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Redshift of spectral lines in the optical spectrum of a supercluster of distant galaxies (BAS11) (right), as compared to of the Sun (left).

A redshift are spectral lines that come in two types, emission lines that are light on dark and absorption lines that are dark on light. When the frequencies do not line up right the spectra is shifted, with red towards the longer end and blue towards the shorter end.

When Edwin Hubble discovered galactic redshift he interpreted it as a Doppler shift. This change in frequency is caused by motion. A redshift indicates that the source is moving away from the observer and a blue shift indicates that the source is moving towards the observer. George Lemaitre's idea that it is caused by the wavelength of light being stretched in transit by a continual expansion of space has become the prominent interpretation of galactic redshift.

Galactic redshift does suggest expanding space-time which fits the Big Bang but it fits Dr. Russell HumphreysWhite hole cosmology as well.

Different Redshift Interpretations

In 'Distant Starlight and the Age, Formation and Structure of the Universe' The Pearlman SPIRAL cosmological redshift hypothesis and cosmology model reconciles distant starlight with the universe being about 5,776 years to date old. It explains why the empirical evidence of our natural observations of Cosmological Redshift not only reconcile with The Biblical/Torah narrative but attest to a Young Earth Creation, while falsifying (rendering invalid) all deep time dependent scientific hypotheses. or in paperback:

In "A New Redshift Interpretation," Robert Gentry suggests an interpretation of galactic redshift that is a combination of Doppler and gravitational red shift.

Robert Gentry's New Redshift Interpretation (NRI) interprets galactic red shift as a combination of Doppler and gravitational red shift. According to this cosmology the Cosmic background radiation (CBR) is the gravitational red shifted glow of a hydrogen boundary layer with a temperature of 5400K. He has suggested that this boundary layer actually consists of a thin shell of over lapping galaxies.

Bounded universe.

Like the White hole cosmology, NRI uses a bounded universe. While they are competing cosmologies, it is conceivable that they could be combined, since if dark energy were added to the White hole cosmology's starting conditions the results would resemble NRI.

NRI has an outward gravitational force, that Gentry says is caused by vacuum pressure/energy. This is effectively the same as dark energy and in NRI, dark energy can be substituted for vacuum pressure/energy. In any case the formula for this cosmic gravitational red shift is:

z+1={\frac  {1}{{\sqrt  {1-(Hr/c)^{2})}}}}

  • G = Gravitational Constant.
  • H = Hubble's Constant.
  • r = Radius from the center.
  • c = The Speed of light.
  • z +1 = Gravitational red shift.

When a standard Doppler red shift of galaxies is added the result is:

z={\frac  {1+Hr/c}{{\sqrt  {1-(Hr/c)^{2})}}}}-1

  • z = Change in observed red shift.


  • Hubble relationship
Vertical axis = Red shift. Horizontal axis = Distance in billions of light years.

When this is compared to the standard Hubble relationship it is clear that they are basically identical for near by galaxies. The graph to the right shows a comparison

Note that NRI's and Hubble's predicted red shifts are the same on this graph up to about 1.5 billion Ly, and that they are close up to about 3.5 billion Ly.

Robert Gentry has answered the criticism of NRI, most of which is based on a misunderstanding of it and an inability separated the observed red shift from Hubble's interpretation.

Intrinsic Red Shift

Upon the discovery of a deep-space quasar[1] sitting in front of a near-space Seyfert galaxy (NGC 7319) this raised many questions as to the nature of red-shift and if it represents a Doppler effect at all. This was initially regarded as gravitational lensing, the light from the distant quasar bending around the galaxy, but was later disproved. Quasars are high-red-shifted and are presumed to be 13 billion light-years from Earth. Yet this quasar was found in front of an opaque near-space galaxy.

Halton Arp[2] initiated a large-scale movement of astronomers to carefully examine other Seyfert galaxies (active galaxies with a bright center) to find similarities. In every case of a Seyfert galaxy viewed edge-on, two quasars sat on each side, aligned with the galaxy's axis and equidistant from it. Further x-ray observations revealed energetic plasma jets bursting from the galaxy's center, apparently feeding and forming the quasars. They concluded that the quasars are truly near-space objects but their red-shift is intrinsic and not related to their distance. This also set aside all notions of gravitational lensing as the explanation.

In addition, starspots are very-large versions of sunspots and may cover 30 percent or more of a star's surface[3][4]. This has led to postulation that the star needs time to ramp-up to full intensity and may exhibit high-red-shift during this period. If all stars are in this state of intrinsic red-shift, then the speed of the star is irrelevant and Hubble's observations are superficially accurate but do not explain the effect. In addition, intrinsic red-shift explains why all stars are red-shifted and none blue-shifted. It is an intrinsic quality of the star, unrelated to its motion.

If red-shift is unrelated to a Doppler effect, this utterly dissolves any notion of a Big Bang.


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Related References

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