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Jesus Christ

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Agony in Gethsemane by Heinrich Hofmann.

Jesus Christ or Jesus of Nazareth (Hebrew: יהושע, Yehōshūaʻ; Aramaic: ישוע, Yēshūaʻ; Greek: Ίησους, Iēsous; Latin: Iesus; "YHWH is Salvation") is the Hebrew Messiah and the physical incarnation of God—the Son of God (meaning that he is God the Son, the Second Person of the Holy Trinity, of the same essence of and co-eternal with God the Father and God the Holy Spirit, but distinct in Person). He came to earth as a man, yet being both fully Man and fully God, to provide salvation and reconciliation by His death for the sins of mankind. He was born in the reign of Augustus Caesar (about 5 BC5 BC
3756 He
3999 AM
) in Bethlehem, Judea to the virgin Mary and was raised in Nazareth in Galilee by his mother and foster-father, Joseph, whom He followed in becoming a carpenter. He was executed by crucifixion in about April 34 ADApril 34 AD
Nisan 3794 He
Abib 4037 AM
, after condemnation by Pontius Pilate, the fifth procurator of Judea. Through Jesus' incarnation, life, death and resurrection within history, He began what is now the largest religion in the world, Christianity.[1]

In The Cambridge Companion to Jesus introduction written by Markus Bockmuehl, the impact of Christianity and Christ particularly on humanity are described;

Two thousand years have come and gone, but still his remains the unfinished story that refuses to go away. Jesus of Nazareth, a Jew from rural first-century Galilee, is without doubt the most famous and most influential human being who ever walked the face of the earth.

...
The followers of Jesus live in every country of the globe. They read and speak of him in a thousand tongues. For them, the world’s creation and destiny hold together in him, the wholly human and visible icon of the wholly transcendent and invisible God. He animates their cultures, creeds and aspirations.[2]

Contents

Ontology

Main Article: Trinity

Ontology is defined as a branch of metaphysics concerned with the nature and relations of being, based on visible morphological characters. The ontology of Jesus is the study of who He was and his role in coming to Earth.

Messiah

Messiah (Hebrew: משיח, Māshīakh; "anointed one") refers to prophesied deliverer of Israel in the Old Testament of the Bible. Christians consider Jesus to be that Messiah, as well as the Son of God and the incarnate Second Person of the Holy Trinity. Biblical prophecies vindicate the Messiahship of Jesus[3] Ancient and modern Jews placed various interpretations on the Messianic prophesies. Christians believe that these prophesies were fulfilled in the person of Jesus. There are at least 1,093 prophecies from the Old Testament which were fulfilled in Jesus. Many Jews do not distinguish between the first and second advents or comings of the Messiah.

The name "Christ" is derived from the Greek noun Χριστός, Christōs which means "anointed one," which is itself a translation of the Hebrew word משיח, Māshīakh ("Messiah"). He is Ίησους Χριστός, Iēsous Christōs in Greek, and יהושע המשיח, Yehōshūaʻ HaMāshīakh in Hebrew, the long-awaited Messiah of the Jews. The word Christ (Greek: Χριστός, Christōs; "anointed") is a literal translation of Māshīakh. The Greek Septuagint version of the Old Testament renders all thirty-nine instances of the Hebrew word for anointed (Māshīakh) as Christōs (Χριστός). The New Testament records the Greek transliteration Μεσσίας, Messias twice in John 1:41 and 4:25.

He is also known to Arab Christians as يسوع المسيح, Yasūʻa al-Masīħ and amongst Muslims as عيسى المسيح, `Īsā al-Masīħ.

Son of God

The Son is an agent of God the Father who's purpose is the following:

  1. Creation and maintenance of the universe (John 1:3 ).
  2. Divine revelation from the Father to the world (Matthew 11:27 ).
  3. Salvation. Through faith in Jesus Christ's life, death and resurrection man can be saved (Romans 10:9 , John 3:16 ).
"For we did not follow cunningly devised fables when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eyewitnesses of His majesty. For He received from God the Father honor and glory when such a voice came to Him from the Excellent Glory: "This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased." And we heard this voice which came from heaven when we were with Him on the holy mountain." - 2_Peter 1:16-18

Creator

The New Testament book of Colossians states explicitly that by Him, essentially for His salvation, the universe and life on Earth were created:

"For by him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things were created by him and for him." - Colossians 1:16

The Gospel of John also introduces Jesus as the Creator of all that is:

"In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made." - John 1:1-3
"The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the One and Only, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth." - John 1:14

Redeemer

Jesus on the Cross by Rembrandt. Canvas on panel, 1631. Le Mas d´Agenais, parish church.

A redeemer (Hebrew: גאל, gaʼal) in the Old Testament was a person who bought back property to keep it in the inheritance, or a family member who had become a slave. Jesus came down to Earth to be our redeemer and pay our debt for us.

The Bible says that:
"all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God" - Romans 3:23

In the Old Testament sin sacrifices were required by God to make atonement for sins. These sacrifices were usually animals, such as bulls, doves, or goats. Instead of offering the sin sacrifice, we may accept the free gift of salvation that was made possible by Christ's suffering, death, and resurrection. This is the belief that Christianity is founded upon.

"For as in Adam all die, so in Christ all will be made alive." - 1_Corinthians 15:22
"For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life." - John 3:16

Ministry

Roughly 2000 years ago, Jesus Christ began His ministry after being baptized by John the Baptist and began preaching what we know today as the Gospel. The Gospel or "the good news", was Jesus' message to the people that we should repent and we can be forgiven of sins and have salvation in Him. Jesus, the Son of God, also has the power to forgive the sins of man (Matthew 9:6 ). Jesus in His ministry said very powerful things and it was said of Him that no one spoke as He did. He spoke in parables with great wisdom and knowledge.

The excavated remains of the site where John the Baptist baptized Jesus in "Bethany beyond the Jordan".

The gospel of Jesus Christ is recorded in the Bible in four separate books written by Matthew, Luke, Mark, and John. Jesus had 12 disciples - Peter, Andrew, James, son of Zebedee, John, Philip, Thomas, Bartholomew, Matthew, James, son of Alphaeus, Simon the Zealot, Jude (Thaddeus), and Judas Iscariot. Jesus' disciples followed Him and learned things concerning the Kingdom of God and about life in general. They left their jobs and families to follow Him and helped to spread the Gospel. Love and forgiveness was the general message that Jesus spoke (Mark 12:30-31 ). Jesus said that he came to bear testimony to the truth and to heal the brokenhearted. Jesus' ministry and the gospel proved to be successful; Christianity is the largest faith in the world. People today all over the world are spreading the truth and the gospel of Jesus Christ.

"He told them, 'This is what is written: The Christ will suffer and rise from the dead on the third day, and repentance and forgiveness of sins will be preached in his name to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. You are witnesses of these things. I am going to send you what my Father has promised; but stay in the city until you have been clothed with power from on high.'" - Luke 24:46-49
Jesus healing.jpg
Jesus raises the dead.
Jesus calmingstorm.jpg
Jesus walks on water.

Miracles

Main Article: Miracles

Jesus Christ performed many miracles showing His great love for the people and proving Himself to be the Son of God. Jesus did things such as defying the laws of nature, feeding vast multitudes of people, and even healing the sick, those with physical afflictions, and those with diseases. Some examples of miracles in the biblical text are;

"Then the sea arose because a great wind was blowing. So when they had rowed about three or four miles, they saw Jesus walking on the sea and drawing near the boat; and they were afraid. But He said to them, 'It is I; do not be afraid.'" - John 6:18-20
"Jesus said to them, 'How many loaves do you have?' And they said, 'Seven, and a few little fish.' So He commanded the multitude to sit down on the ground. And He took the seven loaves and the fish and gave thanks, broke them and gave them to His disciples; and the disciples gave to the multitude. So they all ate and were filled, and they took up seven large baskets full of the fragments that were left. Now those who ate were four thousand men, besides women and children. And He sent away the multitude, got into the boat, and came to the region of Magdala." - Matthew 15:34-39
"Then great multitudes came to Him, having with them the lame, blind, mute, maimed, and many others; and they laid them down at Jesus’ feet, and He healed them." - Matthew 15:30

Christianity has grown to become the largest religion in the world with approximately 2.14 billion adherents. A Christian is someone who follows the precepts of Jesus Christ. The foundation and principles of Christianity come from the New Testament of the Bible, along with its beginning history. During the life of Jesus, his disciples were exclusively Jews. After Christ's death, Gentiles or non-Jews were brought into service, which now dominate Christianity. His disciples were known among themselves simply as "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints", or "believers." The name "Christians" was first given by the Greeks or Romans, probably in reproach, to the followers of Jesus ("little Christs").

Resurrection

Main Article: Resurrection

The term resurrection deals with the phenomenon of resuscitating from death an inanimate and lifeless corpse into a life-filled animated physical body. The term in its modern usage refers to the theological doctrine of Christianity that declares Jesus Christ a real historical figure that died by crucifixion and was physically resurrected from the dead.[4] Christianity maintains a supernatural origin for the resurrection of Jesus Christ. A real event in history not verifiable in the present and is thus approachable by not scientific methods but historical methods (See Epistemology). Many notable Christian apologists during the 20th and 21st centuries have developed robust arguments for the physical resurrection as a literal event in history like Gary Habermas, William Lane Craig and Michael R. Licona. Different questions are asked by the historical method put forth by Habermas and Licona that intend on objectivity as much as possible and do not entail treading on theological territory as an explanation ecclesiastical historian might do. The minimal facts method created by Habermas is an attempt to show that academic scholarship may conclude that Jesus Christ was resurrected by God specifically. In the attempt of weighing hypotheses for and against supernatural resurrection the method of Habermas adopts a line of inquiry that focuses on, for example, if Christ was seen after His death, and if the apostles actually saw the risen Christ, and what ancient documents are pertinent to the historical event.

Chronology

Main Article: Biblical chronology

The best chronological link between the life of Christ and the rest of world history occurs in Luke:

"Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene, Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness." - Luke 3:1-2
This John was John the Baptist who by his own declaration is the forerunner of Jesus:
"John answered, saying unto them all, 'I indeed baptize you with water; but one mightier than I cometh, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire: Whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and will gather the wheat into his garner; but the chaff he will burn with fire unquenchable.'" - Luke 3:16-17
At this time, or so we may suppose, came Jesus, asking to be baptized:
"Now when all the people were baptized, it came to pass, that Jesus also being baptized, and praying, the heaven was opened, And the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a dove upon him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, 'Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased.' And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age..." - Luke 3:21-23

The Roman Emperor Tiberius Claudius Nero assumed office in 14 AD. The fifteenth year of Tiberius would thus be 29 AD by the traditional reckoning. However, about thirty years of age is not the same as exactly thirty years of age. James Ussher reckoned that Jesus must have been born in the year called 5 BC, because Herod the Great died in 4 BC as confirmed by an astronomical reference.

Genealogy

Main Article: Biblical genealogy
Two different genealogies are given for Jesus. Matthew gives the genealogy of Joseph of Nazareth, Jesus' foster father:
"The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham. Abraham begat Isaac; and Isaac begat Jacob; and Jacob begat Judas and his brethren; And Judas begat Phares and Zara of Thamar; and Phares begat Esrom; and Esrom begat Aram; And Aram begat Aminadab; and Aminadab begat Naasson; and Naasson begat Salmon; And Salmon begat Booz of Rachab; and Booz begat Obed of Ruth; and Obed begat Jesse; And Jesse begat David the king; and David the king begat Solomon of her that had been the wife of Urias; And Solomon begat Roboam; and Roboam begat Abia; and Abia begat Asa; And Asa begat Josaphat; and Josaphat begat Joram; and Joram begat Ozias; And Ozias begat Joatham; and Joatham begat Achaz; and Achaz begat Ezekias; And Ezekias begat Manasses; and Manasses begat Amon; and Amon begat Josias; And Josias begat Jechonias and his brethren, about the time they were carried away to Babylon: And after they were brought to Babylon, Jechonias begat Salathiel; and Salathiel begat Zorobabel; And Zorobabel begat Abiud; and Abiud begat Eliakim; and Eliakim begat Azor; And Azor begat Sadoc; and Sadoc begat Achim; and Achim begat Eliud; And Eliud begat Eleazar; and Eleazar begat Matthan; and Matthan begat Jacob; And Jacob begat Joseph the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ. So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations; and from David until the carrying away into Babylon are fourteen generations; and from the carrying away into Babylon unto Christ are fourteen generations." - Matthew 1:1-17

The names between Solomon and Jechonias are the names of Kings of Judah, except that Solomon was the last King of united Israel.

While Luke gives the genealogy of Mary:
"And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age, being (as was supposed) the son of Joseph, which was the son of Heli, Which was the son of Matthat, which was the son of Levi, which was the son of Melchi, which was the son of Janna, which was the son of Joseph, Which was the son of Mattathias, which was the son of Amos, which was the son of Naum, which was the son of Esli, which was the son of Nagge, Which was the son of Maath, which was the son of Mattathias, which was the son of Semei, which was the son of Joseph, which was the son of Juda, Which was the son of Joanna, which was the son of Rhesa, which was the son of Zorobabel, which was the son of Salathiel, which was the son of Neri, Which was the son of Melchi, which was the son of Addi, which was the son of Cosam, which was the son of Elmodam, which was the son of Er, Which was the son of Jose, which was the son of Eliezer, which was the son of Jorim, which was the son of Matthat, which was the son of Levi, Which was the son of Simeon, which was the son of Juda, which was the son of Joseph, which was the son of Jonan, which was the son of Eliakim, Which was the son of Melea, which was the son of Menan, which was the son of Mattatha, which was the son of Nathan, which was the son of David, Which was the son of Jesse, which was the son of Obed, which was the son of Booz, which was the son of Salmon, which was the son of Naasson, Which was the son of Aminadab, which was the son of Aram, which was the son of Esrom, which was the son of Phares, which was the son of Juda, Which was the son of Jacob, which was the son of Isaac, which was the son of Abraham, which was the son of Thara, which was the son of Nachor, Which was the son of Saruch, which was the son of Ragau, which was the son of Phalec, which was the son of Heber, which was the son of Sala, Which was the son of Cainan, which was the son of Arphaxad, which was the son of Sem, which was the son of Noe, which was the son of Lamech, Which was the son of Mathusala, which was the son of Enoch, which was the son of Jared, which was the son of Maleleel, which was the son of Cainan, Which was the son of Enos, which was the son of Seth, which was the son of Adam, which was the son of God." - Luke 3:23-38

Joseph is listed in Mary's place as was common procedure in that era. The rest of the names are well-attested from Ruth and Genesis, with one exception: the ancestor named Cainan between Sala and Arphaxad is attested in the Septuagint but not in the Masoretic Text of Genesis.

Old Testament Prophecy

Old Testament Prophecy about Christ New Testament Fulfillment by Christ Prophetic subject
Genesis 3:15 Luke 22:53 Satan against Jesus
Genesis 3:15 Hebrews 2:14 and 1_John 3:8 Jesus' victory over Satan
Genesis 12:3 Acts 3:25 and Galatians 3:8 Gentiles blessed through Christ as the seed of Abraham
Genesis 13:15 Galatians 3:15-16 and Galatians 3:19 Messiah as the seed of Abraham
Genesis 14:18-20 Hebrews 7 Jesus' priesthood according to the likeness of Melchizedek
Genesis 18:18 Acts 3:25 and Galatians 3:8 Gentiles blessed through Christ as the seed of Abraham
Genesis 22:18 Acts 3:25 and Galatians 3:8 Gentiles blessed through Christ as the seed of Abraham
Genesis 25:4 Acts 3:25 and Galatians 3:8 Gentiles blessed through Christ as the seed of Abraham
Genesis 49:10 Luke 1:32-33 Coming ruler from Judah
Exodus 12-13 and Exodus 14:1-46 John 19:31-36 , 1_Corinthians 5:7 and 1_Peter 1:19 The Messiah as the Passover Lamb
Exodus 16:4 John 6:31-33 Messiah to give true bread from heaven
Exodus 24:8 Hebrews 9:11-28 The Messiah's blood to be shed as sacrifice
Leviticus 16:15-17 Romans 3:25 , Hebrews 9:1-14 , Hebrews 9:24 and 1_John 2:2 Atoning sacrifice of blood
Numbers 21:8-9 John 3:14-15 Life through looking at one on a cross
Leviticus 16:15-17 Romans 3:25 , Hebrews 9:1-14 , Hebrews 9:24 and 1_John 2:2 Atoning sacrifice of blood
Numbers 24:17 Luke 1:32-33 Coming ruler from Jacob
Numbers 24:17 Revelations 22:16 Coming Star out of Jacob
Deuteronomy 18:27 John 6:14 , John 12:49-50 and Acts 3:22-23 Coming prophet sent from God
Deuteronomy 21:23 Galatians 3:13 Messiah cursed by hanging on a tree
Deuteronomy 30:12-14 Romans 10:6-8 Jesus is God's word near to us
2_Samuel 7:14 Hebrews 1:5 Messiah to be God's Son
2_Samuel 7:16 Luke 1:32-33 and Revelations 19:11-16 David's Son as eternal king
Psalms 2:7 Matthew 3:17 , Matthew 17:5 , Mark 1:11 , Mark 9:7 , Luke 3:22 , Luke 9:35 , Acts 13:33 and Hebrews 1-5 God's address to his Son
Psalms 2:9 Revelations 2:27 Messiah to rule the nations with power
Psalms 8:2 Matthew 21:16 Children to praise God's Son
Psalms 8:6 1_Corinthians 15:27-28 and Ephesians 1:22 Everything subject to God's Son
Psalms 16:8-11 Acts 2:25-32 , Acts 13:35-37 David's Son to be raised from the dead
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Jesus Christ

References

  1. The Historical Jesus - Ancient Evidence for the Life of Christ By Gary Habermas. College Press Publishing Company (1996)
  2. The Cambridge Companion to Jesus, edited by Markus Bockmuehl. "Introduction" by Markus Bockmuehl, pg. 1. Cambridge University Press, 2003
  3. Biblical Prophecies of Jesus Fulfilled
  4. Resurrection. By Merriam-Webster (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/resurrection). Accessed September 16, 2011.

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