|
|P77||200 A.D.||Matthew 23:30-39||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum||150 A.D.|
|P103, also P.Oxy.LXIV 4403||200 A.D.||Matthew 13:55-56; 14:3-5||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P23||225 A.D.||James 1:10-12, 15-18||Papyrus||University of Illinois, Urbana|
|GA 0220||250 A.D.||Romans 4:23-5:3; 5:8-13||Uncial||London/Oslo|
|P1||250 A.D.||Matthew 1:1-9,12-20||Papyrus||Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology|
|P5||250 A.D.||John 1:23-31,33-41; 16:14-30; 20:11-17,19,20,22-25, 20:19-25||Papyrus||British Library|
|P9||250 A.D.||I John 4:11-12,14-17||Papyrus||Houghton Library|
|P12||250 A.D.||Hebrews 1:1||Papyrus||Pierpont Morgan Library|
|P15||250 A.D.||I Corinthians 7:18-40; 7:40-8:1-4||Papyrus||Egyptian Museum|
|P20||250 A.D.||James 2:19-25; 2:26-3:9||Papyrus||Princeton University Library|
|P22||250 A.D.||John 15:25-27; 16:1-2,21-32||Papyrus||Glasgow University Library|
|P27||250 A.D.||Romans 8:12-22,24-27,33-39, 9:1-3,5-9||Papyrus||Cambridge University Library|
|P28||250 A.D.||John 6:8-12, 17-22||Papyrus||Pacific School of Religion|
|P29||250 A.D.||Acts 26:7-8, 20||Papyrus||The Bodleian Library|
|P30||250 A.D.||I Thessalonians 4:12-13,16-17; 5:3,8-10,12-18,25-28; II Thess 1:1-2||Papyrus||Ghent University Library|
|P39||250 A.D.||John 8:14-22||Papyrus||Ambrose Swasey Library|
|P40||250 A.D.||Romans 1:24-27,31-32; 2:1-3; 3:21-31; 4:1-8; 6:4-5,16; 9:16-17,27||Papyrus||Institut fur Papyrologie der Univ.|
|P45||250 A.D.||much of Mark, Luke, John, & Mt. 20:24-32; 21:13-19; 25:41-46; 26:1-39||Papyrus||Österreichische Nationalbibliothek||150 A.D.|
|P47||250 A.D.||Revelation 9:10-11; 13:11, 14-16; 15:16,17-17:2:2||Papyrus||Chester Beatty Library|
|P49||250 A.D.||Ephesians 4:16-29,31-32, 5:1-13||Papyrus||Yale U. Library|
|P53||250 A.D.||Matthew 26:29-40; Acts 9:33-43;10:1||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P65||250 A.D.||I Thessalonians 1:3-2:1,6-13||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P69||250 A.D.||Luke 22:41,45-48,58-61||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P70||250 A.D.||Matt 2:13-16,22-3:1; 11:26-27; 12:4-5; 24:3-6,12-15||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P75||250 A.D.||much of Luke & half of John||Papyrus|
|P80||250 A.D.||John 3:34||Papyrus||Barcelona|
|P87||250 A.D.||Philemon 1:13-15,24-25||Papyrus||Institut für Altertumskunde||125 A.D.|
|P91||250 A.D.||Acts 2:30-37,46-47; 3:1-2||Papyrus||North Ryde, Australia|
|P95||250 A.D.||John 5:26-29, 36-38||Papyrus||Florence|
|P101, also P.Oxy.LXIV 4401||250 A.D.||Matthew 3:10-12,16-4:3||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P106||250 A.D.||John 1:29-35,40-46||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P107||250 A.D.||John 17:1-2,11||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P108||250 A.D.||John 17:23-24, 18:1-5||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P109||250 A.D.||John 21:18-20, 23-25||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P111||250 A.D.||Luke 17:11-13, 22-23||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P113||250 A.D.||Romans 2:12-13, 29||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P114||250 A.D.||Hebrews 1:7-12||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P118||250 A.D.||Romans 15:26-27,32-33; 16:1,4-7,11-12||Papyrus||Univ., Seminar für Ägyptologie|
|P119||250 A.D.||John 1:21-28,38-44||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P121||250 A.D.||John 19:17-18; 25-26||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P48||275 A.D.||Acts 23:11-17, 24-29||Papyrus||Bibl. Medicea Laurenziana|
|GA 0171||300 A.D.||Matt 10:17-23, 25-32; Luke 22:44-56, 61-64||Uncial||Staatl. Mus.|
|P38||300 A.D.||Acts 18:27-28; 19:1-6,12-16||Papyrus||University of Michigan|
|P7||300 A.D.||Luke 4:1-3||Papyrus||Centr. Nauch. Bibl.|
|P13||300 A.D.||Hebrews 2:14-18; 3:1-19; 4:1-16; 5:1-5; 10:8-22,29-39; 11:1-13,28-40; 12:1-17||Papyrus||British Library|
|P16||300 A.D.||Philemon 3:9-17; 4:2-8||Papyrus||Egyptian Mus.|
|P18||300 A.D.||Revelation 1:4-7||Papyrus||British Library|
|P37||300 A.D.||Matthew 26:19-52||Papyrus||University of Michigan|
|P72||300 A.D.||1 Peter 1:1-25; 2:1-25; 3:1-22; 4:1-19; 5:1-14; 2 Peter 1:1-21; 2:1-22; 3:1-18; Jude 1-25||Papyrus||Bibl. Bodmeriana, Vatican Library|
|P78||300 A.D.||Jude 4-5,7-8||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P92||300 A.D.||Ephesians 1:11-13,19-21; II Thessalonians 1:4-5,11-12||Papyrus||Egyptian Mus.|
|P100||300 A.D.||James 3:13-4:4, 4:9-5:1||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P102, also P.Oxy.LXIV 4402||300 A.D.||Matthew 4:11-12,22-23||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P115||300 A.D.||much of Revelation||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|P125||300 A.D.||1 Peter 1:23-2:5; 2:7-12||Papyrus||Ashmolean Museum|
|GA 0162||300 A.D.||John 2:11-22||Uncial||New York|
|GA 0312||300 A.D.||Luke 5:23-24,30-31; 7:9,17-18||Uncial||Corpus Christi College|
|* David Palmer, Table of NT Greek Manuscripts BibleTranslation.ws|
|* CSNTM, Manuscripts (Includes hundreds of manuscripts for public viewing archived with high-res. digital photography)|
|* INTF, Continuation of the Manuscript List|
|* Matt Baker, Oldest New Testament Manuscripts, UsefulCharts.com|
|* Timothy Seid, A Table of Greek Manuscripts. Interpreting Ancient Manuscripts.|
|* Wieland Willker, Complete List of Greek NT Papyri|
|* Peter M. Head, Early Greek Bible Manuscript Project: NT Mss. on Papyrus|
|* Wikipedia. List of New Testament Papyri|
- John Warwick Montgomery,History and Christianity (Downers Grove, Ill.; InterVarsity Press, 1971), p. 29. <http://www.knowwhatyoubelieve.com/believe/evidence/internal_evidence_test.htm>
- Stanley E. Porter, Beth M. Stovell, Biblical Hermeneutics: Five Views (IVP Academic 2012), pg 29
- McDowell, Josh (1977). More Than a Carpenter, p. 48. Tyndale House Publishers.
- Boa, Kenneth. "How Accurate is the Bible?" Bible.org.
- Sussman, Ayala & Peled, Ruth (1993). "The Dead Sea Scrolls." Jewish Virtual Library.
- Dead Sea Scrolls Foundation. "About the Scrolls."
- Lawler, Andrew (2010, January). "Who Wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls?," pg. 2. Smithsonian Magazine.
- Bonani, G., Ivy, S., et. al. (1992). "Radiocarbon Dating of Fourteen Dead Sea Scrolls." Radiocarbon, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 843-849.
- Kent, Donna. "RadioCarbon Dating of Dead Sea Scrolls." Retrieved from David W. Brooks, University of Nebraska website.
- The Israel Museum. "The Digital Dead Sea Scrolls: Discovery." Jerusalem. Accessed April 17, 2012.
- Davies, Philip R. (2009). "Dead Sea Scrolls." Encyclopaedia Britannica, History.
- Evans, Elaine A. (2002, June 30). "Papyrus: A Blessing Upon Pharaoh." Frank H. McClung Museum.
- CNN (2008, October 30). "Archeologist Finds 3,000-Year Old Hebrew Text.
Deem, R. (2010, January 12). "10th Century Hebrew Inscription on Pottery from Khirbet Qeiyafa, Israel Confirms Biblical Claims." GodandScience.org.
- Caesar, S. (2010, January 6). "The Blessing of the Silver Scrolls." BibleArchaeology.org. Published in Bible and Spade, Spring 2006.
Barkay, G., Vaughan, A.G., Lundberg, M.J., & Zuckerman, B. (2004). "The Amulets from Ketef Hinnom: A New Edition and Evaluation." The American Schools of Oriental Research.
Bible History Daily. "The Greatest Finds in Biblical Archaeology." Biblical Archaeological Society.
- The Digital Dead Sea Scrolls. "The Great Isaiah Scroll."
- Burkitt, F.C. "The Hebrew Papyrus of the Ten Commandments." The Jewish Quarterly Review, 15(1903), 392-408.
- Williams, Tyler F. (2009, July 15). "Qumran Psalms Scroll (11Q5/11QPs-a)." BiblicalStudies.ca.
- P.J. Parsons (1983). P.Oxy.L 3522 LXX Job 42:11-12." Oxyrhynchus Online. Papyrology Websites.
- K. Luchner (1998). P.Oxy.LXV 4443 LXX, Esther E16-9.3." Oxyrhynchus Online. Papyrology Websites.
- Walch, Stephen (2011, September 28). "Dead Sea Scrolls." The Way to Yahuweh.
- Papyri.info. Oxyrhynchus. Columbia University. Accessed July 15, 2012.
- Rives, Stephen (2011, September 27). Old Testament Manuscripts and 18 Tiqqune Sepherim EastSide Church of the Cross. Also Looking Under the Hood: Origins of the Bible Slideshow.
- Library of Congress. Scrolls from the Dead Sea: The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Scholarship. www.Loc.gov.
- John Rylands University Library. Bible Greek or Hebrew. Image Collections.
- Israel Museum The Digital Dead Sea Scrolls.
- Papyrology Websites, Oxyrhynchus Online. Browse By Date.
- Wikipedia. Dead Sea Scrolls Accessed April 17, 2012.
- Martinez, F.G. & Tigchelaar, E.J.C. (1998). "The Dea Sea Scrolls Study Edition." Vol. 2. Index (contains listing of Dead Sea Scrolls). Wm. B. Eerdman's Publishing Company.
- Wikipedia. Oxyrhynchus Papyri Accessed July 15, 2012.
- Wallace, Daniel B. (2012, February 10). "Earliest Manuscript of the New Testament Discovered?." The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts.
- Welte, Michael (2008). "Kurzgefasste Liste der Griechischen Handschriften des NT." Quoted by Wieland Willker in "Update-list of Greek NT Uncials."
- Wallace, Daniel B. (2007). "Greek New Testament Manuscripts Discovered in Albania." Bible.org.
- Williams, Jimmy (1995). "Are the Biblical Documents Reliable?" Probe Ministries.
- Slick, Matt. "Manuscript Evidence for Superior New Testament Readability." Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry.
- Bruce Metzger and Bart Ehrman, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration (Oxford University Press, Fourth Edition 2005), pg. 50
- J. David Thomas. "P.Oxy. LXIV 4404." POxy Papyrus Web. The Center for Study of Ancient Documents. Stelios Ioannou School for Research in Classical and Byzantine Studies, Oxford.
The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P104."
- The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P46."
- J. David Thomas. "P.Oxy. LXIV 4403." POxy Papyrus Web. The Center for Study of Ancient Documents. Stelios Ioannou School for Research in Classical and Byzantine Studies, Oxford.
The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P103."
- The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P22."
- The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P27."
- The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P45."
- The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P47."
- The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P49."
- The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P75."
- The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P87."
- The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P91."
- J. David Thomas. "P.Oxy. LXIV 4401." POxy Papyrus Web. The Center for Study of Ancient Documents. Stelios Ioannou School for Research in Classical and Byzantine Studies, Oxford.
The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P101."
- The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P107."
- The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P108."
- The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P109."
- The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P111."
- The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P113."
- The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P114."
- The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P37."
- The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P100."
- J. David Thomas. "P.Oxy. LXIV 4402." POxy Papyrus Web. The Center for Study of Ancient Documents. Stelios Ioannou School for Research in Classical and Byzantine Studies, Oxford.
The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P102."
- The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscript P115."
- Palmer, David. Table of NT Greek Manuscripts BibleTranslation.ws
- The Center for Study of New Testament Manuscripts. "Manuscripts."
- INTF. "Continuation of the Manuscript List." University of Münster.
- Baker, Matt (2011, December 15). "Oldest New Testament Manuscripts." UsefulCharts.com.
- Seid, Timothy. A Table of Greek Manuscripts. Interpreting Ancient Manuscripts.
- Willker, Wieland. "Complete List of Greek NT Papyri."
- Head, Peter M. "Early Greek Bible Manuscript Project: NT Mss. on Papyrus."
- Wikipedia. List of New Testament Papyri Accessed April 17, 2012.
- The Number of Textual Variants: An Evangelical Miscalculation By Daniel B. Wallace on 9 September 2013
- An Interview with Daniel B. Wallace on the New Testament Manuscripts
- Ehrman vs Wallace: Round Three by Dan Wallace. February 5th.
- Significant textual variants. Interesting variations in the gospel manuscript tradition. By Text Excavation