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European Union

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Map of the European Union.

European Union (EU) is a confederation of 27 European countries for the cooperation of common interests within several areas, such as economics. More recently due to the emerging threat the likes of which were seen on September 11, 2001 within the United States of America, a common security approach has been brought to the forefront. [1]

Member Countries

Year Joined Name of Country Total Number
1952 Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands 6
1973 Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom 9
1981 Greece 10
1986 Portugal, Spain 12
1995 Austria, Finland, Sweden 15
2004 Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia 25
2007 Bulgaria, Romania 27

European Coal and Steel Community

What we now consider the EU, a model of regional globalization, was actually first envisaged within the words of speeches by statesman, and politicians that were determined to convince the post World War II population of Europe that they would, once again rise. In 1946, Winston Churchill called for a, "United States of Europe," [2] although without the UK included. Also during the 1950's, an organization called the European Coal and Steel Community was formed between six Western European countries. This was established, and became protocol with the Treaty of Paris which was signed in April of 1951, and became effective on July 25, 1952.

The attempt to pool steel and coal resources through the Treaty of Paris in an effort to rebuild post-war Europe is considered the first step in the creation of the modern day European Union which now includes 27 member-states.

European Coal and Steel Community Members:

Western Europe during the 1950's and 1960's saw continued growth and benefits of cooperation, while Eastern Europe became embroiled within the Soviet Union communistic sphere of influence. This has not deterred Western European governmental interests in expanding the EU to include even more member-states after the Cold War ended and the Soviet Union dissolved into the many eastern and more southern countries we see today bordering Russia. The European Union's influence since the 50's and 60's, has spread with a more dramatic and ever-quickening fashion to more eastern parts of Europe, specifically with the 2004 acquisition of ten Eastern European countries.

Besides basic industrial resources of countries being pooled together, another important step in creating fully integrated, cooperative European governments, literally continent wide, is through economic integration. This was first accomplished through the creation of the European Economic Community (Common Market). The European Common Market was the most significant outcome of three treaties that were consolidated in 1967 to form the European Community. It is now, since the ratification in 1993 with the Maastricht treaty, known as the European Union. [3]

Common Foreign and Security Policy

The Western European Union

The main component of Europe's Common Foreign and Security Policy or CFSP, is what is called the Western European Union. The WEU was created by the Treaty on Economic, Social and Cultural Collaboration and Collective Self-Defence, which was signed in Brussels on March 17, 1948. It has since been dubbed the Brussels Treaty, and was later amended in Paris on October 23, 1954 which modified and completed it.

The treaty resulted in the WEU which has ten full member countries, six associate member countries, five observer countries, and seven associate partner countries. All of these countries, however, are part of the broader, overarching European Union. They operate in a forum which enables coordination of matters regarding European security and defense called the Assembly of WEU. WEU members contributed to the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO, and now the WEU has implications of becoming the primary defense institution of the European Union.

Full Member Countries (10) Associate Member Countries (six) Observer Countries (five) Associate Partner Countries (seven)
France, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg (1952 modified Brussels treaty), Portugal, Spain (1990), Greece (1995) Turkey, Norway, Iceland, Poland (1999), Czech Republic (1999), Hungary (1999) Denmark, Ireland, Austria (1995), Sweden (1995), Finland (1995) Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia

The Assembly of WEU effectively blended the WEU and EU, the lines blurred, and what came out of simply defense cooperation created what has now become a position within the EU that can, and does control security as well as foreign policy matters on the world stage on behalf of the 27 EU member nations.

Javier Solana is leading diplomatic moves relating to foreign policy and security matters in Europe through what has already been established within Recommendation 666. Javier Solana is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy, as well as the Secretary-General of both the Council of European Union, and the Western European Union (WEU). He also was awarded the Charlemagne Prize for 2007 for his service to European unification. His position wields great influence and power in many aspects of the European Union, and international matters as well.

Recommendation 666

One recommendation from the Assembly of WEU, entitled Recommendation 666 is a text adopted in June of 2000. The sub-heading reads "on the consequences of including certain functions of WEU in the European Union, a reply to the annual report of the Council," it states [4]

1. Take the measures necessary for WEU to ensure that the collective defence commitment provided for in Article V of the modified Brussels Treaty is effectively maintained, taking account of the recent decisions concerning the European Security and Defence Policy;

To trace back to Article V of the modified Brussels Treaty, it states specifically that [5],


If any of the High Contracting Parties should be the object of an armed attack in Europe, the other High Contracting Parties will, in accordance with the provisions of Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, afford the Party so attacked all the military and other aid and assistance in their power.

Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations states specifically [6],

Article 51:

Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. Measures taken by Members in the exercise of this right of self-defence shall be immediately reported to the Security Council and shall not in any way affect the authority and responsibility of the Security Council under the present Charter to take at any time such action as it deems necessary in order to maintain or restore international peace and security.

Now to sum it up, recommendation number seven under, "Recomendation 666 on the consequences of including certain functions of WEU in the European Union, a reply to the annual report of the Council," states,

7. Do what is necessary to ensure that during the transitional period WEU is in a position to respond more effectively to any requests from the European Union to develop and implement actions of the Union, anticipating them in so far as is possible;

The Assmebly of WEU's recommendation 666, recommendation to the Council of the European Unon number 12, states that [7],

12. Support proposals for the WEU Secretary-General and CFSP High Representative to preside over the PSC and civilian crisis-management machinery and give him powers to convene the Council of the European Union in the event of an emergency;

Recommendation 666 essentially created an office within European politics and foreign policy that focuses or converges all respective EU member country voices to one. That one voice, or the one who chairs such a position currently, is Javier Solana. The WEU has a ten nation military alliance within the European Union. Through the Assembly of WEU and its adoption of Recommendation 666 coupled with recommendations to the European Council on the adopted text, frameworks are in place to sustain the growth and capabilities of a truly united Europe under a united European military command structure.

Foreign Policy Towards Israel

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