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Joseph and Imhotep

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Joseph (son of Jacob) is a key figure in the Old Testament of the Bible , who became a vizier (sage / viceroy) for an Egyptian pharaoh by the time he was 30 years of age, and during this time was responsible for saving ancient Egypt from a seven year famine. Joseph was enslaved in Egypt at age seventeen, having no more education than a shepherd. After thirteen years in an Egyptian prison, it is recorded that the chief of the prison had entrusted Joseph with running the prison. Joseph had by this time exhibited talent and skill in administration and logistics, not science.

Imhotep is recorded as being the advisor to multiple Pharoahs, including the Third Dynasty's Djoser and is responsible for the architecture of the Saqqara Pyramid. The Famine Stele, produced by Ptolemy in 196 BC, records Imhotep's influence but also details the minerals and methods used to manufacture the stones for the Pyramids using casting and binder agents instead of carving them from quarries. Imhotep possessed extraordinary knowledge of deep science, including astronomy, chemistry and medicine.

Some scholars mistakenly align Joseph with Imhotep. They did not live in the same timeframe nor did they possess the same education or skills. The primary justification for aligning them comes oddly enough from the same Famine Stele[1] which states that Imhotep saved Egypt from a famine. However, Imhotep's method was to apply science to harness the waters of the River Nile in real-time. Joseph on the other hand saved Egypt through a prophecy, coupled with execution of long-term agrarian logistics (something for which Joseph had training).

The most compelling arguments against Joseph and Imhotep being the same person are:

  • Discrepancy between the time-frames they lived. The Pharoah Djoser was the king of Imhotep. Djoser had no knowledge of chariots or compound bows, both of which were introduced to Egypt by the Hyksos kings. Joseph on the other hand, was paraded before Egypt in Pharaoh's "second chariot" so clearly the Hyksos influence had already arrived. The Hyksos supplanted the Pharaohs that had come before them.
  • Imhotep had incredibly deep knowledge of architecture, chemistry, astronomy and medicine. Imhotep's fame is centered in his knowledge and application of science
  • Joseph spent 13 years in prison prior to being elevated to second-in-command, a ruler in his own right, with no mention of any scientific education at all during this time. Joseph's fame is centered in a mastery of agrarian logistics.

The desire to link Joseph to Imhotep through their superficial alignment with famine, had unfortunately led to a premature and misguided overhaul of Egyptian history, attempting to syncretize histories of two cultures (Hebrew and Egyptian) into another history entirely. This is an unfortunate attempt to manufacture "evidence for faith" while throwing away valuable insights into Egyptian and Biblical history, as well as insights into these two very important historical figures.

The sons of Noah, Ham, Shem and Japheth left the Ark and their descendants formed the many nations listed in the Table of Nations in Genesis 10. Shem outlived Abraham, so we may presume that both Ham and Japheth lived for extraordinary durations after the Flood. As Ham's son Mizraim founded Egypt, and the Bible in several places calls Egypt "the land of Ham", we may presume that Ham had enormous influence over the Egyptian culture. Ham, Shem and Japheth would have been directly privy to the accumulated scientific and cultural knowledge amassed prior to the Flood.

Considering that Imhotep is noted as having lived through multiple Pharaohs and had more knowledge of science, especially architecture and medicine than could have been amassed and successfully applied by one person in a single lifetime, we may presume that Imhotep and Ham are the same person. It is not likely that Japheth, the founder of the Asiatic countries would have had proximity to Egypt. It is also not likely that Shem would have devoted his attention to the buildup of Egypt when he had plenty of descendants to support already. It makes practical sense that Ham would make himself available to and have direct influence on the success of Egyptian culture.


Biblical References to Joseph

References to Joseph can be found in the Book of Genesis in the Holy Bible, the Torah and the Koran. These are the Holy scriptures of the Christian faith, Judaism and Islam respectively. The account of Joseph is recorded in Genesis Chapters 37-50. Genesis is the first book of the Bible and no Biblical scholars would dispute the historical nature of this part of the Book. Any suggestion that Joseph was a symbolic, mythical or a fictional character, apart from being deeply offensive to these religions, would invoke an arbitrarily inconsistent standard to the various accounts of ancient times.

Biblical History

In the Biblical account, (Genesis 37-50) Joseph was the first born Son of Rachael (Jacob's second wife). Jacob (Israel) favored Joseph over his other children, primarily because Rachel had been his first love, but her father Laban tricked Jacob into marrying her older sister Leah. Rachel remained barren while Leah gave many children to Jacob. Rachel at last gave birth to Joseph and later died in childbirth while delivering Benjamin. Joseph had a dream that one day he would rule over his brothers, who then became jealous of him and so sold him to slave traders who took him to Egypt. [36] He was subsequently sold to Potiphar in Egypt as a slave and then wrongfuly imprisoned. It was in prison where he came to the attention of Pharaoh through his cupbearer who informed Pharaoh of Joseph’s ability to interpret dreams by the power of God. Pharaoh needed counsel about his own dreams and was not able to find anybody from his own kingdom to help. Joseph was able to tell Pharaoh the meaning of his dreams which fortold of a coming famine lasting seven years but preceded by seven years of abundance. Pharaoh made Joseph second in charge over his all his kingdom. During the seven years of abundance, Joseph was able to build silos in every city and store enough grain to feed the Nation during the seven years of famine that followed.[37]

It is important to observe that by this time, Joseph is not noted as having been particularly influential over Egypt at all. Nor is it noted in Scripture that Joseph possessed any more education than a common shepherd. The enigmatic Imhotep possessed vast knowledge and education in sciences that were advanced even for today (many cultures today do not possess the same scientific foundation as Imhotep). Joseph on the other hand only exhibited skills in keeping with his upbringing, namely that of agrarian logistics.

Joseph’s achievements in Egypt

When Joseph was 30 yrs old, Pharaoh put him in charge of the whole land of Egypt. Pharaoh gave Joseph his signet ring, dressed him in fine linen and put a gold chain around his neck. He was given a chariot to ride around Egypt as second in command.

The chariot is an important observation, because horse-and-chariot and the compound bow were introduced to Egypt by the Hyksos kings. This reference to chariots is a telltale sign that the Hyksos had already come to power. As Canaanites, they would have found favor with Joseph, a Canaanite.

Joseph’s name was changed to Zapheneth Paneah and he was given a wife Asenath (Daughter of Potiphera, priest of On). [1] During the seven years of abundance, Joseph stored up huge quantities of grain in each city from the fields surrounding them. [2] This timeframe would have been in roughly 1900 BC, followed by some 14 years (7 of plenty, seven of famine), after which his family came to live in Egypt (drawing from Scripture, roughly 1880 BC). He had two sons to Asenath, Mannaseh & Ephraim. [38]

Joseph saved Egypt and Caanan by selling the people grain during the 7 year famine. This is important because Canaan is also a son of Ham, but settled as interlopers in the land of Shem. Egyptians generally would not have had any reason to help the Canaanites. However, because the kings at the time of Joseph were Hyksos, and also Canaanite, it makes sense that they both favored Joseph and his family, and likewise helped the Canaanites.

When the people had run out of money, Joseph bought their livestock. When they had run out of livestock he bought the land titles. [3] Joseph bought up all the land in Egypt for Pharaoh. The priests did not have to sell their land as Pharaoh gave them a supply of food. [11] Joseph’s family were saved. [39] Jacob (Israel) and his eleven other sons along with their wives and servants were invited by Pharaoh to come and live in Egypt. [40] They settled in the land of Rameses and became great in number.

When the 18th Dynasty routed the Hyksos, the book of Exodus opens with the notation that a Pharaoh had come "that knew not Joseph" and likewise had no regard for Joseph's descendants.

The important factor here the nature of Joseph's influence. Unlike Daniel who was noted as being a scientist (Daniel 1:4) and actually performed the first recorded control experiment (comparing the diets of himself and three friends to the diets of others) (Daniel 1:8-17), Joseph is given no credit whatsoever for any scientific knowledge or achievement. His primary point of fame is in large-scale agrarian logistics. Coming from a family of shepherds, this would have been a core skill.

Is Joseph likely to have figured in Egyptian records?

If Joseph was placed second in charge of Egypt by Pharaoh under the Hyksos kings, which were routed and deposed by the kings of the 18th Dynasty, we could not reasonably presume to find extensive records of Joseph's presence.

The Hyksos ruled after the 12th Dynasty when the last of the cast-limestone pyramids were built and the nation of Egypt was weak and depleted economically and in natural resources for all the pyramid-building. The Hyksos deposed them and without any of the raw materials to make agglomerated stones, started making structures from mud bricks.

Despite Joseph's list of accomplishments, he was efficient and talented at agrarian logistics and this is what he is famous for, not the science for which Imhotep is credited. Shepherds are reknown for their logistical acumen in managing herds, food, water and their safety. Joseph exemplified the talents of a shepherd, which would have placed him in very good stead with the Hyksos, also named the "Shepherd Kings". One must speculate if the "Shepherd Kings" is a moniker in part earned by Joseph himself, overseeing Egypt's vast holdings with no more education than a shepherd.

Where does Joseph fit into Egyptian History?

From Scripture we know that from the time of the Exodus to the building of Solomon's temple in 970 AD, was 480 years (1 Kings 6:1). The time of the Israelites sojourning in Egypt to the Exodus was 430 years (Exodus 12:40). From 970 to 1450 places us in the Exodus. From 1450 to 1880 places us in the time of Joseph. As Joseph was paraded in the streets in Pharaoh's "second chariot", and the chariots were first introduced by the Hyksos kings, we now have an intersection of Joseph to the pharaohs of Egypt. Joseph was highly favored by Potiphar, the prison overseer, and Pharaoh, owing to the simple fact that they were all Canaanite (Hyksos) as was Joseph.

An increasing number of historians are now calling into question the dates of Egyptian dynasties. In particular, Sweeney [15][21][19][48], Velikovski [49][50][51], Fry [52] [12] [53][16][54][55][56][57][58][59][20], Reilly [13][17][60][22] Down [18].

These authors have unfortunately attempted to syncretize their revisions of Egyptian history with Scripture, effectively creating a completely new history of both. As Scripture is the final historical authority in these matters, much of their analysis is objectionable at best and erroneous at worst. Believers have likewise glommed-on to their analysis and have made an erroneous attempt to link or even equate Joseph with Imhotep. This exercise should serve as a stern warning to those who attempt to arbitrarily revise history for purposes of validating the Bible. The Bible stands alone and requires no such validation.

Imhotep is an enigmatic figure appearing in the early years of Egyptian history, but is famous for his contributions in science. Joseph appears considerably later, is nowhere noted as having been formally educated, and his chief contribution is agrarian logistics. Revising history to intersect the two simply ignores their roles and backgrounds and does extraordinary violence to the historical accounts of both.

The closest accurate history we can derive from the most reliable accounts, places Joseph potentially in Egypt (as a slave) in the latter part of the 12th Dynasty or just after its overthrow by the Hyksos. Joseph entered Egypt as a slave and spent thirteen years as a prisoner. When Joseph was called from prison to interpret Pharaoh's dream, this Pharaoh was a Hyksos, a Canaanite. We can know this because Pharaoh placed Joseph in his "second chariot" (Genesis 41:43) and the Hyksos introduced horse-and-chariot to Egypt[2].

In 1954, the discovery of the "victor stele"[3] revealed the records of the campaign of Kamose, who mounted a campaign to overthrow the "rulers of a foreign land" and had been successful against the Hyksos but had not defeated them. Ahmose I of the 18th Dynasty would depose and route them. Ahmose I would be noted in Scripture only as the Pharoah "who knew not Joseph" (Exodus 1:8).

Shepherd Kings?

These kings were also called "the shepherd kings". Interestingly, there is no particular reason to call them the "shepherd kings", especially since they brought the technology of chariots and compound-bows to Egypt, they were clearly warriors. What would earn them the title of "shepherd king"?

Joseph's only known skill, for which he is heralded and renown, is that of agrarian logistics. A master logistical planner is a skill of a shepherd, not a scientist. Joseph hailed from a family of shepherds. This was in fact his only known skill. However, as Joseph was given rule over Egypt, as a shepherd-by-training it stands to reason that the "shepherd kings" moniker was one that was solely earned by Joseph, not independently by the Hyksos.

Why is it so hard to piece together Egyptian records?

The Egyptians have suffered great losses and great plenty. We may presume that the wealth of their knowledge was housed at the Libraries of Alexandria, which burned and is considered one of the greatest cultural losses of all time[4].

Another reason why it is difficult to find historical information is because much of it was lost or destroyed by various seiges, conquests, natural distasters and even erosion over the centuries.

Egyptian records are written as qlyphs (pictures) in stone. They have a number of limitations. The ability to interpret them was lost until the discovery of the Rosetta Stone[5] in 1799. The stone itself was produced in 196 BC.

Who was Imhotep?

Statuette of Imhotep in the Louvre

Imhotep was a most interesting figure in the Egyptian culture, his name means "the one who comes in peace". He served Djoser, the third dynasty king, he was the vizier to the pharaoh and high priest to the sun god Ra. [64]

Imhotep is attributed with being the first person in history to be an acting physician, he was also the first architect, he was a poet and also a philosopher. After his death he was given the status of a deity, he was only one of a very few commoners to ever be given that kind of an honor. His primary legacy is science, especially in the fields of architecture, chemistry and medicine.[64]

  • He is the architect of the first Pyramid; the step pyramid at Saqqara.[64]
  • He is also credited with the use of columns in architecture. [64]
  • He is known as the founder of Egyptian medicine, and he is famous for not incorporating magic into his medical treatments
  • He diagnosed and treated over two hundred diseases
  • He extracted medicine from plants and he is also known to have performed operations and dentist work.
  • He knew the circulation of the blood system and he knew where each vital organ was placed and what its uses were. [64]
  • He was eventually venerated as the god of medicine and healing
  • When the Greeks invaded Egypt they worshiped him and built him temples because they saw in him their own god of healing named Asclepius. [64]
  • Imhotep was also the first person known to use the papyrus scroll. He may have actually invented it! [64]
  • Imhotep is also attributed to the stopping of seven year famine, after which were seven years of prosperity. This template sounds oddly like the seven years of plenty/famine associated with Joseph, with major differences. Joseph's prophecy was asserted during a time of plenty. Imhotep's action was during a time of need. He stopped the famine, restored order and prosperity issued from it. There is nothing particularly noteworthy (e.g. prophetic) here. Imhotep simply applied science and diverted disaster in real-time. Joseph on the other hand, interpreted the dream within the constraints of his own understanding, an agrarian background. The Hyksos, being warriors, would have trusted Joseph, an agrarian shepherd, with this understanding. The economy was bounding and they really had nothing to lose.

The above in mind, we have no reason to link Imhotep, a man of deep-science leveraging many lifetimes of knowledge, with Joseph, a relatively uneducated shepherd. We have every reason to presume that Ham, the father of Egypt's founder Mizraim, had in his possession (and ability) an enormous amount of accumulated pre-Flood knowledge and immediately applied it to jump-start the Egyptian culture into an early glory that is not rivaled anywhere in the ancient world.

Imhotep is exalted by Pharaoh Djoser as of godly character [8], which we would expect Ham to exhibit directly, having been saved by the Lord himself and personally interacted with the Lord over the course of building and launching the Ark.

What implications does this have for Egyptian History?

Main article: Evidence for the Israelites in ancient Egypt

If the 'revisionist alignment' of the Egyptian Dynasties is correct, Joseph can be identified with Imhotep. However, we would have no way of intersecting Joseph has having been educated with the same knowledge possessed by Imhotep. Aligning Joseph with Imhotep essentially does violence to both Egyptian and Biblical history.

Imhotep is credited with having amassed and applied a level of scientific knowledge that would be inconceivable to acquire much less apply in a single lifetime. This strongly suggests that Imhotep is Ham, the son of Noah, who would have been alive from the Flood to at least the end of the Third Dynasty (if he lived for about as long as Shem). Ham would have had access to all of the scientific and cultural knowledge amassed prior to the Flood.

What are the implications for Israel and Christianity?

If Joseph was Imhotep, then we have an enormous discrepancy in knowledge that must be accounted for. Joseph's primary fame was through logistics associated with agrarian resources. This is expected of a shepherd, which was the limit of Joseph's education. Imhotep is credited with an enormous amount of applied science. If Joseph learned deep science, when did Joseph learn these things and why is the Bible silent on it? Why did Joseph take the reins of his future in an area of agrarian logistics (his family business) and not science?

Imhotep is credited with saving Egypt from a famine through an engineering exercise involved the waters of the Nile river. This superficially intersects with the story of Joseph, who saved Egypt from a famine through storing up grain during seven years of bountiful harvest. Imhotep's act was one of applied science in real-time. Joseph's actions were based on interpreted dreams, prophecy and faith.

It seems that the effort to connect Joseph and Imhotep is a misguided attempt to vindicate the Bible through the records of Egypt, when the Bible requires no such assistance.

Much of this philosophy is borne on the antics of "scholars" such as Ron Wyatt who manufacture evidence in order to "increase" the faith of believers. Some two decades ago, Wyatt produced a film purporting to have found the Ark of the Covenant, but his photograph of it was blurred out. His excuse: "It would not let us take a picture of it." Wyatt believes that such antics increase knowledge when they in fact increase skepticism and do enormous damage to apologetics.

What are the Implications for Literature, Medicine, and Architecture

If Joseph was Imhotep, this would make Joseph the father of medicine, the first architect to build with stone and use columns and the inventor of the papyrice and the first to use it (to write medical and non-medical literary works). [71] [72] [73] [74] [6] [75]

This of course is unsupportable. At no time are we led to believe that Joseph had any more than a shepherd's education, and his work to save Egypt was firmly centered in agrarian logistics, not science.

It also blurs the truth that the Egyptians had early access to extraordinary architecture, astronomy, chemistry and medicine and leveraged these things to build a mighty nation. Their patriarch Ham was in a far better position to initiate and sustain this.

Suggested Reading

1. J. Ashton & D. Down, Unwrapping the Pharaohs. how Egyptian archaeology confirms the Biblical timeline, New Leaf Publishing Group (Master books), 2006. ISBN-13 978-0-89051-468-9 ISBN-10 0-89051-468-2 http://masterbooks.net

2. H. Bible, “Jacob bore 12 sons,” Genesis chapter 29-32, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+29:1-30:43

3. H. Bible—”Keturah’s children sent away to Middle East,” Genesis 25:1-4, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+25:1-25:4

4. H. Bible—”Abrahams children to be reckoned through Issac,” Genesis 21:12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+21:12

5. H. Bible—”Ishmael sent away – Issac the child of promise,” Genesis 21:8-13, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+21:8-21:13

6. H. Bible—”Issac born to Sarai,” Genesis Chapter 21, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+21:1-21:7

7. H. Bible—”Ishmael born to Hagar,” Genesis Chapter 16, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+16:1-16:16

8. H. Bible—”God’s covenant with Abraham,” Genesis Chapters 15 & 17, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+15:1-15:21;Genesis+17:1-17:27

9. H. Bible—”Call of Abraham,” Genesis Chapter 12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+12:1-12:9

10. H. Bible—”Terah sets out from Ur,” Genesis 11:27-32, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+11:27-11:32

11. H. Bible—”The Dispersion after Babel,” Genesis Chapter 11, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+11:1-11:9

12. H. Bible—”The Flood,” Genesis Chapter 6, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+6:1-9:29

13. H. Bible—”The Biblical account of Jospeh,” Genesis chapter 37-50, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+37:1-50:26

14. H. Bible—”Jacob renamed Israel,” Genesis 32:22-32, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+32:22-32:32

15. H. Bible—”Jacob favours Joseph,” Genesis chapter 37, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+37:1-37:36

16. H. Bible—”Joseph sold into slavery and taken to Egypt,” Genesis 37:12-36, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+37:12-37:36

17. H. Bible—”Joseph falsely accused and imprisoned in Egypt,” Genesis 39:1-23, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+39:1-39:23

18. H. Bible—”Joseph able to interpret dreams,” Genesis 40:1-23, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+40:1-40:23

19. H. Bible—”Joseph recognised by Pharaoh,” Genesis 41:1-40, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+41:1-41:40

20. H. Bible —”The exodus,” Exodus 12:31-42, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+12:31-12:42

21. H. Bible—”Joseph reassures his brothers afer Jacob’s death,” Genesis 50:15-21, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+50:15-50:21

22. H. Bible—”Jacob dies,” Genesis 49:29 -50:14, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+49:29-50:14

23. H. Bible—”Jacob blesses his sons,” Genesis chapter 49, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+49:1-49:28

24. H. Bible—”Jacob blesses Joseph’s children,” Genesis chapter 48, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+48:1-48:22

25. H. Bible—”Pharaoh gives Jacob the land of goshen,” Genesis Chapter 45, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+45:1-45:28

26. H. Bible—”Joseph’s brothers go to Egypt to buy grain,” Genesis Chapters 42-44, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+42:1-44:34

27. H. Bible—”Death of Joseph,” Genesis 50:22-26, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+50:22-50:26

28. H. Bible—”Jacob moves to Egypt and settles in Rameses,” Genesis Chapter 46:1-47:12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+46:1-47:12

29. H. Bible—”Joseph buys up all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh,” Genesis 47:18-22, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+47:18-47:22

30. H. Bible—”Joseph saves Egypt by selling grain,” Genesis 47:13-17, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+47:13-47:17

31. H. Bible—”Joseph has two sons; Ephraim and Mannaseh,” Genesis 41:50-52, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+41:50-41:52

32. H. Bible—”Joseph stores up huge quantities of grain in Egyptian cities,” Genesis 41:47-49, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+41:47-41:49

33. H. Bible—”Pharaoh puts Joseph in charge of all Egypt,” Genesis chapter 41:41-46, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+41:41-41:46

34. H. Bible—”The Queen of Sheba visits Solomon,” 1Chron 9:1-12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=2Chron+9:1-12

35. H. Bible—”The Queen of Sheba visits Solomon,” 1Kings 10:1-13, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=1Kings+10:1-10:13

36. H. Bible—”Saul destroys the Amalekites,” 1Samuel 15:2-9, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=1Sam+15:2-15:9

37. H. Bible-"Moses flees to Midian and Pharaoh eventually dies" Exodus 2:11-25 http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Exodus+2:11-2:25

38. H. Bible, “The Israelites oppressed,” Exodus 1:1-22, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Exodus+1:1-1:22

39. H. Bible—”Pharaoh makes Israelites find own straw to make mud bricks,” Exodus 5:1-21, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Exodus+5:1-5:21

40. "The Wall Chart of World History - From earliest times to the present" 1998 Bracken Books ISBN 1-86256-306-3


  1. H. Bible, "Pharaoh puts Joseph in charge of all Egypt," Genesis chapter 41:41-46, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+41:41-41:46
  2. H. Bible "Joseph stores up huge quantities of grain in Egyptian cities," Genesis 41:47-49, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+41:47-41:49
  3. H. Bible"Joseph saves Egypt by selling grain," Genesis 47:13-17, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+47:13-47:17
  4. NationMaster.com, "Statemaster - Encyclopedia: Imhotep," , statemaster.com, 2009. http://www.statemaster.com/encyclopedia/Imhotep
  5. M. Wyatt, "Joseph in ancient Egyptian history," , 1994. http://web.archive.org/20080205234047/www.geocities.com/biblerevelations_org/ronwyatt/josephin.htm
  6. M. Millmore, "The Step Pyramid at Saqqara," , http://www.eyelid.co.uk, 2008. http://www.eyelid.co.uk/pyramid1.htm
  7. N. G. Society, "The Step Pyramid of Djoser. Egypt's first pyramid.," , http://www.nationalgeographic.com/pyramids, 2009. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/pyramids/djoser.html
  8. A. Kolom, "Is Biblical Joseph the Imhotep of Egypt (famine-savior)? (Extra-biblical proof!)," , 2009.
  9. E. Sweeney, "Were Joseph and Imhotep of Egypt the same man?," THE GENESIS OF ISRAEL AND EGYPT, B. E. Sweeny (Editor), http://s8int.com/joseph.html, 2001.
  10. B. Rhodes, "Was Imhotep and Joseph the same person?" , http://the-red-thread.net/joseph-imhotep.html, 2009.
  11. H. Bible, "Joseph buys up all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh," Genesis 47:18-22, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+47:18-47:22
  12. D. Fry, "Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt - Time calibrators," Hebrew Sages of Ancient Egypt II, http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew1.html 2004.
  13. J. Reilly, "Displaced Dynasties," Dysplaced Dynasties, http://www.kent.net/DisplacedDynasties/, 2009.
  14. G. Byers, "Israel in Egypt," , http://www.biblearchaeology.org, 2008. http://www.biblearchaeology.org/post/2008/09/Israel-in-Egypt.aspx
  15. E. Sweeney, The Genesis of Israel and Egypt (Ages in alignment), Vol. 1, Algora Pub, 2008. ISBN 0-87586-624-7 http://www.algora.com/238/book/details.html http://books.google.com.au/books?id=-3p5cfv6T_MC&printsec=frontcover#PPP1,M1
  16. D. Fry, "Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt Egypt’s first dynasty," , http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew3.html, 2009.
  17. J. Reilly, "The Exodus and beyond chapter 3: Joseph & Moses," The Exodus and Beyond, http://www.kent.net/DisplacedDynasties/Exodus%20Chapter%203.htm, 2009.
  18. D. Ashton. J & Down, D Unwrapping the Pharaohs. How Egyptian archaeology confirms the Biblical timeline, New Leaf Publishing Group (Master books), 2006. ISBN 978-0-89051-468-9 ISBN 0-89051-468-2 http://masterbooks.net
  19. E. Sweeney, The pyramid age, Ages in alignment series, Algora Publishing, 2007.
  20. D. Fry, "Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt - needed changes in modern records," , http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew10.html, 2009.
  21. E. Sweeney, The Genesis of Israel and egypt, Janus Publishing Company Limited, 1997. ISBN 978-1857563504
  22. J. Reilly, "The Exodus and beyond chapter 1: The Berlin chronology of the second millennium bc - limitations of the Berlin chronology," The Exodus and Beyond, http://www.kent.net/DisplacedDynasties/Chapter1.htm, 2009.
  23. R. Wyatt, "Joseph was imhotep of egypt," , Wyatt Archaelogical Research, 1994. http://www.arkdiscovery.com/joseph.htm
  24. H. Bible, "The Flood," Genesis Chapter 6, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+6:1-9:29
  25. H. Bible"The Dispersion after Babel," Genesis Chapter 11, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+11:1-11:9
  26. H. Bible"Terah sets out from Ur," Genesis 11:27-32, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+11:27-11:32
  27. H. Bible"Call of Abraham," Genesis Chapter 12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+12:1-12:9
  28. H. Bible"God's covenant with Abraham," Genesis Chapters 15 & 17, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+15:1-15:21;Genesis+17:1-17:27
  29. H. Bible"Ishmael born to Hagar," Genesis Chapter 16, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+16:1-16:16
  30. H. Bible"Issac born to Sarai," Genesis Chapter 21, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+21:1-21:7
  31. H. Bible"Ishmael sent away - Issac the child of promise," Genesis 21:8-13, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+21:8-21:13
  32. H. Bible"Keturah's children sent away to Middle East," Genesis 25:1-4, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+25:1-25:4
  33. H. Bible"Jacob bore 12 sons," Genesis chapter 29-32, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+29:1-30:43
  34. H. Bible"Jacob renamed Israel," Genesis 32:22-32, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+32:22-32:32
  35. H. Bible"Abrahams children to be reckoned through Issac," Genesis 21:12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+21:12
  36. H. Bible"Jacob favours Joseph," Genesis chapter 37, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+37:1-37:36
  37. H. Bible"The Biblical account of Jospeh," Genesis chapter 37-50, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+37:1-50:26
  38. H. Bible"Joseph has two sons; Ephraim and Mannaseh," Genesis 41:50-52, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+41:50-41:52
  39. H. Bible"Joseph's brothers go to Egypt to buy grain," Genesis Chapters 42-44, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+42:1-44:34
  40. H. Bible"Jacob moves to Egypt and settles in Rameses," Genesis Chapter 46:1-47:12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+46:1-47:12
  41. H. Bible"Pharaoh gives Jacob the land of Goshen," Genesis Chapter 45, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+45:1-45:28
  42. H. Bible"Jacob dies," Genesis 49:29 -50:14, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+49:29-50:14
  43. H. Bible"Jacob blesses Joseph's children," Genesis chapter 48, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+48:1-48:22
  44. H. Bible"Jacob blesses his sons," Genesis chapter 49, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+49:1-49:28
  45. H. Bible"Joseph reassures his brothers afer Jacob's death," Genesis 50:15-21, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+50:15-50:21
  46. H. Bible"Death of Joseph," Genesis 50:22-26, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+50:22-50:26
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  55. D. Fry---"Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt The Pyramid age Joseph’s inspiration," , http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew5.html, 2009.
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  62. H. Bible, "The Queen of Sheba visits Solomon," 1Kings 10:1-13, .http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=1Kings+10:1-10:13
  63. H. Bible"The Queen of Sheba visits Solomon," 1Chron 9:1-12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=2Chron+9:1-12
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  69. H. Bible"Pharaoh makes Israelites find own straw to make mud bricks," Exodus 5:1-21, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Exodus+5:1-5:21
  70. H. Bible, "Moses flees to Midian and Pharaoh eventually dies," Exodus 2:11-25, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Exodus+2:11-2:25
  71. J. Dunn, "Imhotep, doctor, architect, high priest, scribe and vizier to king Djoser," , http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/imhotep.htm, 1999.
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  75. Wikipedia, "Imhotep," , http://en.wikipedia.org, 2009.
  76. J. Gray, "The Empty sarcophagus of Imhotep in a funery chamber connected to the animal gallery. His tomb was orientated to the North and dates to the third dynasty of Djoser,", http://youtu.be/tIFajJF2WhA?t=38m1s, 2011.


[| Were Joseph and Imhotep the same person?]


[Joseph - the son that saved Israel and the Ancient World]

[Islamic Forums: Were Prophet Joseph and Imhotep of Egypt The Same Man?]

[The Empty sarcophagus of Imhotep in a funery chamber connected to the animal gallery. His tomb was orientated to the North and dates to the third dynasty of Djoser.]

[Porphet Yusuf (a.s) Imhotep?]

[History aligned with the Bible.]


[The Exodus - Wyatt Archaeological Research]

[Discovery of the Famine Stella by Flinders Petrie in 1887.]

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