Joseph and Imhotep
From CreationWiki, the encyclopedia of creation science
Joseph (son of Jacob) is a key figure in the Old Testament of the Bible , who became a vizier (sage / viceroy) for an Egyptian pharaoh and during this time was responsible for saving ancient Egypt from a seven year famine. Joseph was able to acquire all the land of Egypt (except that of the priests) by selling grain during the famine. In this way, Joseph made the Pharaohs very rich. Joseph was only 30yrs old when he became vizier and 44yrs old when he had saved Egypt and bought up all the land. He lived to the age of 110yrs and was given a royal Egyptian burial. The Bible is silent about what Joseph did for the last 66yrs of his life although the Bible does say that he was able to not only ensure the survival of his family, he was able to protect them as they grew into a great nation numbering over 2 million at the time of the Exodus (which occurred 430 years after Joseph's family entered Egypt).
However, many scholars debate whether Imhotep himself was a real person or just a contrived legend. Either way, Imhotep is described as having been born in Egypt to Egyptian parents, and was fully Egyptian. Joseph on the other hand, was Canaanite and in no wise of Egyptian descent.
Given Joseph's position and achievements, one would expect to find some evidence for his existence in Non-Biblical Egyptian records and archaeological discoveries. (See Evidence for the Israelite Sojourn in Egypt). Given other circumstances, Joseph's absence from Egyptian records is fully understandable.
Biblical References in Opposition to the Joseph/Imhotep Connection
The Hyksos Kings, interloping Canaanites that took over Memphis for many years, introduced the composite bow and the chariot to Egypt. Egypt took the use of chariots to new levels, using both of these weapons to both guard against attackers and pursue them beyond Egypt's borders. Note that when Pharaoh elevates Joseph to a position of ruler (more than just a vizier, in the case of Imhotep) he parades Joseph in his "second chariot":
Genesis 41:40-44 "Thou shalt be over my house, and according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled: only in the throne will I be greater than thou. And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, See, I have set thee over all the land of Egypt. And Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand, and put it upon Joseph's hand, and arrayed him in vestures of fine linen, and put a gold chain about his neck; And he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had; and they cried before him, Bow the knee: and he made him ruler over all the land of Egypt. And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I am Pharaoh, and without thee shall no man lift up his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt."
Moreover, the above is the first time "chariot" is mentioned in Scripture, the second time being when Joseph is reunited with his father Israel (Jacob) in the land of Goshen:
Genesis 46:29-30 "And Joseph made ready his chariot, and went up to meet Israel his father, to Goshen, and presented himself unto him; and he fell on his neck, and wept on his neck a good while. And Israel said unto Joseph, Now let me die, since I have seen thy face, because thou art yet alive."
Later during the Exodus, Moses was pursued by Pharaoh with chariots, with an army clearly outfitted with them and well-trained in their utility:
Exo 14:5-9 "And it was told the king of Egypt that the people fled: and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the people, and they said, Why have we done this, that we have let Israel go from serving us? And he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him: And he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every one of them. And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after the children of Israel: and the children of Israel went out with an high hand. But the Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pihahiroth, before Baalzephon."
The presence of chariots during Joseph's rule and later during Moses' time is indicative that the Hyksos had already arrived in Egypt, and is the chief reason why many accept that the Hyksos were the ruling power during Joseph's time, and being of Canaanite descent, would have favored Joseph and his family. It is also the reason why the Pharaoh who routed the Hyksos (Ahmose I of the 18th Dynasty) would have found no favor with any of the Canaanites, being considered interlopers from the beginning. And would have easily earned the position of the "king who knew not Joseph" (Exodus 1:8).
The challenge before us therefore, in attempting to align Imhotep with Joseph has less to do with their similarities and more to do with reconciling the record with the original arrival of chariots in Egypt. If the chariot had been introduced to Egypt well before Djoser's time, such that Djoser could project an army against Moses with over 600 chariots, then we would have little difficulty in this matter.
As it stands however, to claim that Imhotep and Joseph are the same person, or even contemporaries, is to also claim that the Bible is wrong in its reference to the presence of chariots in Egypt. In short, if Imhotep and Joseph are the same person, and the fact remains that the chariot was introduced by the Hyksos, then the Bible is factually and historically inaccurate.
It is not the position of this website that the Bible should be doubted in any form, but that those who attempt to revise history should be given no quarter and lack no challenge to their assertions. The following discussion therefore is to provide additional information as to the arguments for and against the possibility that Joseph and Imhotep are the same person, so as to inform and equip the saints to defend the Scripture against gainsayers who would revise history in an effort to show the Bible false.
Joseph built silos to store grain in key Egyptian cities. Massive underground silos can be found in many cities of Egypt dating back to the third dynasty.    It is not unreasonable to suggest that these may have been built by Joseph. In particular, Joseph may have built the silos associated with the first pyramid built in Egypt (The Step Pyramid which is part of the Djoser Pyramid complex at Saqqara, designed by Imhotep).     If grain silos were common place before Joseph came along, Joseph's ideas would not have been taken seriously.
There are many similarities between the profile of Joseph and Imhotep.     Imhotep is also credited with saving Egypt from a seven year famine after hearing of the Pharaoh's dream. Imhotep, like Joseph, was a commoner with some divine connection and was placed second in charge of Egypt by the King (Netjerikhet).  Joseph bought up all the land for Pharaoh by selling the grain he stored during the seven years that preceded the famine ; a feat that could only have been performed once, early in Egypt’s history, and it explains how the Pharaohs became so powerful and able to build the pyramids.
Given that Joseph was one of the Patriarchs of Israel, and figures very early in the Biblical record, less than 1000 years after the flood of Noah, it is quite possible that he may have figured in the early parts of Egyptian history, namely the Third Dynasty as the vizier for Pharaoh Djoser. 
Until recently, the most compelling argument against Joseph and Imhotep being the same person, has been the discrepancy between the estimated times during which they lived. 
Egypt was not always united and sometimes there were different rulers in upper and lower Egypt. Sometimes, a conquering Pharaoh would let regional rulers (Nomarchs) stay on as governors when a new dynasty began (eg 12th dynasty). The division of the kingdom into up to 42 'nomes' (regions or provinces) can be dated back to the Old Kingdom and it continued until the Roman period.
Clearly, there are many problems with the "traditional Egyptian chonology" that assumed the Egyptian dynasties were sequential and did not allow for co-regency and dynasties running in parallel. Evidence is now accumulating to suggest that Egyptian dynasties may overlap and may not date back as far as was once thought. 
Egyptian records are not chronological and dates have been calculated from very sketchy notes of third parties who saw the original documents (eg Manetho's records in the Alexandrian Library before they were destroyed in a fire).  Other documents such as the Turin King list are very fragmented and incomplete. In many cases, all that is known about some pharaohs are their names and how long they reigned. The pharaohs of dynasties 7-11 (the first intermediate period) were not buried in pyramids as were the pharaohs of the Old Kingdom (dynasty's 3-6) and the Middle Kingdom (dynasty 12). Some pharaohs in this first intermediate period may turn out to be 'Nomarchs' or 'other high ranking officials' and not 'pharaohs' at all! The result of this is that Egyptian history is probably a lot shorter than previously thought and the pyramids were probably constructed much later than many historians have previously estimated. 
If David Down is on the right track with his "modern alignment" of the Egyptian dynasties and allowing for a long sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt of 430 years (Exodus 12:40), it is quite likely that Joseph and Imhotep were the same person, particularly if some pharaohs in dynasties 7-11 (the first intermediate period) turn out to be 'high ranking officials' or 'Nomarchs'. 
Biblical References to Joseph
References to Joseph can be found in the Book of Genesis in the Holy Bible, the Torah and the Koran. These are the Holy scriptures of the Christian faith, Judaism and Islam respectively. The story of Joseph is told in Genesis Chapters 37-50. Genesis is the first book of the Bible and no Biblical scholars would dispute the historical nature of this part of the Book. Any suggestion that Joseph was a symbolic, mythical or a fictional character would be deeply offensive to these religions.
However, the identity of Imhotep (e.g. as the son of the vizier Kanefer) or purely as a legend, is still a matter of ongoing debate. Whether or not Imhotep was a real person, offends nobody.
After the Flood  and the dispersion of Babel , people spread out over all the Earth. Terah set out from Ur of the Chaldeans with his Son Abraham to go to Canaan but stopped at Haran.  This is where Abraham was called by God. God promised to make him into a great nation and to bless all nations through him.  God made a covenant with Abraham and promised him the land of Canaan which his descendants would take possession of after serving as slaves in a foreign land (Egypt) for 400 years (4 generations).  Abraham was to become the father of many nations centered around the middle east as we know it today. He had Ishmael (Ishmaelites) to Hagar, his wife’s maid servant.  Ishmael became the Patriach of the Islamic religion. Then at the age of 100 Abraham had Issac to his wife Sarai.  It was to be thru Issac that God would fulfill his promise to Abraham and so Ishmael was sent away.  Issac married Rebeka who bore Esau (the Edomites) and Jacob (the Israelites). Abraham had a third wife Keturah who bore many children who were sent to the middle east and became fathers of nations there too.  Jacob eventually bore 12 sons and a daughter. The eleventh son was Joseph. Joseph was the first son of Rachael (Jacob’s second wife).  Jacob had an encounter with God one night and was renamed Israel.  His descendants (the Jews) became the Nation of Israel (from which comes Judaism) out of which came Christ (Christianity) with whom God would fulfill his promise to Abraham.
In the Biblical account, (Genesis 37-50) Joseph was the first born Son of Rachael (Jacob's second wife). Jacob (Israel) favored Joseph over his other children. Joseph had a dream that one day he would rule over his brothers. His brothers became jealous of him and so sold him to slave traders who took him to Egypt.  He was subsequently sold to Potiphar in Egypt as a slave and was subsequently wrongfuly imprisoned. It was in prison where he came to the attention of Pharaoh through his cupbearer who informed Pharaoh of Joseph’s ability to interpret dreams by the power of God. Pharaoh needed counsel about his own dreams and was not able to find anybody from his own kingdom to help. Joseph was able to tell Pharaoh the meaning of his dreams which fortold of a coming famine lasting seven years but preceded by seven years of abundance. Pharaoh made Joseph second in charge over his all his kingdom. During the seven years of abundance, Joseph was able to build silos in every city and store enough grain to feed the Nation during the seven years of famine that followed.
It is important to note that by this time, Joseph is not noted as having been particularly influential over Egypt at all. Nor is it noted in Scripture that Joseph possessed any more education than a common shepherd.
Joseph’s achievements in Egypt
When Joseph was 30 yrs old, Pharaoh put him in charge of the whole land of Egypt. Pharaoh gave Joseph his signet ring, dressed him in fine linen and put a gold chain around his neck. He was given a chariot to ride around Egypt as second in command.
The chariot is an important observation, because horse-and-chariot and the compound bow were introduced to Egypt by the Hyksos kings. This reference to chariots is a telltale sign that the Hyksos had already come to power. As Canaanites, they would have found favor with Joseph, a Canaanite.
Joseph’s name was changed to Zapheneth Paneah and he was given a wife Asenath (Daughter of Potiphera, priest of On).  During the seven years of abundance, Joseph stored up huge quantities of grain in each city from the fields surrounding them.  This timeframe would have been in roughly 1900 BC, followed by some 14 years (7 of plenty, seven of famine), after which his family came to live in Egypt (drawing from Scripture, roughly 1880 BC). He had two sons to Asenath, Mannaseh & Ephraim. 
Joseph saved Egypt and Caanan by selling the people grain during the 7 year famine. This is important because Canaan is also a son of Ham, but settled as interlopers in the land of Shem. Egyptians generally would not have had any reason to help the Canaanites. However, because the kings at the time of Joseph were Hyksos, and also Canaanite, it makes sense that they both favored Joseph and his family, and likewise helped the Canaanites.
When the people had run out of money, Joseph bought their livestock. When they had run out of livestock he bought the land titles.  Joseph bought up all the land in Egypt for Pharaoh. The priests did not have to sell their land as Pharaoh gave them a supply of food.  Joseph’s family were saved.  Jacob (Israel) and his eleven other sons along with their wives and servants were invited by Pharaoh to come and live in Egypt.  They settled in the land of Rameses and became great in number.
When the 18th Dynasty routed the Hyksos, the book of Exodus opens with the notation that a Pharaoh had come "that knew not Joseph" and likewise had no regard for Joseph's descendants.
The important factor here Joseph's influence. Unlike Daniel who was noted as being a scientist and actually performed the first recorded control experiment (comparing the diets of himself and three friends to the diets of others), Joseph is given no credit whatsoever for any scientific knowledge or achievement. His primary point of fame is in large-scale agrarian logistics. Coming from a family of shepherds, this would have been a core skill.
The Hyksos on the other hand, came to Egypt with the technology of horse-and-chariot, the compound bow and improved battle-axes. They were inherently warriors yet were called "The Shepherd Kings". Having no Egyptian background in shepherding, where would this moniker have arisen? Joseph was the son of a shepherd from a family of shepherds and was placed in charge of Egypt, essentially regarded and revered as a king. Yet he was not a warrior, vizier or possessed any special education or knowledge apart from agrarian logistics. It is believed by some that the moniker of "Shepherd Kings" was earned by Joseph and not by the Hyksos alone.
Is Joseph likely to have figured in Egyptian records?
If Joseph was placed second in charge of Egypt by Pharaoh, there should be some note of this in Egyptian records. 
If Joseph helped to save Egypt and the surrounding nations from a famine lasting seven years. 
Joseph would have had to construct massive grain silos for storing grain in many Egyptian cities and indeed, massive silos can be found in many historical significant Egyptian cities today (eg Saqqara).
Joseph married the daugher of one of the High Priests in Egypt.  He saved his country from a seven year famine and bought up all the land of Egypt except for that of the priests who did not need to sell their land because Pharaoh supplied them with food. The people became loyal subjects of Pharaoh because of what Joseph had done.  Joseph was, therefore, responsible for making the Pharaoh's wealthy and powerful.  Joseph served the Pharaohs from the age of thirty.  He died at the age of 110 years of age and was given a Royal Egyptian burial. 
We have no evidence or mention that Joseph (nor the Isralites) were involved in the construction of pyramids. It is a recognized anomaly of Egyptian culture that their best pyramids were built in earlier years and the skills and quality devolved thereafter.
His family, the descendants of Jacob (Israel), produced mud bricks and became numerous in the 430 years that they lived in Egypt. There were over 600 thousand adult males (not counting women and children) who were led out of Egypt by Moses during a time of great disaster in Egypt. 
With a list of accomplishments like this, it would be hard to conceive that Joseph would not be mentioned in Egyptian heiroglyphics or memorialized some other way. That is of course, if the Egyptian dynasties followed one after another, or their power otherwise cascaded from generation to generation without severing.
The Hyksos kings hoever, severed the history of the Egyptian dynasties. When Ahmose routed the Hyksos, it would be expected that the Egyptians would purge all remnants and memory of the interloping Hyksos, who were held in high disregard by descendants of true Egyptian(Hamitic) lineage. Note also that the Egyptians had no problems whatsoever in purging the records of their enemies or perceived traitors, including Moses. It is not particularly odd or astonishing that the 18th dynasty left no Egyptian records of Joseph or the people of Goshen, which they quickly reduced to slave status.
Where does Joseph fit into Egyptian History?
Estimates of dates have long been the common denominator used by archaeologists and historians alike when trying to piece together ancient history.
Various teams of archaeologist have used a number of different dating methods to estimate how old a particular artifact is. For example, the type of pottery that is predominant in a layer can be used to date the layer. As creationists have noted however, dating methods are highly unrealiable and cannot be trusted as authoritative, and certainly not where they contradict Scripture.
Assumptions behind various dating techniques are not alway right. This can sometimes lead to artifacts being incorrectly dated by as much as 1000 to 2000 years.
If history is pieced together based only upon the estimated dates of particular dynasties, the results can be quite erroneous and it will be little wonder why Egyptian and Hebrew history does not fit together and why no Egyptian equivalent of Joseph has been found using the dates traditionally ascribed to various Egyptian dynasties.
An increasing number of historians are now calling into question the dates of Egyptian dynasties. In particular, Sweeney , Velikovski , Fry   , Reilly  Down . These historians are not using the Biblical record as their authority, but we can glean insights from their efforts. Velikovsky in particular promoted quite a few outrageous assertions about recent Earth history, so we must be careful as to our sources.
Using their revised dating system, the historical records of Israel and Egypt fit together differently, purportedly making it possible to identify likely contemporaries of important Biblical Characters.
Conventional wisdom which has been very reliant on the Biblical record and timeframes, has been unable to find any evidence that the Patriarchs of Israel lived in Egypt and have not found any possible candidates for Joseph because they are looking for evidence of him in the Hyksos dynasty which is estimated to have been around 1700BC according to conventional chronology. We may presume that the 18th Dynasty, which replaced the Hyksos, purged all records associated with them, as they were regarded by their successors as interlopers and not "true" Egyptians. As a result, conventional wisdom presumes that Joseph and other Biblical figures were removed from Egyptian records with this purge.
The following has been proposed as a revised history that deviates from the Biblical record. It is popular however flawed. The primary chronological flaw is found in the Bible (Genesis 41:43) which shows Joseph riding in Pharoah's "second chariot", being declared a "ruler" over Egypt, not just a vizier or public servant. Since the Hyksos brought the chariot and compound-bow to Egypt, they were present prior to Joseph's ascension and are arguably the ruling power during Joseph's reign. This situation would forever separate Imhotep and Joseph. They were separate people in separate timeframes.
A revised (and specious) chronology using the revised chronology results in a very different picture with the history Israel and Egypt purportedly matching better with "archaeological" records, which of course are subject to interpretation. Abraham is then considered to be a contemporary of Menes. Imhotep is considered to be the Joseph of the Bible and Djoser is considered to be the Pharaoh that he served   .
Keep in mind that if Abraham is a contemporary with Menes (or Mizraim, the son of Ham who founded Egypt), this would require Menes to survive the 300+ years from the time of Babel to Abraham's birth. This is not particularly problematic considering that Shem lived to within just a few years of Abraham's death, but the timeframe would still place Abraham well outside the reigns of the initial dynasties.
A more likely scenario is that Imhotep is Ham, or one of Ham's immediate descendants. Imhotep is deeply immersed in science, medicine and their practical applications. Joseph on the other hand was only ever trained in agrariam logistics, which he applied to save Egypt. Joseph saved Egypt from a seven-year famine by storing up grain in a time-of-plenty. Imhotep saved Egypt using applied science after the famine was already seven years underway. Shem, Ham and Japheth would most likely have carried with them the science and technical knowledge gathered prior to the Flood, which explains why Egypt grew and became powerful with such explosive speed.
The revised chronology however, would fit with the theory that Amenemhet III was the Pharaoh of Moses who oppressed the Israelites making them make mud bricks . Also of note is that the pyramid of Amenemhet III was made of mud bricks containing straw.  Amenemhet III was the 6th Pharaoh of the 12th dynasty and lived 450 to 500 years after Pharaoh Djoser in the 3rd dynasty.  He had only daughters. One of his daughters Sobekneferu had an adopted son (Amenemhet IV) who disappeared before he could become King. It has been suggested that Amenemhet IV was Moses. 
If such is the case, the Exodus took place during the Reign of Neferhotep I during the 13th dynasty in 1445BC.  The Hyksos took over lower Egypt shortly after this with little resistance. The Hyksos reigned in Lower Egypt for around 400years. This coincides with the period of the Judges in the Promised Land. The Hyksos were finally defeated by Ahmoses who founded the 18th dynasty which was the beginning of the New Kingdom of Egypt. It would therefore follow that the Hyksos (15th & 16th dynasties) which were contemporary with Joshua and the Judges, came to an end when King Saul destroyed the Amalekites (Hyksos)  after they were forced to leave Egypt by Ahmose I who started the 18th dynasty (New Kingdom of Egypt).  This would place Dynasty 17 as contemporary with dynasty 16. Likewise the 18th dynasty as contemporary with the United Kingdom of Israel when Saul, David and Solomon were on the throne. This would also mean that Amenhotep I and Thutmosis I of the 18th dynasty were contemporaries of David.  Hatshepsut was the Queen of Sheba who visited Solomon.   Thutmosis III came to power during the reign of Jereboam and became the greatest Pharaoh of Egypt. 
The revised chronology does not place enough time between Joseph and the Exodus, plus the time between the Exodus and the dedication of Solomon's temple, both of which are chronologued in Scripture. In the book "Ancient Post-Flood History"  Ken Johnson traces the lineage of each of Noah's sons into the world, aligning them with other historical artifacts, most notably the historical reference that is noted repeatedly in Scripture, the "Book of Jasher" (Joshua 10:13, 2 Samuel 1:18, 2 Timothy 3:8), making the Book of Jasher at least 3000 years old 
Using these references, the Exodus would have taken place during the reign of the 18th Dynasty and the Pharoah of the Exodus may have been Amenhotep II. This generally aligns with the timeframe where Tutmosis III held power for 30 years and Amenhotep II held power for only 10, the 40 years of Moses' exile. Likewise Amenhotep II and his successor Tutmosis IV were not the firstborn males of their families, so both would have survived the original Passover event.
'Modern' Chronology (Ashton & Down 2006) 
|Date||Egypt||Contemporary in Israel|
|2080BC||Menes (First Dynasty)||Abraham|
|1900BC||Djoser (Third Dynasty) + Imhotep||Joseph **|
|1531BC||Amenemhet III (6th Pharaoh 12th Dynasty)||Moses|
|1445BC||Neferhotep I (13th Dynasty)||The Exodus (Moses)|
|1405 -1021BC||Hyksos (15th & 16th Dynasty)||Joshua to Saul|
|1018BC||Amenhotep I & Thutmosis I (18th Dynasty)||King David|
|950BC||Hatshepsut (18th Dynasty) [Queen of Sheba]||Solomon|
|929BC||Thutmosis III (18th Dynasty)||Jereboam|
** Based on a 430yr long Sojourn of Israel in Egypt (Exodus 12:40)
Why is it so hard to piece together Egyptian records?
The Egyptians suffered great losses at the time of the Exodus and may not have wanted to remember what Joseph and his family had achieved during their 400 year stay in Egypt. This may be one reason why it is very difficult to find historical information about the exploits of the Israelites in Egypt.
This was not the reason that the second pyramid designed by Imhotep was not completed, because pyramid-building had ceased by the time of the Hebrews.
Another reason why it is difficult to find historical information is because much of it was lost or destroyed by various seiges, conquests, natural distasters and even erosion over the centuries. Also that the 18th Dynasty, in routing the Hyksos, would likely have purged all memory of them, being "interlopers", and would explain why the Bible says that they were Pharoahs, that "knew not Joseph" (Exodus 1:1-9)
Egyptian records are written as qlyphs (pictures) in stone. They have a number of limitations - you need to know 'the code' ie what they mean. Pronunciation is not indicated as with Greek and English and there is no time stamp. The art of interpreting them (heiroglyphics)has been somewhat lost. It is therefore highly important that we not regard Egyptian history as authoritative over the Scripture (its message is only as faithful as the interpreter).
Who was Imhotep?
Imhotep was a most interesting figure in the Egyptian culture, his name means "the one who comes in peace". He served Djoser, the third dynasty king, he was the vizier to the pharaoh and they say that he was the high priest to the sun god Ra.  Joseph, being consummately dedicated to the One True God, would never have allowed such a label to be placed upon him. Imhotep is attributed with being the first person in history to be an acting physician, he was also the first architect, he was a poet and also a philosopher. After his death he was given the status of a deity, he was only one of a very few commoners to ever be given that kind of an honor.  He is thought to be the architect of the first Pyramid; the step pyramid at Saqqara. He is also credited with the use of columns in architecture.  He is known as the founder of Egyptian medicine, and he is famous for not incorporating magic into his medical treatments, he diagnosed and treated over two hundred diseases, he extracted medicine from plants and he is also known to have performed operations and dentist work. He knew the circulation of the blood system and he knew where each vital organ was placed and what its uses were. 
He became the god of medicine and healing, when the Greeks invaded Egypt they worshiped him and built him temples because they saw in him their own god of healing named Asclepius. 
Imhotep was also the first person known to use the papyrus scroll. He may have actually invented it! 
Among other things Imhotep is also attributed to have stopped a famine after it had been underway for seven years, using applied science.
We must keep in mind that Joseph is only recorded has having been trained in agrarian matters (which he applied to save Egypt from a coming famine, as opposed to one that was already underway). He is not attributed with any education in science or medicine, and rose to power in Egypt without it.
Similarities between Joseph and Imhotep
|Imhotep - Egyptian records||Joseph - Bible|
|Imhotep is appointed Administrator by Pharaoh Djoser during the periods of seven years famine and seven years of bountiful harvests ||Joseph is appointed Administrator to Pharaoh for the seven years of plenty then of famine|
|Minister to the King of Lower Egypt ||Pharaoh .. made him ruler over all the land of Egypt|
|Administrator of the Great Palace ||Thou shalt be over my house|
|Not of royal blood; attained position by ability ||From another nation and religion, not of royal blood, attained position by ability|
|Not appointed by Pharaoh Djoser until he had reigned for some time ||Appointed well after Pharaoh ruled Egypt|
|Given the status of "son" to Pharaoh ||Granted the status of "son" to Pharaoh|
|High Priest in Heliopolis ||Married to Asenath, daughter of Poti-Pherah, High Priest in Heliopolis - by custom, would succeed father-in-law. Joseph however, would not have accepted such a position because it would be open disloyalty to the One True God.|
|Builder and architect , but also in medicine and science, none of which are skills associated with Joseph||Overseer of grain storehouse contruction, only schooled in agrarian matters however|
|Exalted by Pharaoh Djoser as of godly character ||And Pharaoh said, 'a man in whom the spirit of God is!'|
|"I need advice from God" ||Noted as saying, "It is not in me; God shall give Pharaoh an answer"|
|Had great medical skill - was compared to the Greek God of Healing ||Had doctors under his authority but no known medical knowledge - otherwise leveraged ability to interpret dreams|
|Decided the tax rate during the seven years of famine; also not to apply to priests ||Decided the tax rate during the seven years of famine; also not to apply to priests|
Could Imhotep and Joseph be one and the same person?
The Roman-Jewish historian, Josephus, quotes the writings of Manetho, Egyptian historian: "During [the] reign of .. Pharaoh Djoser, 3rd Egyptian dynasty, lived Imhotep .. [with a] reputation among Egyptians like the Greek God of medicine - [Manetho even wondered] whether Imhotep could have been an actual person .. [because he had] "so many outstanding qualities and talents .. a very special person [who] appears in the history of Egypt." On the foundations of the Step Pyramid in Sakkara was carved the name of Pharaoh Djoser and ".. Imhotep, Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, Chief under the King, Administrator of the Great Palace, Hereditary Lord, High Priest of Heliopolis, Imhotep the Builder..".  Joseph arrived in Egypt as a young man and married Asenath, the daughter of Potipherah, the priest of On.  This information precludes the theory that Joseph lived during Hyksos rule in Egypt. On or An was the ancient capital of Heliopolis (As-t Tem). Some claim that Egyptians also believed in One Great God who was never represented in their art work. Only his attributes, functions as Creator, Teacher and Healer were known as the neter or neteru. The symbolism surrounding Egyptian deities then is different from this One Great God, in whose image man was made, in that it scales our world and the universe to our dimensions so man can grasp it. The Egyptian name for this `One Great God' is neter, probably an echo or more distant memory of the biblical Creator God of Abraham, Issac and Jacob. 
Both Imhotep and Joseph imposed a 20% (one fifth) tax on the people with the exemption of the priests. 
Moeller refers to an inscription on the island of Sihiel, near the first cataract of the Nile, which actually links Imhotep to the key biblical element of the Joseph story - telling of Pharaoh Djoser in the 18th year of his reign. The inscription states "seven meagre years and seven rich years". Commenting on the inscription, Moeller writes, "Pharaoh Djoser asks Imhotep to help him with the coming seven years of famine. All the biblical components of the story are there, and there is a similar inscription on the island of Philae in the Nile." (This is exactly as in the Bible with Joseph, except for listing the "meagre" years before the years of plenty. Note: The famine years were, of course, the event of significance, saving everyone from starvation and bringing in much wealth to Egypt - it is noted that the manuscript was written a thousand years after the occurrences.)  
Pharaoh renamed Joseph 'Zapeneth Peneah'  which means "master of the school of learning"  or "Man to whom secrets are revealed" . Notice however, how this name is not remotely similar to the Egyptian name "Imhotep", so connecting these two people is further problematic.
It is also interesting to note that circumcision was widely practiced among Egyptians from the third dynasty onward. Abraham visited Egypt during this period so could have introduced the practice to Egypt. We have no record whatsoever that this was introduced by Abraham. and could have been introduced by the Ishmaelites who regularly traded with Egypt. Circumcision has health benefits as well as religious ones.
Egyptian records show that before Imhotep, the bodies of Egyptian royalty were not embalmed. Instead, they were entombed in early Egyptian structures called mastabas, (or mastabahs), oblong structures with flat roofs and sloping sides built over the opening of a mummy chamber or burial pit .  Djoser appears to be the first king to have be embalmed,  Jacob (Israel) was embalmed by Joseph and buried in a coffin and Joesph himself was embalmed and given a royal Egyptian burial. This merely means that embalming may have been established by Imhotep, not that Joseph had established it.   The Biblical account suggests that only Joseph's bones were preserved as was the practice in the early dynasties of the Old Kingdom. However, Joseph had requested to be buried whole in the land of Canaan, so the preservation of his body is unrelated to Egyptian culture. In Egypt, preservation of the whole body was not practiced until the Era of King Tut (New Kingdom), but as this is the part of the 18th Dynasty that immediately succeeded Moses, may we presume that they took a cue from preserving Joseph's remains even thought they were many centuries old? 
Could Pharaoh Djoser (King Netjerikhet) be the Pharaoh of Joseph?
Main article: Pharaoh Djoser (Netjerikhet) was the Pharaoh of Joseph
The 'correct alignment' of Israel's and Egypt's history will allow contemporary fragments of information to be linked together to build up a clear picture of ancient history. Combining the records of Egypt, Israel and Mesopotamia will help to fill in the gaps in each nations' record. Evidence is now accumulating to suggest that Egyptian dynasties may overlap and may not date back as far as was once thought.    
Dynasty 2 is considered contemporary with dynasty 3.  There was no first intermediate period. The dark ages of the first intermediate period have been confused with the dark ages of the second intermediate period. 
Dynasties 7-10 have been identified with 15-16 and Dynasty 17 was contemporary with dynasty 16. 
Egyptian history, therefore, does not date back as far as was once thought (3000BC - 5000BC) as per the Conventional Chronology.
The first Egyptian dynasty is now considered to have started around 2100BC and the Great Flood is considered to have been around 2300-2400BC. 
This would place the Exodus just after the end of the 12th dynasty in 1445BC.  
Any Egyptian dates before the 12th dynasty are considered quite speculative and are only approximations 
This 'Modern Alignment' of the Dynasties marginally fits the Biblical account in some ways but not in others, and also fits the records of Mesopotamia.
The 'Modern Alignment' of the Dynasties provides the answers to the major chronological objection to Joseph and Imhotep being the same person (namely the mismatching dates) and by the same token makes it highly likely that Pharaoh Djoser was the Pharaoh of Joseph. We can see how re-compressing history in this specious manner somehow offers permission to rewrite history in terms of Scriptural persons. There still isn't enough time (from the Biblical record) to get Joseph close enough to Imhotep to be the same person. Moreover, it does not solve the most intractable problem, that of the introduction of chariots to the Egyptian culture. There is simply no record of chariots in Djoser's time.
While Sweeney points out that Abraham was a contemporary of Menes who were patriarchs of their respective civilizations some time after a catestrophic destruction , he has probably over corrected the dates which are far too short even for Biblical events. People after the Flood continued to have long lives, some living over 400 years, many living over 200 years. Shem died very shortly before Abraham died at age 170, so the notion of "contemporary" has a different meaning in the centuries immediately after the Flood.
If it is agreed that Joseph was Imhotep and he served Pharaoh Djoser (Zozer) of the Third dynasty, it does not follow that the identity of Moses and the Pharaoh's he was contemporary with will be agreed as there is not universal agreement about which dynasties to identify and which dynasties ran in parallel.      Moreover, the identity of Imhotep himself remains in question as to whether he was a legend or real person.
'Conventional' Chronology 
|3000BC|| Menes (First Dynasty displays strong mesopotamian influence)
Djoser and Imhotep (Famine crisis solved when imhotep interprets Djoser's dream)
|2000BC||First Intermediate Period (Age of disturbance in nature and general lawlessness)||
Abraham (migrates from mesopotamia and introduces some of the basic civilization to Egypt)
Joseph (Famine crisis in Egypt solved when Joseph interprets Pharaoh's dream)
|1000BC||Moses leads the Israelites to freedom amidst violent upheavals of nature|
'Revised' Chronology (Sweeney 1997) 
|1300BC||Catestrophic Destruction||Catestrophic Destruction||Catestrophic Destruction|
|1200BC||Late Bedarian and Gerzean||Khirbet Kerak||Jamdat Nasr (Early Literacy)|
|1100-1000BC||Destruction episode||Destruction episode||Destruction episode|
|1000BC||Menes (Early Dynastic Age)||Abraham||(Early Dynastic Age)|
|900BC||Djoser and Imhotep||Joseph|
|800BC||Destruction episode||Destruction episode||Destruction episode|
|800BC||Pyramid Age||Age of the Judges||Akkadian Age|
|700BC||Hyksos epoch||Saul||Sargon I|
'Modern' Chronology (Ashton & Down 2006) 
|Date||Egypt||Contemporary in Israel|
|2080BC||Menes (First Dynasty)||Abraham|
|1900BC||Djoser (Third Dynasty) + Imhotep||Joseph **|
|1531BC||Amenemhet III (6th Pharaoh 12th Dynasty)||Moses|
|1445BC||Neferhotep I (13th Dynasty)||The Exodus (Moses)|
|1405 -1021BC||Hyksos (15th & 16th Dynasty)||Joshua to Saul|
|1018BC||Amenhotep I & Thutmosis I (18th Dynasty)||King David|
|950BC||Hatshepsut (18th Dynasty) [Queen of Sheba]||Solomon|
|929BC||Thutmosis III (18th Dynasty)||Jereboam|
** Based on a 430yr long Sojourn of Israel in Egypt (Exodus 12:40)
What implications does this have for Egyptian History?
The following discussion is revisionist and of specious value as it does not account for the primary event that causes the succession of Pharohs to dramatically change. The Bible says that a Pharaoh came that "knew not Joseph". Only one transition of power in Egypt could be so characterized, and that is the transition from the Hyksos to the 18th Dynasty, wiping out all prior knowledge and alliances. The Hyksos arrived prior to the time of Joseph because they introduced the chariot and Joseph rode in Pharoah's "second chariot".
Main article: Evidence for the Israelites in ancient Egypt
If the 'modern alignment' of the Egyptian Dynasties is correct, Joseph can be identified with Imhotep who was a preist, physician, sage and visier to the king, the second in charge of the land of Egypt and the architect of the first pyramid and the grain silos that are found in many cities of Egypt. Joseph was born three generations after Abraham (the Patriarch of Israel and many other nations around the Middle East). Djoser was the second Pharaoh of the 3rd dynasty of Egypt and came about three or four generations after Menes who was the Pharaoh of the 1st dynasty of Egypt and a contemporary of Abraham. The Israelites stayed in Egypt 430 years. This takes us to the 13th dynasty which is when the Exodus occurred.  It is unlikely that Joseph was some inconspicuous person in the 18th dynasty or lived during the time of the Hyksos as is commonly held by people who adhere to the 'conventional alignment' of Egyptian dynasties. The Hyksos dynasties (14th & 15th dynasties) started after the Exodus, Spanned the period of the Judges and was finally ended by Saul when he defeated the Amelekites. As King Netjeriket of the third Egyptian dynasty was also known by the name 'Pharaoh Djoser', it is possible that this name means 'Pharaoh of Joseph'. What's more, if the 'modern alignment' is correct, the Hebrew influence of Egyptian culture will be re-established. The first pyramid would have been designed by a Hebrew. The Hebrew God should, therefore, be credited for saving Egypt from a seven year famine and giving the Pharaoh's their power, wealth and the means to build the other pyramids. The designer of the first pyramid will, once again, be seen to be a servant of the God of Abraham, Issac and Jacob, even though the pyramids later became objects of pagan worship and Imhotep was deified long after his death by the Greeks. When the Israelites left Egypt, Joseph's association with the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob was forgotten and the pyramids became symbols of pagan gods. With the aid of hind sight it can be seen how the designer of the first pyramid, the savior of the Egyptian people and the man responsible for the Pharaoh's power, known as Imhotep, would become a god in his own right some 1400 years after his death once his connection with the God of Abraham, Issac and Jacob had been lost and forgotten. The first pyramids, which were made of cut limestone, were built by the Egyptian people who had sold their land to Pharaoh and become his subjects. After Joseph's death, the Israelites were given the lowly task of making mud bricks.  Pyramid-building had long-since ended by the time the Hebrews were made slaves. Amenemhet III was the 6th Pharaoh of the 12th Egyptian dynasty which preceeded the Exodus in 1445BC.  Moses was forced to flee Egypt and go to Midian after killing an Israelite official. During that period, the Pharaoh died.  When he returned to Egypt, there was a new Pharaoh in power (Neferhotep I of the 13th Dynasty).  Neferhotep I was the Pharaoh of the Exodus.  Joseph protected the the Israelites and allowed them to multiply in numbers so that they could fulfill what God had planned; namely to return to the land of Canaan and to take possession of it after spending 430 years in Egypt and 40 years in the Wilderness.  In so doing, Joseph saved his family and protected the Israelites as they grew to be a nation in Egypt. (This is in addition to saving Egypt and surrounding nations, making egypt and the pharaohs wealthy.)
What are the implications for Israel and Christianity?
If Joseph was Imhotep, then the historians must discover how chariots arrived in Egypt prior to the reign of Djoser, otherwise the Bible is rendered historically and factually inaccurate and cannot be trusted. If Joseph was not Imhotep, then then Flood (and by consequence the Bible) is vindicated by Egyptian history. This is because Imhotep carried advanced knowledge of many areas of science, chemistry and technology that could only have come from the pre-Flood world. One man could not have amassed such knowledge in a single lifetime.
While some suggest that linking Joseph to Imhotep will make archaeological evidence "indisputable" - archaeologists already do not dispute the evidence. They simply reinterpret the evidence to fit their own narrative. If the Bible is the authority, then the presence of the Patriarchs is already indisputable.
Some say that linking Jospeh to Imhotep reinforces the archaeological evidence for Israel in Arabia / Midian (Jabel el Lawz) in combination with the above will also corroborate the Biblical account of the Exodus. However, linking two people as one in this manner is still a matter of interpretation, not evidentiary proof.
Will Christians and Jews alike have the evidence that they require to defend their faith? Linking Joseph and Imhotep as the same person still requires interpretation and is easily dismissed by those who are already willing to disregard the Biblical account (e.g. the arrival of chariots in Egypt). In short, there is no value in linking Joseph and Imhotep as one person. The earth and cosmos, per Romans 1 and Psalm 19, cry out as to the existence of the Creator, and it is so obvious than mankind is "without excuse".
Will people who think that the Bible, the Torah and the Koran have no foundation in reality have to reconsider their beliefs? No, if they are predisposed to disbelieve these documents, linking Joseph and Imhotep will not solve this.
The Christian faith, however, should not and does not directly depend on archaeological or historical confirmation. While archaeological and historical evidences reinforce Scripture's truth, a lack of confirmation does not dismantle Scripture's truth (the absence of evidence is not proof of anything). Whether Joseph and Imhotep are the same person, is irrelevant to Christianity. Whether Imhotep's knowledge is linked to the pre-Flood world, is at least intriguing because it provides insight into the genious of ancient man, dispelling the evolutionary narrative than ancient man was primitive and dim-witted.
What are the Implications for Literature, Medicine, and Architecture
If Joseph was Imhotep, this would make Joseph the father of medicine, the first architect to build with stone and use columns and the inventor of the papyrice and the first to use it (to write medical and non-medical literary works).      
This of course is unsupportable. At no time are we led to believe that Joseph had any more than a shepherd's education, and his work to save Egypt was firmly centered in agrarian logistics, not science.
It also blurs the truth that the Egyptians had early access (from accumulated pre-Flood knowledge) to extraordinary architecture, astronomy, chemistry and medicine and leveraged these things to build a mighty nation. Their patriarch Ham was in a far better position to initiate and sustain this.
Egyptian records are far from complete. They are not chronological and the exact way that fragments fit together is by no means certain. The Bible however, is certain and without mixture of error.
There is such a coincidental match between the profile of Joseph and Imhotep that many historians, theologians and archaeologists have suggested that they are one in the same person.
The single most compelling evidence against this, however, has been the considerable discrepancy between the estimated dates of their existance by as much as 1000 years!
In recent times, however, new ideas have resulted in pieces of ancient history being put together in a way that not only makes more sense but matches historical and archaeological records of the surrounding nations including the 'Bible'.
Authors such as Down, Velikovski, Fry, Reily & Sweeney have suggested that Egyptian history has been stretched out and over dated by as much as 2000 years! This may turn out to be an over correction but in any case, the problems with the discrepant chronologies have been discussed in the 'Modern' Chronology / Alignment of Dynasties  eliciting the notion of connecting Imhotep and Joseph.
Quite unfortunately, such revisions serve to create more confusion than clarification, especially as they serve to cast greater doubt on Scripture.
It is therefore important to regard the Joseph/Imhotep question as more of a qualified pursuit rather than a perfect match. There is value in the pursuit because we will learn more about the history of the world. We must be careful not to presume that people living in modern times (historians and the like) can see into the past and declare such things with definitive certainty.
Joseph was the 11th son of Jacob, the Patriarch of Israel.
His brothers sold Him into slavery and he was taken to Egypt.
He came to the attention of Pharaoh because of his ability to interpret dreams.
Pharaoh put Joseph in charge of all of Egypt.
Joseph was 30 years old when he became a ruler (not a vizier) to Pharaoh, paraded in one of Pharoah's chariots (indicative of Hyksos having already arrived.
Joseph led Egypt through seven years of great harvent followed by a seven year famine.
The Pharaohs became wealthy and powerful because of Joseph.
Joseph bought up all the land of Egypt (except for that of the priest's) and reduced the Egyptian people to servitude.
He married the daughter of the High Priest in Heliopolis (Capital city 'On').
Joseph was the father of two tribes of Israel (Ephraim and Manasseh).
He received a double portion from Jacob for saving his family from a famine and allowing the Israelites to multiply to become a Nation in Egypt.
Joseph served the Pharaoh's for 80 years and died at the age of 110. He was given a royal Egyptian Burial.
Joseph would have been 44 years old (30+7+7) when the famine finished. What did he do for the next 66 years of his life?
The Bible is faily silent about this part of his life. We are not given permission to speculate upon it.
Egyptian history records a visier (not a ruler in his own right) to Pharaoh Djoser of the third dynasty by the name of Imhotep who saved Egypt from a seven year famine (stopping the famine with applied science) and made Egypt very wealthy. There is no record of his age upon death. In the prime of his life, he is reputed with many achievements including building the first pyramid (The Step Pyramid in Saqqara), developing methods of embalming the Pharaoh's (hence the name "Son of Ptah"), performing operations, designing the first buildings with columns and was the first to use to use the papyrus (he wrote over 200 literary works). In short, a master of chemistry, architecture and engineering. Where did such knowledge come from unless it has been amassed prior to the Flood. Was Imhotep in fact Ham, son of Noah? The land i Egypt is called the "Land of Ham", and it was founded by Ham's son Mizraim.
Imhotep was also known as the High Priest of Heliopolis. Joseph would serve no other God but the One True God.
A quick search of the internet will reveal that historians have long recognised the resemblence of Joseph and Imhotep. However, the interrnet and the opinions of historians are in no wise a final authority in this matter.
It has been difficult to be certain that they were the same person, however, because of considerable discrepancy in the estimated dates of their existence. We will find that historical revisionists, most especially evolutionary thinkers such as Velikovsky, will attempt to recharacterize history to something more to their liking.
As the duration of Egyptian History continues to be revised down, while this may bring Imhotep and Joseph somewhat closer in timeframe, it cannot bridge the gap between their considerable differences.
In the last 50 years, a number of problems with the conventional alignment of the Egyptian dynasties have been discovered. Some dynasties ran in parallel (as Egypt was divided into Upper and Lower Egypt at various points in it's history) and some dynasties have been counted twice. What's more, many of the Pharaohs of Egypt were co-regent with one another during a particular dynasty. In other words, some pharaohs had overlapping reigns. (This could have been a way of training a successor) Consequently, an Alternative View of Egyptian History has been proposed. Just keep in mind that this can neither compress 1000 years of history, nor can it manufacture an education for Joseph in matters of architecture, engineering and chemistry. This is especially true considering that these disciplines were not passed down to the Israelites in any form. When Moses delivered the Israelites, they did not carry with them even the hard-won engineering that had preceded them in Egypt, not to mention the education that Imhotep possessed.
This article focuses on the person of Joseph in the Bible and whether or not he was Imhotep of Ancient Egyptian History. As we can see, there is no reason to presume that they were the same person. Archaology and discovery will continue to separate them.
This article shows that Egyptian history and archaelogy are consistent with the Bible and that the Bible is a reliable source of historical information.
This is a revisionist timeline that does not intersect with many aspect of Scripture and Hebrew History. It is offered here as a means to delineate and call-out the discrepancies rather than to declare them resolved.
1. J. Ashton & D. Down, Unwrapping the Pharaohs. how Egyptian archaeology confirms the Biblical timeline, New Leaf Publishing Group (Master books), 2006. ISBN-13 978-0-89051-468-9 ISBN-10 0-89051-468-2 http://masterbooks.net
2. H. Bible, “Jacob bore 12 sons,” Genesis chapter 29-32, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+29:1-30:43
3. H. Bible—”Keturah’s children sent away to Middle East,” Genesis 25:1-4, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+25:1-25:4
4. H. Bible—”Abrahams children to be reckoned through Issac,” Genesis 21:12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+21:12
5. H. Bible—”Ishmael sent away – Issac the child of promise,” Genesis 21:8-13, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+21:8-21:13
6. H. Bible—”Issac born to Sarai,” Genesis Chapter 21, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+21:1-21:7
7. H. Bible—”Ishmael born to Hagar,” Genesis Chapter 16, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+16:1-16:16
8. H. Bible—”God’s covenant with Abraham,” Genesis Chapters 15 & 17, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+15:1-15:21;Genesis+17:1-17:27
9. H. Bible—”Call of Abraham,” Genesis Chapter 12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+12:1-12:9
10. H. Bible—”Terah sets out from Ur,” Genesis 11:27-32, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+11:27-11:32
11. H. Bible—”The Dispersion after Babel,” Genesis Chapter 11, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+11:1-11:9
12. H. Bible—”The Flood,” Genesis Chapter 6, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+6:1-9:29
13. H. Bible—”The Biblical account of Jospeh,” Genesis chapter 37-50, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+37:1-50:26
14. H. Bible—”Jacob renamed Israel,” Genesis 32:22-32, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+32:22-32:32
15. H. Bible—”Jacob favours Joseph,” Genesis chapter 37, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+37:1-37:36
16. H. Bible—”Joseph sold into slavery and taken to Egypt,” Genesis 37:12-36, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+37:12-37:36
17. H. Bible—”Joseph falsely accused and imprisoned in Egypt,” Genesis 39:1-23, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+39:1-39:23
18. H. Bible—”Joseph able to interpret dreams,” Genesis 40:1-23, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+40:1-40:23
19. H. Bible—”Joseph recognised by Pharaoh,” Genesis 41:1-40, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+41:1-41:40
20. H. Bible —”The exodus,” Exodus 12:31-42, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+12:31-12:42
21. H. Bible—”Joseph reassures his brothers afer Jacob’s death,” Genesis 50:15-21, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+50:15-50:21
22. H. Bible—”Jacob dies,” Genesis 49:29 -50:14, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+49:29-50:14
23. H. Bible—”Jacob blesses his sons,” Genesis chapter 49, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+49:1-49:28
24. H. Bible—”Jacob blesses Joseph’s children,” Genesis chapter 48, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+48:1-48:22
25. H. Bible—”Pharaoh gives Jacob the land of goshen,” Genesis Chapter 45, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+45:1-45:28
26. H. Bible—”Joseph’s brothers go to Egypt to buy grain,” Genesis Chapters 42-44, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+42:1-44:34
27. H. Bible—”Death of Joseph,” Genesis 50:22-26, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+50:22-50:26
28. H. Bible—”Jacob moves to Egypt and settles in Rameses,” Genesis Chapter 46:1-47:12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+46:1-47:12
29. H. Bible—”Joseph buys up all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh,” Genesis 47:18-22, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+47:18-47:22
30. H. Bible—”Joseph saves Egypt by selling grain,” Genesis 47:13-17, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+47:13-47:17
31. H. Bible—”Joseph has two sons; Ephraim and Mannaseh,” Genesis 41:50-52, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+41:50-41:52
32. H. Bible—”Joseph stores up huge quantities of grain in Egyptian cities,” Genesis 41:47-49, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+41:47-41:49
33. H. Bible—”Pharaoh puts Joseph in charge of all Egypt,” Genesis chapter 41:41-46, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+41:41-41:46
34. H. Bible—”The Queen of Sheba visits Solomon,” 1Chron 9:1-12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=2Chron+9:1-12
35. H. Bible—”The Queen of Sheba visits Solomon,” 1Kings 10:1-13, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=1Kings+10:1-10:13
36. H. Bible—”Saul destroys the Amalekites,” 1Samuel 15:2-9, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=1Sam+15:2-15:9
37. H. Bible-"Moses flees to Midian and Pharaoh eventually dies" Exodus 2:11-25 http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Exodus+2:11-2:25
38. H. Bible, “The Israelites oppressed,” Exodus 1:1-22, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Exodus+1:1-1:22
39. H. Bible—”Pharaoh makes Israelites find own straw to make mud bricks,” Exodus 5:1-21, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Exodus+5:1-5:21
40. "The Wall Chart of World History - From earliest times to the present" 1998 Bracken Books ISBN 1-86256-306-3
- H. Bible, "Pharaoh puts Joseph in charge of all Egypt," Genesis chapter 41:41-46, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+41:41-41:46
- H. Bible "Joseph stores up huge quantities of grain in Egyptian cities," Genesis 41:47-49, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+41:47-41:49
- H. Bible"Joseph saves Egypt by selling grain," Genesis 47:13-17, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+47:13-47:17
- NationMaster.com, "Statemaster - Encyclopedia: Imhotep," , statemaster.com, 2009. http://www.statemaster.com/encyclopedia/Imhotep
- M. Wyatt, "Joseph in ancient Egyptian history," , 1994. http://web.archive.org/20080205234047/www.geocities.com/biblerevelations_org/ronwyatt/josephin.htm
- M. Millmore, "The Step Pyramid at Saqqara," , http://www.eyelid.co.uk, 2008. http://www.eyelid.co.uk/pyramid1.htm
- N. G. Society, "The Step Pyramid of Djoser. Egypt's first pyramid.," , http://www.nationalgeographic.com/pyramids, 2009. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/pyramids/djoser.html
- A. Kolom, "Is Biblical Joseph the Imhotep of Egypt (famine-savior)? (Extra-biblical proof!)," , 2009.
- E. Sweeney, "Were Joseph and Imhotep of Egypt the same man?," THE GENESIS OF ISRAEL AND EGYPT, B. E. Sweeny (Editor), http://s8int.com/joseph.html, 2001.
- B. Rhodes, "Was Imhotep and Joseph the same person?" , http://the-red-thread.net/joseph-imhotep.html, 2009.
- H. Bible, "Joseph buys up all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh," Genesis 47:18-22, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+47:18-47:22
- D. Fry, "Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt - Time calibrators," Hebrew Sages of Ancient Egypt II, http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew1.html 2004.
- J. Reilly, "Displaced Dynasties," Dysplaced Dynasties, http://www.kent.net/DisplacedDynasties/, 2009.
- G. Byers, "Israel in Egypt," , http://www.biblearchaeology.org, 2008. http://www.biblearchaeology.org/post/2008/09/Israel-in-Egypt.aspx
- E. Sweeney, The Genesis of Israel and Egypt (Ages in alignment), Vol. 1, Algora Pub, 2008. ISBN 0-87586-624-7 http://www.algora.com/238/book/details.html http://books.google.com.au/books?id=-3p5cfv6T_MC&printsec=frontcover#PPP1,M1
- D. Fry, "Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt Egypt’s first dynasty," , http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew3.html, 2009.
- J. Reilly, "The Exodus and beyond chapter 3: Joseph & Moses," The Exodus and Beyond, http://www.kent.net/DisplacedDynasties/Exodus%20Chapter%203.htm, 2009.
- D. Ashton. J & Down, D Unwrapping the Pharaohs. How Egyptian archaeology confirms the Biblical timeline, New Leaf Publishing Group (Master books), 2006. ISBN 978-0-89051-468-9 ISBN 0-89051-468-2 http://masterbooks.net
- E. Sweeney, The pyramid age, Ages in alignment series, Algora Publishing, 2007.
- D. Fry, "Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt - needed changes in modern records," , http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew10.html, 2009.
- E. Sweeney, The Genesis of Israel and egypt, Janus Publishing Company Limited, 1997. ISBN 978-1857563504
- J. Reilly, "The Exodus and beyond chapter 1: The Berlin chronology of the second millennium bc - limitations of the Berlin chronology," The Exodus and Beyond, http://www.kent.net/DisplacedDynasties/Chapter1.htm, 2009.
- R. Wyatt, "Joseph was imhotep of egypt," , Wyatt Archaelogical Research, 1994. http://www.arkdiscovery.com/joseph.htm
- H. Bible, "The Flood," Genesis Chapter 6, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+6:1-9:29
- H. Bible"The Dispersion after Babel," Genesis Chapter 11, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+11:1-11:9
- H. Bible"Terah sets out from Ur," Genesis 11:27-32, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+11:27-11:32
- H. Bible"Call of Abraham," Genesis Chapter 12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+12:1-12:9
- H. Bible"God's covenant with Abraham," Genesis Chapters 15 & 17, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+15:1-15:21;Genesis+17:1-17:27
- H. Bible"Ishmael born to Hagar," Genesis Chapter 16, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+16:1-16:16
- H. Bible"Issac born to Sarai," Genesis Chapter 21, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+21:1-21:7
- H. Bible"Ishmael sent away - Issac the child of promise," Genesis 21:8-13, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+21:8-21:13
- H. Bible"Keturah's children sent away to Middle East," Genesis 25:1-4, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+25:1-25:4
- H. Bible"Jacob bore 12 sons," Genesis chapter 29-32, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+29:1-30:43
- H. Bible"Jacob renamed Israel," Genesis 32:22-32, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+32:22-32:32
- H. Bible"Abrahams children to be reckoned through Issac," Genesis 21:12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+21:12
- H. Bible"Jacob favours Joseph," Genesis chapter 37, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+37:1-37:36
- H. Bible"The Biblical account of Jospeh," Genesis chapter 37-50, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+37:1-50:26
- H. Bible"Joseph has two sons; Ephraim and Mannaseh," Genesis 41:50-52, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+41:50-41:52
- H. Bible"Joseph's brothers go to Egypt to buy grain," Genesis Chapters 42-44, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+42:1-44:34
- H. Bible"Jacob moves to Egypt and settles in Rameses," Genesis Chapter 46:1-47:12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+46:1-47:12
- H. Bible"Pharaoh gives Jacob the land of Goshen," Genesis Chapter 45, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+45:1-45:28
- H. Bible"Jacob dies," Genesis 49:29 -50:14, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+49:29-50:14
- H. Bible"Jacob blesses Joseph's children," Genesis chapter 48, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+48:1-48:22
- H. Bible"Jacob blesses his sons," Genesis chapter 49, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+49:1-49:28
- H. Bible"Joseph reassures his brothers afer Jacob's death," Genesis 50:15-21, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+50:15-50:21
- H. Bible"Death of Joseph," Genesis 50:22-26, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+50:22-50:26
- H. Bible"The Exodus," Exodus 12:31-42, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+12:31-12:42
- E. Sweeney Empire of Thebes or ages In chaos revisited (ages in alignment), Algora Publishing, 2006.
- I. Velikovski, Worlds in collision, London and New York, 1950.
- I. Velikovski-Ages in chaos, London and New York, 1953.
- I. Velikovski-Earth in upheaval, 1956.
- D. Fry, "Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt II," , http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew1.html, 2009.
- D. Fry---"Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt II The birth of Egypt," Hebrew Sages of Ancient Egypt II, http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew2.html, 2004.
- D. Fry---"Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt - Joseph found in Egyptian records," , http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew4.html, 2004.
- D. Fry---"Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt The Pyramid age Joseph’s inspiration," , http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew5.html, 2009.
- D. Fry---"Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt The Great Pyramid," , http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew6.html, 2009.
- D. Fry---"Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt - Egypts weather changes," Hebrew Sages of Ancient Egypt, http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew7.html, 2009.
- D. Fry---"Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt - Moses found in Egyptian records," , http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew8.html, 2009.
- D. Fry---"Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt -the Exodus disaster in Egyptian records. The search.," , http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew9.html, 2009.
- J. Reilly---"The Exodus and beyond chapter 2: The Patriarchal age," The Exodus and Beyond, http://www.kent.net/DisplacedDynasties, 2009.
- H. Bible, "Saul destroys the Amalekites," 1Samuel 15:2-9, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=1Sam+15:2-15:9
- H. Bible, "The Queen of Sheba visits Solomon," 1Kings 10:1-13, .http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=1Kings+10:1-10:13
- H. Bible"The Queen of Sheba visits Solomon," 1Chron 9:1-12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=2Chron+9:1-12
- C. Miclaus, "Imhotep - one of The greatest personalities Of Egypt," , 2007. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/imhotep-one-of-the-greatest-personalities-of-egypt.html
- W. Whiston, The works of Josephus complete and unabridged, New Updated Edition, Hendrikson Publishers, 1987. ISBN 0-913573-86-8 ISBN 1-56563-167-6
- "From the start of the 12th dynasty to the 18th," , 2009. http://www.specialtyinterests.net/joseph.html
- L. Moeller, The case for the Exodus, .
- H. Bible"The Israelites oppressed," Exodus 1:1-22, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Exodus+1:1-1:22
- H. Bible"Pharaoh makes Israelites find own straw to make mud bricks," Exodus 5:1-21, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Exodus+5:1-5:21
- H. Bible, "Moses flees to Midian and Pharaoh eventually dies," Exodus 2:11-25, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Exodus+2:11-2:25
- J. Dunn, "Imhotep, doctor, architect, high priest, scribe and vizier to king Djoser," , http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/imhotep.htm, 1999.
- Britannica, "Imhotep," , http://www.britannica.com, 2009. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/283435/Imhotep
- R. Strachan, "Imhotep," , http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/history/people/imhotep.html, 2005.
- K. Matthews, "Imhotep," , http://www.greatbuildings.com/architects/Imhotep.html, 2008.
- Wikipedia, "Imhotep," , http://en.wikipedia.org, 2009.
- J. Gray, "The Empty sarcophagus of Imhotep in a funery chamber connected to the animal gallery. His tomb was orientated to the North and dates to the third dynasty of Djoser,", http://youtu.be/tIFajJF2WhA?t=38m1s, 2011.
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