From CreationWiki, the encyclopedia of creation science
Intelligent Design (ID) refers to a theory of origins or a scientific research program. In addition, the term is used to describe the community of philosophers, scholars, and scientists who are seeking evidence of design in nature. The scientific theory of intelligent design holds that;
|“||certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection. ||”|
ID theorists draw exclusively upon empirical evidence to support the existence of a creative intelligence or designer. ID purports that design can be detected without any understanding of who the designer is or why the agent acted, or even how the phenomenon in question was actually produced. ID is a unique scientific position that stands in stark contrast to naturalistic, materialistic philosophy of science which puts forth abiogenesis rather then intelligent agents as the main mechanism that created biological systems for sustaining life. It can also clearly be distinguished from religious creationism in that it stakes no claim regarding the specific identity of the creator, nor does it use references from scripture when forming theories about the history of the world. In fact, many ID theorists support the idea of common descent and billions of years of time. ID simply postulates that certain features within the cosmos present clear evidence of being deliberately and intelligently designed.
Example of intelligent design in nature are based on analogy, a common scientific procedure. It is argued, for example, that if biological components are analogous to those produced by intelligent agents, then an intelligence is the most reasonable cause. ID proponents generally infer that all complex biological systems are generated by intelligent agents. This aspect of intelligent design is also an integral part of the creation model put forth by theists. As such, creationists are encouraged to study the evidence and examples of design that are illustrated by ID advocates. This unique scientific thinking allows for the development of independent models of design for Christians, Jews, Muslims, or any other religious group which proposes such a process for life.
By taking this position, intelligent design has been welcomed in some government schools and in industries that normally hold prejudices against religious creationism. For example, the ID documentary titled Unlocking the Mystery of Life has been shown on PBS television in several states in the USA.
- Main Article: Irreducible complexity
Irreducible complexity is a concept popularized by Lehigh University biochemist Michael Behe in his 1996 book Darwin's Black Box, which supports what is known as intelligent design theory. If something is irreducibly complex, then it can not be reduced to less complex functions, and therefore, could not develop by assembling preexisting components. Intelligent design theorists argue that while some systems and organs can be explained by evolution, those that are irreducibly complex cannot, but instead an intelligent designer must be responsible.
- Main Article: Specified complexity
The Intelligent Design concept of specified complexity was developed by mathematician and philosopher William Dembski. Dembski claims that when something exhibits specified complexity (i.e., is both complex and specified, simultaneously) one can infer that it was produced by an intelligent cause (i.e., that it was designed), rather than being the result of natural processes (see naturalism). He provides the following examples: "A single letter of the alphabet is specified without being complex. A long sentence of random letters is complex without being specified. A Shakespearean sonnet is both complex and specified." He states that details of living things can be similarly characterized, especially the "patterns" of molecular sequences in functional biological molecules such as DNA.
- Main Article: Anthropic principle
The anthropic principle is used to develop scientific explanations in cosmology. It originated from observations that the earth uniquely and perfectly meets the requirements for life, and more specifically human life. Anthropic comes from the Greek word ἄνθρωπος, anthrōpos ("Man"). It is often set up as being in opposition to the Copernican Principle.
The very presence of life within the universe is reliant upon a large number of extremely improbable events, and even the slightest alteration would make it impossible for life to exist. Everything from the particular energy state of the electron to the exact level of the weak nuclear force seems to be tailored for us to exist. We appear to live in a universe dependent on several independent variables where only a slight change would render it inhospitable for any form of life. And yet, here we are. Proponents of intelligent design draw support from this fact because it strongly suggests that the cosmos has been specifically designed.
Intelligent design (ID) can be used as a scientific tool to deduce whether a system's components are the product of chance, natural law, intelligent design, or some combination. A research program usually begins by observing the types of information produced by intelligent agents, and then attempting to find objects in nature which have the same types of properties. Intelligent design has applied these scientific methods to detect design in irreducibly complex biological structures, the complex and specified information (CSI) content in DNA, the life-sustaining physical architecture of the universe, and the geologically rapid origin of biological diversity in the fossil record.
ID research methodology follows the same basic process used by all scientists, which generally includes observations, hypothesis, experiments, and conclusion. The ID researcher typically begins with an observation that intelligent agents produce a specific type of CSI. It is then logically hypothesized that if natural objects are designed, they will also possess significantly high levels of this or other types of CSI. The scientist will then conduct experiments to test if they contain CSI.
Irreducible complexity (IC), as defined by Michael Behe, is one easily testable form of complex and specified information. The process used to detect IC in biological systems is known as reverse engineering, which is historically an architectural/engineering/structural method of studying man-made machines and structures. Reverse engineering is particularly useful in detecting IC in molecular biology systems. This is because the living cell is filled with molecular machines that perform various purposeful tasks. At the same time, these biomachines are made of amino acids and proteins, which are derived by direct production from the informational code in the DNA. This yields the cell, its individual parts, and the internal means of production, highly investigable. By using reverse engineering, structures can be examined to see if they require all of their parts to function. When ID researchers find irreducible complexity in biological systems, they conclude that such structures were designed.
Restricted intelligent design
- Main Article: Restricted intelligent design
Restricted Intelligent Design is what is generally referred to by the term "intelligent design." It is used to distinguish it from the broader concept known as General Intelligent Design developed by Robert Herrmann. Restricted Intelligent Design deals mainly with biology, where it seeks to identify specific evidences of design. Restricted Intelligent Design studies design only by comparing it to human design, making it a poor model for dealing with a higher intelligence such as God.
General intelligent design
- Main Article: General intelligent design
The General Intelligent Design Model (GID-model or simply GID) is an interpretation of the General Grand Unification Model (GGU-model) - a mathematical model - constructed by Dr. Robert A. Herrmann. The research started in August 1979 and the modern mathematical theory used for the modeling processes is obtained via nonstandard analysis. Unlike Restricted Intelligent Design which studies design and intelligence is only inferred by comparison with a few human designs, the GID-model defines intelligence and shows, by direct evidence, that each physical process and each physical result produced by each process is intelligently designed.
Examples of ID
- Main Article: Flagellum
Molecular machines, such as the flagellum is a common example used to demonstrate the mechanisms in nature that illustrate intelligent design because it is irreducibly complex. The flagellum is a molecular motor used by microscopic organisms, such as bacteria and protozoans, to propel themselves through an aqueous medium.
- Main Article: Bombardier Beetle
Bombardier beetles belong to the Family of beetles commonly referred to as Ground Beetles.
- Main Article: fibonacci numbers
The fibonacci numbers are a sequence that is described by their mathematical relationship. The sequence of numbers can be found displayed in many organisms, such as the spiral patterns in the heads of sunflowers. God has arranged sunflower seeds without gaps in the most efficient way by forming two spirals.
|“|| Predictions In Astronomy/Cosmology
Predictions in Biology
Predictions in Paleontology
|“|| ID predicts:
1. Information stored in DNA can be quantified and measured. 2. Biological complexity can be quantified and measured. 3. The blood clotting process is irreducibly complex. 4. Bacteria flagella are irreducibly complex. 5. The cilium is irreducibly complex. 6. The illuminating mechanism of a firefly is irreducibly complex (that one’s my own) 7. There are geologic processes that cause rapid fossilization to occur, probably in about 100 years rather than epochs of time. 8. The fossil record will show morphology as punctuated equilibrium instead of phyletic gradualization.
- Access Research Network
- Discovery Institute
- Intelligent Design Network
- Intelligent Design and Evolution Awareness Center
- International Society for Complexity, Information, and Design
- Origins by Leadership University.
- Michael Behe Ph.D. Biochemistry
- Percival Davis
- William Dembski Ph.D. Mathematics
- Guillermo Gonzalez Ph.D. in Astronomy
- Robert A. Herrmann Ph.D. Mathematics
- Phillip Johnson
- Casey Luskin
- Stephen Meyer Ph.D. History and Philosophy of Science
- Paul Nelson
- Jean-claude Perez
- Walter ReMine
- Jonathan Wells Ph.D. Biology
- The Case for a Creator
- The Privileged Planet
- The Triumph of Design
- Unlocking the Mystery of Life
- Where Does the Evidence Lead?
- The Venus Flytrap, an Improbable Wonder that Baffled Darwin Venus flytrap challenges the ability of blind, unguided natural processes to design optimized, efficient, coordinated, elegant systems as seen in the carnivorous plant. Evolution News & Views, October 14, 2013.
- The Origin of Avian Flight: Comparing Explanations from Darwinism and Intelligent Design Flight makes a case for intelligent design, but Darwinian evolutionists have not been without their own explanations. Evolution News & Views, October 1, 2013.
- 'Living Gears' Might Have Evolutionists Hopping Mad New discovery in planthoppers clearly indicate a meticulous and intentional design. ICR News, September 23, 2013.
- This Insect Jumps Using Built-In Gears Issus coeleoptratus‘s gears work similarly to their human-designed counterparts. NovaNext, September 13 2013.
- On the Origin of the Controversy Over Biological Information: New Perspectives Darwin Lobby Mounts a Campaign to Scuttle Book - an attempt at censorship that ultimately failed. Evolution News and Views, August 19, 2013.
- Scientists Explore The Pure Geometry Inside Our Cells A new study has mapped the geometry of one of the cell’s key components: the endoplasmic reticulum. Forbes, July 24, 2013.
- Secret of the intricate pattern of cauliflowers unlocked and described with maths Scientists hope the insight will help them learn about the biological and physical mechanisms involved in the growth of the vegetables. Daily Mail, October 23, 2012.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 The Theory of Intelligent Design: A Briefing Packet for Educators p6. by Discovery Institute. November, 2007.
- ↑ Sarfati, Jonathan. Refuting Evolution 2. Greenforest AR: Master Books, 2002. (p.22)
- ↑ Empirical ID research ResearchID.org
- ↑ INTELLIGENT DESIGN THEORY EXPLAINED By Dennis D Jones
- “Who designed the designer” vs. a burning matchstick By kairosfocus. august 6, 2011
- Access Research Network
- Design and the Universe
- Design Argument by the The Dictionary of the History of Ideas. University of Virginia.
- Discovery Institute
- The Facts about Intelligent Design: A Response to the National Academy of Sciences’ Science, Evolution, and Creationism by Casey Luskin. January 16, 2008.
- IntelligentDesign.org by the Discovery Institute
- Intelligent design by Conservapedia
- Intelligent design by Wikipedia
- Intelligent Design: The Future
- Intelligent Design - Portal in Finland, (Finnish: "Älykkään suunnitelman idea")
- Peer-Reviewed & Peer-Edited Scientific Publications Supporting the Theory of Intelligent Design (Annotated) by Staff of Discovery Institute, August 26, 2010
- Science Declares Our Universe IS Intelligently Designed by Robert Herrmann
- Uncommon Descent
- Michael Behe, Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution, New York: Free Press, 1996, ISBN 0684834936.
- William Dembski, Charles W. Colson, The Design Revolution: Answering the Toughest Questions About Intelligent Design. Inter Varsity Press, 2004, ISBN 0830823751.
- Michael Behe, William Dembski, Stephen Meyer, Science and Evidence for Design in the Universe (Proceedings of the Wethersfield Institute), Ignatius Press 2000, ISBN 0898708095
- William Dembski, Intelligent Design: The Bridge Between Science & Theology, InterVarsity Press 1999. ISBN 0830815813
- William Dembski, James M. Kushiner, Signs of Intelligence: Understanding Intelligent Design, Brazos Press, 2001, ISBN 1587430045
- William Dembski, John Wilson, Uncommon Dissent: Intellectuals Who Find Darwinism Unconvincing, ISI Press, 2004. ISBN 1932236317
- Phillip Johnson, Darwin on Trial, Washington, D.C.: Regnery Gateway, 1991.
- Phillip Johnson, Defeating Darwinism by Opening Minds, Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1997.
- Geoffrey Simmons, William Dembski, What Darwin Didn't Know, Harvest House Publishers, 2004, ISBN 0736913130
- Thomas Woodward, Doubts about Darwin: A History of Intelligent Design, Baker Books, 2003, ISBN 0801064430
- Dean L. Overman, A Case Against Accident and Self-Organization, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1997, ISBN 0847689662