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# Special relativity

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The theory of special relativity, as explained below, is a classic example of how false science has infiltrated Christian teaching. God instructs the Christian to "prove all things, hold fast that which is good." (1Thes. 5:21) Louis Essen, the man who most accurately measured the speed of light; who invented the first accurate atomic clock; and one of the two men who determined the number of oscillations of cesium to equal an atomic second wrote a scientific paper in 1971 (The Theory of Special Relativity, A Critical Analysis) disproving special relativity. It turns out, special relativity is simple to disprove and there is nothing special about "special relativity". Like the waves of water and air, which travel at a constant velocity until conditions change, light/electromagnetic waves travel at a constant velocity until conditions change. The classic example used in many college physic texts to explain special relativity has the reader comparing the path of balls of light from two "light clocks", one stationary and the other moving, and plot them against backgrounds of different dimensions. On a sheet of paper, draw four horizontal lines with the top two the same spacing as the bottom two. Label the top and bottom line x & y. Now draw a vertical line down the center with connecting dots to the two center horizontal lines. Let these dots represent pivot points A & B. If you imagine moving either pivot point, which could also represent the balls of light from the light clocks, you should recognize that both observers will observe the exact same amount of displacement on x & y. Another example which disproves special relativity: "Imagine that you have two orange lights with a wavelength of 620 nanometers (nm), one located on the roof of a moving vehicle, the other stationary on the ground. Two detectors are placed by each of the lights, with detectors “A” focused on counting the electromagnetic waves from the light closest to it, and detectors “B” focused on counting the waves from the opposing light. Each detector is counting 484 teracycles (not terahertz, because hertz is a per-second definition) to advance the clock one tick. From the Doppler effect we know as the vehicle approaches the stationary light, both detectors “B” will be counting faster than detectors “A” at exactly the same rate. Contrary to the teaching of special relativity, then the observer by each detector should be viewing time for the other observer as going faster. As the vehicle moves away and the light is redshifted, the conclusion will be that time for the other observer is going slower. If the detectors were capable of changing their definition for the number of waves to equal one second based on the shift in the color of the light, then both detectors “A” and “B” would continuously count the same." (Science From A Different Perspective, Denis Thomas, c2016, pages 39-40) As you recognize how to disprove special relativity, you should realize all theories based on it also collapse: time dilation, the twin paradox, the curvature of space, length contraction, gravity affecting time, general relativity, the Schwarzschild radius (from which they get the nonsense of black holes), etc. A toy globe can be used to disprove the claim of gravity affecting time, which many physicists at NASA and the NIST claim. Two observers on the exact same longitude, one depicted on a high mountain and the other in a valley, will have the meridian containing a star cross their zenith at exactly the same instant every time the globe is spun. When the second was redefined from “the fraction 1/31,556,925.975 of the length of the tropical year for 1900” the new definition of an atomic second still represents that fraction of a year between equinoxes, where our toy globe proves that both the mountain and valley observers on the exact same longitude will observe at the same instant and time. Don't be deceived by false science.

The theory of special relativity was published by Albert Einstein in 1905. The theory deals with a special case where the effects of gravity can be ignored hence it is called "special." Einstein later incorporated gravitation into the theory of General Relativity.

## Postulates

Special Relativity has two postulates from which it is developed.

1. Observation of physical phenomena are the same for all inertial observers
2. The speed of light in vacuum (c) is the same to all inertial observers. It is the same in all directions regardless of the velocity of the source or the observer.

## Space Time Diagram

This is a space time diagram; also called a Minkowski diagram it shows the relationship between inertial reference frames. Such that if observer S' is moving with a speed v in relation to S. The resulting superposition has the axes of S' tilted such that the slope of the time axis is v / c and the slope of the space axis is c / v.

## Length Contraction

Relativistic length contraction is a foreshortening of the length of an object in the direction of relative motion, as illustrated above.

• Formula for relativistic length contraction.
• v is the relative velocity.
• c is the speed of light.
• L is the rest length.
• L' is length at velocity v.

• Space time diagram showing relativistic length contraction.

An examination a space time diagram shows this affect is caused by a tilting relationship between two reference frames in space-time. The yellow area is a light cone. The black line are the space (x) and time (t) axis of . The blue line is the time axis of frame S'. The purple line is the space axis of a ship in frame S'. Note that in frame S' the light cone reaches both ends of the ship at the time while, they don't in frame S. That because when observer S is looking at both ends of the ship is looking a different points in the frame S' time lined. So the forward end of ship S' as seen by observer S has not moved as far as the aft end, this results in ship S' being foreshortened to observer S.

It needs to be noted that an observer in frame S' will see objects in frame S with the same length contraction.

## Time Dilation

• Light Clock at rest.

The concept of time dilation is based largely on a clock with a pulse of light going from a emitter, (red) to a receiver. (blue) the trip time is a unit of time.

• Light Clock in motion.

When the clock is in motion the light pulse has to travel further to reach the detector, and because the speed of light is constant it take more time for the light pulse to reach the detector. This translates to the formula for time dilation do to relative motion.

• v is the relative velocity.
• c is the speed of light.
• t is the rest length.
• t' is length at velocity v.

Now this one again works both ways, the results in what is called the twin paradox. However it is simple to illustrates why the twin taking the trip would experience less time.

Consider a space ship going from Earth to the nearest star system; 4.45 light years away; at 0.866 c. The above image shows the the ship with its 0.5 length contraction. To an observer on Earth the trip will take 5.14 years, producing a round trip time of 10.28 years.

However to the ship's crew the stars and the distance between them will be shortened in the direction of motion to 0.5 of what is observed on Earth, resulting in a travel distance of only 2.23 light years and a corresponding 2.57 year travel time. This produces a round trip time of only 5.14 years. Thus the ship's crew would experience less time than those on Earth.

If one of the astronauts on the ship had a twin that stayed on Earth. he would return home to find his brother about 5 years older than himself.

Now this takes care of the physical affect of time dilation but it does not reconcile how each twin would observe the other during the trip. The solution to this observational problem can be found in the relativistic Doppler effect. It includes the affects of both time dilation and distance, hence we can calculate just how fast each twin will observe time to flow in the other's reference frame.

Earth to ship. ____________________ Ship to Earth.
• The back line is Earth's path through space time.
• The dark blue line is ship's path outward path through space time.
• Purple line is its path return path through space time.
• The green dots are equally spaced points in time within their respective frame of reference.
• The red lines are the path of light between Earth and the ship during the outward trip.
• Light blue dots arrival point of light.

On the outward trip the relativistic Doppler effect shows each twin would see 1 second pass for the other twin for every 3.7 seconds of his own time. The twin on the ship would see this effect for 2.57 years, as such he would see his twin age 0.69 years. However since the light showing the ships arrival would not arrive at Earth for 4.45 years, the twin on Earth would see this effect for 9.59 years, as such he would see his twin age 2.57 years.

Earth to ship. ____________________ Ship to Earth.
• Blue lines are the path of light between Earth and the ship during the return trip.
• Light blue dots arrival point of light.
• Left image shows Earth to ship.
• Right image shows ship to Earth.

On the inward trip the relativistic Doppler effect shows each twin would see 3.7 seconds pass for the other twin for every second of his own time. The twin on the ship would see this effect for 2.57 years, as such he would see his twin age 9.59 years, for a total of 10.28 years. However since the light showing the ships departure would not arrive at Earth for 4.45 years, the twin on Earth would see this effect for only 0.69 years since ship returns after 10.28 years, as such he would see his twin age 2.57 years, for a total of 5.14 years.

Earth to ship. ____________________ Ship to Earth.
• This diagram shows the light path's for both legs of the flight.
• Left image shows Earth to ship.
• Right image shows ship to Earth.
• Note that there is more blue on the left and more red on the right. That is why the ships crew sees the Earth age more than they do.

Thus the twin paradox is resolved both in terms of the physical affect of time dilation and the observation of both twins, since both the physical affect and observation agree on how much each twin would age.

## Relativistic Mass

• Formula for relativistic mass.
• Formula 1

It from this that we get Einstein famous equation for the equivalence of mass and energy. E = mc2

• Formula for relativistic kinetic energy.
• Formula 2

It turns out that when v << c that the classical formula is a good approximation of relativistic kinetic energy. So the relativistic increase in mass with velocity is a result of the object's kinetic energy.

## Biblical Significance

Special Relativity has been criticized by some Christians. It is claimed that by removing absolute space and time, it is there by implying no moral absolutes. First of all this is illogical since there is no real connection between the two. Furthermore Special Relativity does have an absolute, the speed of light.

1 John 1:5 compares God to light, and according to Special Relativity no matter how fast you accelerate you will always fall equally short of the speed of light. Similarly, no matter how hard you work you will always fall equally short of the glory of God.

Special Relativity shows that time is an integral part of the structure of the universe, and not just the perceptions of a sequence of events. The result is that anything outside the universe would be timeless (or have its own time). God, as the creator of the universe, must exist outside His creation, and therefore by definition must be eternal and transcendant.