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Black hole

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A black hole is a theoretical concept whereby a region of space whose gravitational force is so strong that nothing can escape from it. A black hole is invisible because it even traps light. The fundamental descriptions of black holes are based on equations in the theory of general relativity developed by the German-born physicist Albert Einstein. The theory was published in 1916.[1] Black holes exist on paper and in computer models, and have been a theoretical dumping ground for "cosmic anomalies" for many years. Black holes are purportedly responsible for keeping galaxies together, but when this wasn't enough, the theories of Dark Matter and Dark Energy arose, but all three are simply escape devices to describe what the standard model of cosmology cannot explain.

No one has yet discovered a black hole for certain.[2] To prove that a compact object is a black hole, scientists would have to measure effects that only a black hole could produce. Two such effects would be a severe bending of a light beam and an extreme slowing of time. But astronomers have found compact objects that are almost certainly black holes. The astronomers refer to these objects simply as "black holes" in spite of the small amount of certainty.[1]

Characteristics

Theoretically, the gravitational force is strong near a black hole because all the black hole's matter is concentrated at a single point in its center. Physicists call this point a singularity. It is believed to be much smaller than an atom's nucleus.[1]

The surface of a black hole is known as the event horizon. This is not a normal surface that you could see or touch. At the event horizon, purportedly the pull of gravity becomes infinitely strong. Thus, an object can exist there for only an instant as it plunges inward at the speed of light.[1]

Astronomers would use the radius of the event horizon to specify the size of a black hole. The radius of a black hole measured in kilometers equals three times the number of solar masses of material in the black hole. One solar mass is the mass (amount of matter) of the sun.[1]

Formation

According to general relativity, a black hole can form when a massive star runs out of nuclear fuel and is crushed by its own gravitational force. While a star burns fuel, it creates an outward push that counters the inward pull of gravity. When no fuel remains, the star can no longer support its own weight. As a result, the core of the star collapses. If the mass of the core is three or more solar masses, the core collapses into a singularity in a fraction of a second.[1]

Types

Galactic

Most astronomers believe that the Milky Way Galaxy -- the galaxy in which our solar system is located -- contains millions of black holes. Scientists have claimed to have found a number of black holes in the Milky Way. These objects are in binary stars that give off X rays. A binary star is a pair of stars that orbit each other.[1]

In a binary system containing a black hole, that object and a normal, visible star orbit one another closely. As a result, the black hole strips gas from the normal star, and the gas falls violently toward the black hole. Friction between the gas atoms heats the gas near the event horizon to several million degrees. Consequently, energy radiates from the gas as X rays. Astronomers have detected this radiation with X-ray telescopes.[1] However, a number of other explanations have been offered to explain this phenomena that do not require the use of a black hole, but because these theories do not align with a gravity-centric universe, they are ignored.

Astronomers believe that a number of binary star systems contain black holes for two reasons: (1) Each system is a source of intense and variable X rays. The existence of these rays proves that the system contains a compact star -- either a black hole or a less compact object called a neutron star. (2) The visible star orbits the compact object at such a high velocity that the object must be more massive than three solar masses.[1]

However, the presence of x-rays is also indicative of something else, and that is strong electromagnetic behavior. This is a simpler explanation than the assertion of a black hole's presence. It seems that the astronomers don't really know what a black hole should look like, so when something looks really strange, it must be a black hole.

Supermassive

Supermassive black hole eating matter.jpg

Scientists believe that most galaxies have a supermassive black hole at the center. The mass of each of those objects is thought to be between 1 million and 1 billion solar masses. Astronomers suspect that supermassive black holes formed several billion years ago from gas that accumulated in the centers of the galaxies.[1]

Some suggest that there is strong evidence that a supermassive black hole lies at the center of the Milky Way. Astronomers believe this black hole is a radio-wave source known as Sagittarius A* (SgrA*). The clearest indication that SgrA* is a supermassive black hole is the rapid movement of stars around it. The fastest of these stars appears to orbit SgrA* every 15.2 years at speeds that reach about 3,100 miles (5,000 kilometers) per second. The star's motion has led astronomers to conclude that an object several million times as massive as the sun must lie inside the star's orbit. The only theoretical object that could be that massive and fit inside the star's orbit is a black hole.[1]

Fermi Bubbles.jpg

By contrast, the theories that reject gravity as the primary driver of galactic motion would assert that black holes, dark energy and dark matter do not exist at all. The plasma jets and "Fermi Bubbles"[3] that exist at the Milky Way's galactic center "defy explanation" and challenge the core assumptions of the standard model of cosmology. The Fermi Bubbles are the product of strong electromagnetic activity, not gravity. The most striking aspect of the Fermi Bubbles is that they are the most energetic at their farthest point from the galaxy, which defies gravity-centric concepts.

The advent of the supermassive black hole is just the "tip of the iceberg" as there are many flavors of black holes, each one with the ability to explain (like dark energy and dark matter) things that are not easily explained. In essence, black holes, dark matter and dark energy have all been created as rescue devices to keep the standard model of cosmology from collapsing. Each of these rescue devices has "just the right" characteristics to explain the anomaly-at-hand, and if it doesn't explain it, the rescue device will be enhanced or imbued with the capacity to explain it, for this is the role of a rescue device.

Anomalies

Massless Particles

The black hole is purported to be so dense that nothing, not even light, can reach escape velocity. However, gravity only acts between two bodies with mass, meaning that the photon must have mass.

This is incongruous with the assertion that photons are massless [4]. The primary reason that photons are considered massless is not because they behave as such, but because they move at the speed of light. According to general relativity, for particles moving at the speed of light, time stands still. The particle experiences no passing of time from departure of the emitting source (not the reflective source) and the destination. If this is true of photons, it means that light departs and arrives from distant stars simultaneously and the concept of a light-year evaporates.

Speed of Gravity

While a black hole may not allow light to escape, it certainly allows gravity to escape. Does this mean that the speed of gravity[5] is faster than light? With each new experiment in particle physics, more anomalies and questions arise concerning gravity and our apparently complete lack of understanding of its operation[6].

For example, if the Sun were to blink-out, the inhabitants of Earth would not know it for about 8 minutes. But if the Sun were to disappear entirely, the Earth would start to drift immediately. This is not a theoretical question. The Milky Way is moving through space and its galactic arms are rotating. At any given moment, the Sun is zooming through space at an unimaginable velocity. Thus from the time it emits the light and the time the light arrives on Earth, the Sun has also moved an extraordinary distance from the location from where it first emitted the light. Shouldn't we experience some sort of torque effect? What if we had a car moving at 5 miles per hour and then tried to use a camera to make the car appear to be standing still while we ran around it with the camera? Would't we have to constantly adjust our speed to offer the camera the illusion of standing still? Yet the Earth does not change its velocity and humans experience a placid existence, oblivious to the speed at which the entire Solar system is zooming through space. This effect is plausible if the speed of gravity is instantaneous.

The observer is presented with three basic choices: (a) the Sun is standing still, (b) the Earth revolves around an imaginary point that represents where the Sun physically occupied some 8 minutes prior, (c) gravity is instantaneous. Since the first two are untenable (and the second is impossible because it would fling Earth out of orbit) we are left with option (c).

Mathematical Panacea

Each time a new anomaly is discovered in the heavens, the mathematicians race to discover an answer rather than attempting to gather it from observations. The black hole has become a dumping ground for these anomalies, eliciting scientists to manufacture all kinds of different black holes to explain what they don't understand. Each new explanation is more elaborate and outrageous than the prior one and many of them contradict known physics. Clearly this equivocation is indicative of modern cosmological science having abdicated its moorings to the observable in favor of the mathematical and theoretical.

This lament is expressed throughout the scientific community from physics to chemistry and to biology. John Sanford, in Genetic Entropy notes that when DNA was first discovered, it threatened to fully nullify Darwinism. The science of probability and statistics came to the fore and started treating genetics in terms of mathematical probability rather than observable effects. Sanford notes that the biologists abdicated the narrative to the mathematicians because the biologists could not explain things in terms of Darwin but the mathematicians could, and since they were taking sides with Darwin, nobody cared. In hindsight, it became obvious that the mathematicians had fully obfuscated the reality of DNA, most specfically that Darwinian evolution is impossible and that the genomes of all living things are decaying towards extinction.

The creationist will note in literature that such "decay curves" are sacrosanct in physics and chemistry, but may read that "biology is exempt, because of evolution." Which of course, is a circular presumption. If evolution is not true, then biology is not exempt and all sciences are riding on the same decay-curve. Since genomic decay (within the individual (aging) and across generations) is observable and measurable, we may consider two primary conclusions: (a) God never intended for the creation to last forever, and it has a prescribed "shelf life", and (b) evolution is not true and never has been.

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 Black Hole World Book at NASA.
  2. DeYoung, Donald B (2010). Astronomy and the Bible: Questions and Answers. Winona Lake, IN: BMH Books. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-88469-267-6. 
  3. http://phys.org/news/2014-08-extensive-analysis-fermi-defy-explanation.html
  4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massless_particle
  5. http://metaresearch.org/cosmology/speed_of_gravity.asp
  6. http://harvardmagazine.com/2003/05/gravitys-riddle.html