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Joseph and Imhotep

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Joseph (son of Jacob) is a key figure in the Old Testament of the Bible , who became a vizier (sage / viceroy) for an Egyptian pharaoh and during this time was responsible for saving ancient Egypt from a seven year famine. Joseph was able to acquire all the land of Egypt (except that of the priests) by selling grain during the famine. In this way, Joseph made the Pharaohs very rich. Joseph was only 30yrs old when he became vizier and 44yrs old when he had saved Egypt and bought up all the land. He lived to the age of 110yrs and was given a royal Egyptian burial. The Bible is silent about what Joseph did for the last 66yrs of his life although the Bible does say that he was able to not only ensure the survival of his family, he was able to protect them as they grew into a great nation numbering over 2 million at the time of the Exodus (which occurred 430 years after Joseph's family entered Egypt).

The identity Joseph in Egyptian history is debated, but some scholars identify him with Imhotep, who was the vizier during the Third Dynasty under Pharaoh Netjerikhet (also called Djoser / Zoser).

Given Joseph's position and achievements, one would expect to find some evidence for his existence in Non-Biblical Egyptian records and archaeological discoveries. (See Evidence for the Israelite Sojourn in Egypt)

Joseph built silos to store grain in key Egyptian cities. Massive underground silos can be found in many cities of Egypt dating back to the third dynasty. [1] [2] [3] It is not unreasonable to suggest that these may have been built by Joseph. In particular, Joseph may have built the silos associated with the first pyramid built in Egypt (The Step Pyramid which is part of the Djoser Pyramid complex at Saqqara, designed by Imhotep). [4] [5] [6] [7] If grain silos were common place before Joseph came along, Joseph's ideas would not have been taken seriously.

The Djoser Pyramid at Saqqara, Egypt. (otherwise known as the 'Step Pyramid' or The 'First Pyramid' )
Large pits can be found within the Step Pyramid complex at Saqqara. The bottom of the pit can be accessed from an adjacent pit that has stairs. It would have been ideal for storing grain and, most likely, it was used for this purpose. It could have been made by the Hebrew vizier Joseph who had many similarities to the vizier Imhotep who designed the Step Pyramid complex. This has caused many historians to propose that Joseph and Imhotep were the same person.
One of three statues of Imhotep in the Louvre. Imhotep and Joseph may be the same person.

There are many similarities between the profile of Joseph and Imhotep. [8] [9] [10] [5] Imhotep is also credited with saving Egypt from a seven year famine after hearing of the Pharaoh's dream. Imhotep, like Joseph, was a commoner with some divine connection and was placed second in charge of Egypt by the King (Netjerikhet). [8] Joseph bought up all the land for Pharaoh by selling the grain he stored during the seven years that preceded the famine [11]; a feat that could only have been performed once, early in Egypt’s history, and it explains how the Pharaohs became so powerful and able to build the pyramids.

Given that Joseph was one of the Patriarchs of Israel, and figures very early in the Biblical record, less than 1000 years after the flood of Noah, it is quite possible that he may have figured in the early parts of Egyptian history, namely the Third Dynasty as the vizier for Pharaoh Djoser. [9][12][13]

Until recently, the most compelling argument against Joseph and Imhotep being the same person, has been the discrepancy between the estimated times during which they lived. [4][14]

Egypt was not always united and sometimes there were different rulers in upper and lower Egypt. Sometimes, a conquering Pharaoh would let regional rulers (Nomarchs) stay on as governors when a new dynasty began (eg 12th dynasty). The division of the kingdom into up to 42 'nomes' (regions or provinces) can be dated back to the Old Kingdom and it continued until the Roman period.

Clearly, there are many problems with the "traditional Egyptian chonology" that assumed the Egyptian dynasties were sequential and did not allow for co-regency and dynasties running in parallel. Evidence is now accumulating to suggest that Egyptian dynasties may overlap and may not date back as far as was once thought. [15][16][17][18]

Egyptian records are not chronological and dates have been calculated from very sketchy notes of third parties who saw the original documents (eg Manetho's records in the Alexandrian Library before they were destroyed in a fire). [12] Other documents such as the Turin King list are very fragmented and incomplete. In many cases, all that is known about some pharaohs are their names and how long they reigned. The pharaohs of dynasties 7-11 (the first intermediate period) were not buried in pyramids as were the pharaohs of the Old Kingdom (dynasty's 3-6) and the Middle Kingdom (dynasty 12). Some pharaohs in this first intermediate period may turn out to be 'Nomarchs' or 'other high ranking officials' and not 'pharaohs' at all! The result of this is that Egyptian history is probably a lot shorter than previously thought and the pyramids were probably constructed much later than many historians have previously estimated. [19]

If David Down is on the right track with his "modern alignment" of the Egyptian dynasties and allowing for a long sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt of 430 years (Exodus 12:40), it is quite likely that Joseph and Imhotep were the same person, particularly if some pharaohs in dynasties 7-11 (the first intermediate period) turn out to be 'high ranking officials' or 'Nomarchs'. [20][21][22][23][18]

Contents

Biblical References to Joseph

References to Joseph can be found in the Book of Genesis in the Holy Bible, the Torah and the Koran. These are the Holy scriptures of the Christian faith, Judaism and Islam respectively. The story of Joseph is told in Genesis Chapters 37-50. Genesis is the first book of the Bible and no Biblical scholars would dispute the historical nature of this part of the Book. Any suggestion that Joseph was a symbolic, mythical or a fictional character would be deeply offensive to these religions.

Biblical Genealogy

Genealogy of Abraham according to the Bible

After the Flood [24] and the dispersion of Babel [25], people spread out over all the Earth. Terah set out from Ur of the Chaldeans with his Son Abraham to go to Canaan but stopped at Haran. [26] This is where Abraham was called by God. God promised to make him into a great nation and to bless all nations through him. [27] God made a covenant with Abraham and promised him the land of Canaan which his descendants would take possession of after serving as slaves in a foreign land (Egypt) for 400 years (4 generations). [28] Abraham was to become the father of many nations centered around the middle east as we know it today. He had Ishmael (Ishmaelites) to Hagar, his wife’s maid servant. [29] Ishmael became the Patriach of the Islamic religion. Then at the age of 100 Abraham had Issac to his wife Sarai. [30] It was to be thru Issac that God would fulfill his promise to Abraham and so Ishmael was sent away. [31] Issac married Rebeka who bore Esau (the Edomites) and Jacob (the Israelites). Abraham had a third wife Keturah who bore many children who were sent to the middle east and became fathers of nations there too. [32] Jacob eventually bore 12 sons and a daughter. The eleventh son was Joseph. Joseph was the first son of Rachael (Jacob’s second wife). [33] Jacob had an encounter with God one night and was renamed Israel. [34] His descendants (the Jews) became the Nation of Israel (from which comes Judaism) out of which came Christ (Christianity) with whom God would fulfill his promise to Abraham.[35]

Biblical History

In the Biblical account, (Genesis 37-50) Joseph was the first born Son of Rachael (Jacob's second wife). Jacob (Israel) favored Joseph over his other children. Joseph had a dream that one day he would rule over his brothers. His brothers became jealous of him and so sold him to slave traders who took him to Egypt. [36] He was subsequently sold to Potiphar in Egypt as a slave and was subsequently wrongfuly imprisoned. It was in prison where he came to the attention of Pharaoh through his cupbearer who informed Pharaoh of Joseph’s ability to interpret dreams by the power of God. Pharaoh needed counsel about his own dreams and was not able to find anybody from his own kingdom to help. Joseph was able to tell Pharaoh the meaning of his dreams which fortold of a coming famine lasting seven years but preceded by seven years of abundance. Pharaoh made Joseph second in charge over his all his kingdom. During the seven years of abundance, Joseph was able to build silos in every city and store enough grain to feed the Nation during the seven years of famine that followed.[37]

It is important to note that by this time, Joseph is not noted as having been particularly influential over Egypt at all. Nor is it noted in Scripture that Joseph possessed any more education than a common shepherd.

Joseph’s achievements in Egypt

When Joseph was 30 yrs old, Pharaoh put him in charge of the whole land of Egypt. Pharaoh gave Joseph his signet ring, dressed him in fine linen and put a gold chain around his neck. He was given a chariot to ride around Egypt as second in command.

The chariot is an important observation, because horse-and-chariot and the compound bow were introduced to Egypt by the Hyksos kings. This reference to chariots is a telltale sign that the Hyksos had already come to power. As Canaanites, they would have found favor with Joseph, a Canaanite.

Joseph’s name was changed to Zapheneth Paneah and he was given a wife Asenath (Daughter of Potiphera, priest of On). [1] During the seven years of abundance, Joseph stored up huge quantities of grain in each city from the fields surrounding them. [2] This timeframe would have been in roughly 1900 BC, followed by some 14 years (7 of plenty, seven of famine), after which his family came to live in Egypt (drawing from Scripture, roughly 1880 BC). He had two sons to Asenath, Mannaseh & Ephraim. [38]

Joseph saved Egypt and Caanan by selling the people grain during the 7 year famine. This is important because Canaan is also a son of Ham, but settled as interlopers in the land of Shem. Egyptians generally would not have had any reason to help the Canaanites. However, because the kings at the time of Joseph were Hyksos, and also Canaanite, it makes sense that they both favored Joseph and his family, and likewise helped the Canaanites.

When the people had run out of money, Joseph bought their livestock. When they had run out of livestock he bought the land titles. [3] Joseph bought up all the land in Egypt for Pharaoh. The priests did not have to sell their land as Pharaoh gave them a supply of food. [11] Joseph’s family were saved. [39] Jacob (Israel) and his eleven other sons along with their wives and servants were invited by Pharaoh to come and live in Egypt. [40] They settled in the land of Rameses and became great in number.

When the 18th Dynasty routed the Hyksos, the book of Exodus opens with the notation that a Pharaoh had come "that knew not Joseph" and likewise had no regard for Joseph's descendants.

The important factor here Joseph's influence. Unlike Daniel who was noted as being a scientist and actually performed the first recorded control experiment (comparing the diets of himself and three friends to the diets of others), Joseph is given no credit whatsoever for any scientific knowledge or achievement. His primary point of fame is in large-scale agrarian logistics. Coming from a family of shepherds, this would have been a core skill.

The Hyksos on the other hand, came to Egypt with the technology of horse-and-chariot, the compound bow and improved battle-axes. They were inherently warriors yet were called "The Shepherd Kings". Having no Egyptian background in shepherding, where would this moniker have arisen? Joseph was the son of a shepherd from a family of shepherds and was placed in charge of Egypt, essentially regarded and revered as a king. Yet he was not a warrior, vizier or possessed any special education or knowledge apart from agrarian logistics. It is believed by some that the moniker of "Shepherd Kings" was earned by Joseph and not by the Hyksos alone.

Is Joseph likely to have figured in Egyptian records?

If Joseph was placed second in charge of Egypt by Pharaoh, there should be some note of this in Egyptian records. [1] If Joseph helped to save Egypt and the surrounding nations from a famine lasting seven years. [2] Joseph would have had to construct massive grain silos for storing grain in many Egyptian cities and indeed, massive silos can be found in many historical significant Egyptian cities today (eg Saqqara). Joseph married the daugher of one of the High Priests in Egypt. [1] He saved his country from a seven year famine and bought up all the land of Egypt except for that of the priests who did not need to sell their land because Pharaoh supplied them with food. The people became loyal subjects of Pharaoh because of what Joseph had done. [3] Joseph was, therefore, responsible for making the Pharaoh's wealthy and powerful. [11] Joseph served the Pharaohs from the age of thirty. [1] He died at the age of 110 years of age and was given a Royal Egyptian burial. [46] It is quite possible that he may have been involved with the design of the first and maybe the second pyramid. His family, the descendants of Jacob (Israel), produced mud bricks and became numerous in number in the 430 years that they lived in Egypt. There were over 600 thousand adult males (not counting women and children) who were lead out of Egypt by Moses during a time of great disaster in Egypt. [47] With a list of accomplishments like this, it would be hard to conceive that Joseph would not be mentioned in Egyptian heiroglyphics or memorialized some other way.

Where does Joseph fit into Egyptian History?

Estimates of dates have long been the common denominator used by archaeologists and historians alike when trying to piece together ancient history.

Various teams of archaeologist have used a number of different dating methods to estimate how old a particular artifact is. For example, the type of pottery that is predominant in a layer can be used to date the layer.

Assumptions behind various dating techniques are not alway right. This can sometimes lead to artifacts being incorrectly dated by as much as 1000 to 2000 years.

If history is pieced together based only upon the estimated dates of particular dynasties, the results can be quite erroneous and it will be little wonder why Egyptian and Hebrew history does not fit together and why no Egyptian equivalent of Joseph has been found using the dates traditionally ascribed to various Egyptian dynasties.

An increasing number of historians are now calling into question the dates of Egyptian dynasties. In particular, Sweeney [15][21][19][48], Velikovski [49][50][51], Fry [52] [12] [53][16][54][55][56][57][58][59][20], Reilly [13][17][60][22] Down [18].

Using their revised dating system, the historical records of Israel and Egypt fit together much better and it is possible to identify likely correlates and contemporaries of important Biblical Characters.

The Pyramid of Amenemhet III at Hawara (the 6th pharaoh of the 12th Dynasty of Egypt). Millions of large mudbricks went into the building Amenemhet III's pyramid. It was originally faced with stone but it is now just a heap of mud bricks. The Bible records that when the Israelites were slaves in Egypt, Pharaoh forced them to make mudbricks reinforced with straw. Straw can still be seen within the bricks in this pyramid.(Exodus 5:6-21)
Mud bricks in the Amenemhet III pyramid at Hawara. The the exterior limestone facing (veneer) has fallen away due to erosion, earthquakes and pilfering over the centuries exposing the inner core of mudbricks. There is very little rain in this part of the world and so the mudbricks are in quite good condition considering their age. This was the last of the great pyramids to be built. When the Jews left Egypt, there were not enough slaves to make pyramids and so the pyramid age ended. (Limestone and top soil were also starting to get scarce)

Conventional wisdom which has been very reliant on dating methods has been unable to find any evidence that the Patriarchs of Israel lived in Egypt and have not found any possible candidates for Joseph because they are looking for evidence of him in the Hyksos dynasty which is estimated to have been around 1700BC according to conventional chronology. As a result, conventional wisdom states that Joseph and other Biblical figures were minor figures in Egypt that were not note worthy enough to have been memorialized in the heiroglyphic records and other monuments that have been uncovered.

Modern thinking using the revised chronology results in much clearer picture with the history Israel and Egypt lining up and matching archaeological records. Abraham is considered to be a contemporary of Menes. Imhotep is considered to be the Joseph of the Bible and Djoser is considered to be the Pharaoh that he served [13][17][21] [15] [52][54].

This would fit with the theory that Amenemhet III was the Pharaoh of Moses who oppressed the Israelites making them make mud bricks [18]. Also of note is that the pyramid of Amenemhet III was made of mud bricks containing straw. [18] Amenemhet III was the 6th Pharaoh of the 12th dynasty and lived 450 to 500 years after Pharaoh Djoser in the 3rd dynasty. [18] He had only daughters. One of his daughters Sobekneferu had an adopted son (Amenemhet IV) who disappeared before he could become King. It has been suggested that Amenemhet IV was Moses. [18]

The Exodus took place during the Reign of Neferhotep I during the 13th dynasty in 1445BC. [18] The Hyksos took over lower Egypt shortly after this with little resistance. The Hyksos reigned in Lower Egypt for around 400years. This coincides with the period of the Judges in the Promised Land. The Hyksos were finally defeated by Ahmoses who founded the 18th dynasty which was the beginning of the New Kingdom of Egypt.

The Hyksos (15th & 16th dynasties) which were contemporary with Joshua and the Judges, came to an end when King Saul destroyed the Amalekites (Hyksos) [18] after they were forced to leave Egypt by Ahmose I who started the 18th dynasty (New Kingdom of Egypt). [61]

Dynasty 17 was contemporary with dynasty 16.[18]

The 18th dynasty was contemporary with the United Kingdom of Israel when Saul, David and Solomon were on the throne.

Amenhotep I and Thutmosis I of the 18th dynasty were contemporaries of David. [18] Hatshepsut was the Queen of Sheba who visited Solomon. [62] [63] Thutmosis III came to power during the reign of Jereboam and became the greatest Pharaoh of Egypt. [18]


'Modern' Chronology (Ashton & Down 2006) [18]

Date Egypt Contemporary in Israel
2080BC Menes (First Dynasty) Abraham
1900BC Djoser (Third Dynasty) + Imhotep Joseph **
1531BC Amenemhet III (6th Pharaoh 12th Dynasty) Moses
1445BC Neferhotep I (13th Dynasty) The Exodus (Moses)
1405 -1021BC Hyksos (15th & 16th Dynasty) Joshua to Saul
1018BC Amenhotep I & Thutmosis I (18th Dynasty) King David
950BC Hatshepsut (18th Dynasty) [Queen of Sheba] Solomon
929BC Thutmosis III (18th Dynasty) Jereboam

** Based on a 430yr long Sojourn of Israel in Egypt (Exodus 12:40)


A schematic diagram illustrating the relationship between the Egyptian Kingdoms and dynasties and the various phases of Israel as the Israelites grew to be a nation while they were in Egypt and then traveled to the promised land where they were ruled initially by Judges and later by Kings. The nation of Israel became divided into North (Israel) and South (Judah) after Solomon. There was no first intermediate period. [History aligned with the Bible.]

Why is it so hard to piece together Egyptian records?

The Egyptians suffered great losses at the time of the Exodus and may not have wanted to remember what Joseph and his family had achieved during their 400 year stay in Egypt. This may be one reason why it is very difficult to find historical information about the exploits of the Israelites in Egypt.

This may also been the reason that the second pyramid designed by Imhotep was not completed.

Another reason why it is difficult to find historical information is because much of it was lost or destroyed by various seiges, conquests, natural distasters and even erosion over the centuries.

Egyptian records are written as qlyphs (pictures) in stone. They have a number of limitations - you need to know 'the code' ie what they mean. Pronunciation is not indicated as with Greek and English and there is no time stamp. The art of interpreting them (heiroglyphics)has been somewhat lost.

Who was Imhotep?

Statuette of Imhotep in the Louvre


Imhotep was a most interesting figure in the Egyptian culture, his name means "the one who comes in peace". He served Djoser, the third dynasty king, he was the vizier to the pharaoh and they say that he was the high priest to the sun god Ra. [64] Imhotep is attributed with being the first person in history to be an acting physician, he was also the first architect, he was a poet and also a philosopher. After his death he was given the status of a deity, he was only one of a very few commoners to ever be given that kind of an honor. [64] He is thought to be the architect of the first Pyramid; the step pyramid at Saqqara.[64] He is also credited with the use of columns in architecture. [64] He is known as the founder of Egyptian medicine, and he is famous for not incorporating magic into his medical treatments, he diagnosed and treated over two hundred diseases, he extracted medicine from plants and he is also known to have performed operations and dentist work. He knew the circulation of the blood system and he knew where each vital organ was placed and what its uses were. [64]

He became the god of medicine and healing, when the Greeks invaded Egypt they worshiped him and built him temples because they saw in him their own god of healing named Asclepius. [64]

Imhotep was also the first person known to use the papyrus scroll. He may have actually invented it! [64]

Among other things Imhotep is also attributed to the prediction and prevention of a seven year famine that came upon the land, he predicted the famine from a dream the pharaoh Djoser had, in this dream the god of the Nile spoke to the pharaoh, and Imhotep was the only one that could interpret the dream. [64]

Similarities between Joseph and Imhotep

Imhotep - Egyptian records Joseph - Bible
Imhotep is appointed Administrator by Pharaoh Djoser during the periods of seven years famine and seven years of bountiful harvests [8] Joseph is appointed Administrator to Pharaoh for the seven years of plenty then of famine
Minister to the King of Lower Egypt [8] Pharaoh .. made him ruler over all the land of Egypt
Administrator of the Great Palace [8] Thou shalt be over my house
Not of royal blood; attained position by ability [8] From another nation and religion, not of royal blood, attained position by ability
Not appointed by Pharaoh Djoser until he had reigned for some time [8] Appointed well after Pharaoh ruled Egypt
Given the status of "son" to Pharaoh [8] Granted the status of "son" to Pharaoh
High Priest in Heliopolis [8] Married to Asenath, daughter of Poti-Pherah, High Priest in Heliopolis - by custom, would succeed father-in-law
Builder and architect [8] Builder of grain storehouses such as at Sakkara step-pyramid
Exalted by Pharaoh Djoser as of godly character [8] And Pharaoh said, 'a man in whom the spirit of God is!'
"I need advice from God" [8] Noted as saying, "It is not in me; God shall give Pharaoh an answer"
Had great medical skill - was compared to the Greek God of Healing [8] Had doctors under his authority - worked by miracles, dreams and signs from God
Decided the tax rate during the seven years of famine; also not to apply to priests [8] Decided the tax rate during the seven years of famine; also not to apply to priests
Realizes when he is dying - dies at age 110 [8] Realizes when he is dying - dies at age 110

Could Imhotep and Joseph be one and the same person?

The Famine Stele ("Hungry Rock") is an inscription located on Sehel Island in Egypt, which speaks of a seven year period of drought and famine.

The Roman-Jewish historian, Josephus, quotes the writings of Manetho, Egyptian historian: "During [the] reign of .. Pharaoh Djoser, 3rd Egyptian dynasty, lived Imhotep .. [with a] reputation among Egyptians like the Greek God of medicine - [Manetho even wondered] whether Imhotep could have been an actual person .. [because he had] "so many outstanding qualities and talents .. a very special person [who] appears in the history of Egypt." On the foundations of the Step Pyramid in Sakkara was carved the name of Pharaoh Djoser and ".. Imhotep, Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, Chief under the King, Administrator of the Great Palace, Hereditary Lord, High Priest of Heliopolis, Imhotep the Builder..".[8] [65] Joseph arrived in Egypt as a young man and married Asenath, the daughter of Potipherah, the priest of On. [1] This information precludes the theory that Joseph lived during Hyksos rule in Egypt. On or An was the ancient capital of Heliopolis (As-t Tem). Some claim that Egyptians also believed in One Great God who was never represented in their art work. Only his attributes, functions as Creator, Teacher and Healer were known as the neter or neteru. The symbolism surrounding Egyptian deities then is different from this One Great God, in whose image man was made, in that it scales our world and the universe to our dimensions so man can grasp it. The Egyptian name for this `One Great God' is neter, probably an echo or more distant memory of the biblical Creator God of Abraham, Issac and Jacob. [66]

Both Imhotep and Joseph imposed a 20% (one fifth) tax on the people with the exemption of the priests. [54]

Moeller refers to an inscription on the island of Sihiel, near the first cataract of the Nile, which actually links Imhotep to the key biblical element of the Joseph story - telling of Pharaoh Djoser in the 18th year of his reign. The inscription states "seven meagre years and seven rich years". Commenting on the inscription, Moeller writes, "Pharaoh Djoser asks Imhotep to help him with the coming seven years of famine. All the biblical components of the story are there, and there is a similar inscription on the island of Philae in the Nile." (This is exactly as in the Bible with Joseph, except for listing the "meagre" years before the years of plenty. Note: The famine years were, of course, the event of significance, saving everyone from starvation and bringing in much wealth to Egypt - it is noted that the manuscript was written a thousand years after the occurrences.) [67] [8]

Pharaoh renamed Joseph 'Zapeneth Peneah' [1] which means "master of the school of learning" [66] or "Man to whom secrets are revealed" [54].

It is also interesting to note that circumcision was widely practiced among Egyptians from the third dynasty onward. Although Abraham did visit Egypt, it seems more likely that this practice was introduced by Joseph-Imhotep in the third dynasty. [54]

Egyptian records show that before Imhotep, the bodies of Egyptian royalty were not embalmed. Instead, they were entombed in early Egyptian structures called mastabas, (or mastabahs), oblong structures with flat roofs and sloping sides built over the opening of a mummy chamber or burial pit . [54] Djoser appears to be the first king to have be embalmed, [54] Jacob (Israel) was embalmed by Joseph and buried in a coffin and Joesph himself was embalmed and given a royal Egyptian burial. [46] [42] The Biblical account suggests that only Joseph's bones were preserved as was the practice in the early dynasties of the Old Kingdom. Preservation of the whole body was not practiced until the Era of King Tut (New Kingdom). [54] Extremely noteworthy regarding Imhotep-Joseph is that the mummified bodies of neither have ever been found. The known facts regarding the burials of Imhotep and Joseph also strongly support the thesis that they were the same person: [8] Both died at age 110. [8] [46] Imhotep's coffin in Sakkara - with innumeral Ibis birds mummified in the adjoining galleries (Imhotep was called "Ibis" because of his reputation for healing - a large number of Ibis birds were sacrificed to him at his funeral in Sakkara); many clay vessels bearing the seal of Pharaoh Djoser were near the coffin; and the coffin is oriented to the North, not East, and is empty.[8][76] Joseph would have been buried at Sakkara, [his coffin orientated to the North] - indicating he did not believe in the gods of the Egyptians (who were buried facing East, the rising sun); the coffin would also be empty as Joseph's bones would have been taken by Moses with the Hebrews during the Exodus.[8] [46]

Could Pharaoh Djoser (King Netjerikhet) be the Pharaoh of Joseph?

Pharaoh Djoser - Sakkara

Main article: Pharaoh Djoser (Netjerikhet) was the Pharaoh of Joseph

The 'correct alignment' of Israel's and Egypt's history will allow contemporary fragments of information to be linked together to build up a clear picture of ancient history. Combining the records of Egypt, Israel and Mesopotamia will help to fill in the gaps in each nations' record. Evidence is now accumulating to suggest that Egyptian dynasties may overlap and may not date back as far as was once thought. [15] [16][17] [18] [66]

Dynasty 2 is considered contemporary with dynasty 3. [18] There was no first intermediate period. The dark ages of the first intermediate period have been confused with the dark ages of the second intermediate period. [18]

Dynasties 7-10 have been identified with 15-16 and Dynasty 17 was contemporary with dynasty 16. [18]

Egyptian history, therefore, does not date back as far as was once thought (3000BC - 5000BC) as per the Conventional Chronology.[18][50][51][49][21][13][17][52][12][53][16][54][66]

The first Egyptian dynasty is now considered to have started around 2100BC and the Great Flood is considered to have been around 2300-2400BC. [18]

The Exodus occured just after the end of the 12th dynasty in 1445BC. [66] [18]

Any Egyptian dates before the 12th dynasty are considered quite speculative and are only approximations [18]

This 'Modern Alignment' of the Dynasties fits the Biblical account and also the records of Mesopotamia.

The 'Modern Alignment' of the Dynasties provides the answers to the major objection to Joseph and Imhotep being the same person (namely the mismatching dates) and by the same token makes it highly likely that Pharaoh Djoser was the Pharaoh of Joseph.

While Sweeney points out that Abraham was a contemporary of Menes who were patriarchs of their respective civilizations some time after a catestrophic destruction [21], he has probably over corrected the dates which are far too short even for Biblical events.

If it is agreed that Joseph was Imhotep and he served Pharaoh Djoser (Zozer) of the Third dynasty, it does not follow that the identity of Moses and the Pharaoh's he was contemporary with will be agreed as there is not universal agreement about which dynasties to identify and which dynasties ran in parallel. [58] [66] [19] [18] [17]


'Conventional' Chronology [21]

Date Egypt Israel
3000BC Menes (First Dynasty displays strong mesopotamian influence)

Djoser and Imhotep (Famine crisis solved when imhotep interprets Djoser's dream)

2000BC First Intermediate Period (Age of disturbance in nature and general lawlessness)

Abraham (migrates from mesopotamia and introduces some of the basic civilization to Egypt)

Joseph (Famine crisis in Egypt solved when Joseph interprets Pharaoh's dream)

1000BC Moses leads the Israelites to freedom amidst violent upheavals of nature


'Revised' Chronology (Sweeney 1997) [21]

Date Egypt Israel Mesopotamia
1300+BC Early Badarian 'Ubaid
1300BC Catestrophic Destruction Catestrophic Destruction Catestrophic Destruction
1200BC Late Bedarian and Gerzean Khirbet Kerak Jamdat Nasr (Early Literacy)
1100-1000BC Destruction episode Destruction episode Destruction episode
1000BC Menes (Early Dynastic Age) Abraham (Early Dynastic Age)
900BC Djoser and Imhotep Joseph
800BC Destruction episode Destruction episode Destruction episode
800BC Pyramid Age Age of the Judges Akkadian Age
700BC Hyksos epoch Saul Sargon I
Ebc.gif

'Modern' Chronology (Ashton & Down 2006) [18]

Date Egypt Contemporary in Israel
2080BC Menes (First Dynasty) Abraham
1900BC Djoser (Third Dynasty) + Imhotep Joseph **
1531BC Amenemhet III (6th Pharaoh 12th Dynasty) Moses
1445BC Neferhotep I (13th Dynasty) The Exodus (Moses)
1405 -1021BC Hyksos (15th & 16th Dynasty) Joshua to Saul
1018BC Amenhotep I & Thutmosis I (18th Dynasty) King David
950BC Hatshepsut (18th Dynasty) [Queen of Sheba] Solomon
929BC Thutmosis III (18th Dynasty) Jereboam


** Based on a 430yr long Sojourn of Israel in Egypt (Exodus 12:40)


Timeline from Noah to Christ with important landmarks in the Biblical Chronology (long sojourn) aligned with the Revised Egyptian Chronology of David Down. [History aligned with the Bible.]

What implications does this have for Egyptian History?

Main article: Evidence for the Israelites in ancient Egypt

Correlation of Egyptian Dynasties with the Bible: The Israelites lived in Egypt 430 years from 1875bc to 1445BC. They became slaves in the 12th dynasty long after the death of Joseph (Imhotep). They were lead out of Egypt in 1445 BC by Moses in the 13th dynasty (Neferhotep). The loss of the Egyptian army in the Red Sea allowed the Hyksos (Amelekites) to invade Egypt where they ruled for hundreds of years. Jacob and his family numbering around 70 came to Egypt about 10 yrs after Joseph became visier to Djoser of the 3rd dynasty 1875BC. When the Israelites left Egypt, they numbered around 2 million. Mizraim and Menes were the same person (Manetho)

If the 'modern alignment' of the Egyptian Dynasties is correct, Joseph can be identified with Imhotep who was a preist, physician, sage and visier to the king, the second in charge of the land of Egypt and the architect of the first pyramid and the grain silos that are found in many cities of Egypt. Joseph was born three generations after Abraham (the Patriarch of Israel and many other nations around the Middle East). Djoser was the second Pharaoh of the 3rd dynasty of Egypt and came about three or four generations after Menes who was the Pharaoh of the 1st dynasty of Egypt and a contemporary of Abraham.[18][21][15] The Israelites stayed in Egypt 430 years. This takes us to the 13th dynasty which is when the Exodus occurred. [18] It is unlikely that Joseph was some inconspicuous person in the 18th dynasty or lived during the time of the Hyksos as is commonly held by people who adhere to the 'conventional alignment' of Egyptian dynasties. The Hyksos dynasties (14th & 15th dynasties) started after the Exodus, Spanned the period of the Judges and was finally ended by Saul when he defeated the Amelekites.[18][61] As King Netjeriket of the third Egyptian dynasty was also known by the name 'Pharaoh Djoser', it is possible that this name means 'Pharaoh of Joseph'. What's more, if the 'modern alignment' is correct, the Hebrew influence of Egyptian culture will be re-established. The first pyramid would have been designed by a Hebrew. The Hebrew God should, therefore, be credited for saving Egypt from a seven year famine and giving the Pharaoh's their power, wealth and the means to build the other pyramids. The designer of the first pyramid will, once again, be seen to be a servant of the God of Abraham, Issac and Jacob, even though the pyramids later became objects of pagan worship and Imhotep was deified long after his death by the Greeks. When the Israelites left Egypt, Joseph's association with the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob was forgotten and the pyramids became symbols of pagan gods. With the aid of hind sight it can be seen how the designer of the first pyramid, the savior of the Egyptian people and the man responsible for the Pharaoh's power, known as Imhotep, would become a god in his own right some 1400 years after his death once his connection with the God of Abraham, Issac and Jacob had been lost and forgotten. The first pyramids, which were made of cut limestone, were built by the Egyptian people who had sold their land to Pharaoh and become his subjects. After Joseph's death, the Israelites were given the lowly task of making mud bricks. [68][69] The core of the Pyramid of Amenemhet III is made of mud bricks containing straw. [18] Amenemhet III was the 6th Pharaoh of the 12th Egyptian dynasty which preceeded the Exodus in 1445BC. [18] Moses was forced to flee Egypt and go to Midian after killing an Israelite official. During that period, the Pharaoh died. [70] When he returned to Egypt, there was a new Pharaoh in power (Neferhotep I of the 13th Dynasty). [18] Neferhotep I was the Pharaoh of the Exodus. [18] Joseph protected the the Israelites and allowed them to multiply in numbers so that they could fulfill what God had planned; namely to return to the land of Canaan and to take possession of it after spending 430 years in Egypt and 40 years in the Wilderness. [28] In so doing, Joseph saved his family and protected the Israelites as they grew to be a nation in Egypt.[45] (This is in addition to saving Egypt and surrounding nations, making egypt and the pharaohs wealthy.)[3][11]

What are the implications for Israel and Christianity?

If Joseph was Imhotep, then the Bible is vindicated by Egyptian history.

Archaeological evidence that the Patriarchs of Israel lived in Egypt will be indisputable.

Archaeological evidence for Israel in Arabia / Midian (Jabel el Lawz) in combination with the above will also corroborate the Biblical account of the Exodus.

Christians and Jews alike will have the evidence that they require to defend their faith.

People who think that the Bible, the Torah and the Koran have no foundation in reality will have to reconsider their beliefs.

The Christian faith, however, should not and does not depend on archaeological or historical confirmation.

What are the Implications for Literature, Medicine, and Architecture

If Joseph was Imhotep, this would make Joseph the father of medicine, the first architect to build with stone and use columns and the inventor of the papyrice and the first to use it (to write medical and non-medical literary works). [71] [72] [73] [74] [6] [75]

This of course is unsupportable. At no time are we led to believe that Joseph had any more than a shepherd's education, and his work to save Egypt was firmly centered in agrarian logistics, not science.

It also blurs the truth that the Egyptians had early access to extraordinary architecture, astronomy, chemistry and medicine and leveraged these things to build a mighty nation. Their patriarch Ham was in a far better position to initiate and sustain this.

Conclusions: Joseph and Imhotep may well be the same person

The largest statue of Imhotep in the Louvre
The rear of the large statue of Imhotep in the Louvre

Egyptian records are far from complete. They are not chronological and the exact way that fragments fit together is by no means certain.

Nevertheless, there is such a strong match between the profile of Joseph and Imhotep that many historians, theologians and archaeologists have suggested that they are one in the same person.

The single most compelling evidence against this, however, has been the considerable discrepancy between the estimated dates of their existance by as much as 1000 years!

In recent times, however, new ideas have resulted in pieces of ancient history being put together in a way that not only makes more sense but matches historical and archaeological records of the surrounding nations including the 'Bible'. Authors such as Down, Velikovski, Fry, Reily & Sweeney have suggested that Egyptian history has been stretched out and over dated by as much as 2000 years! This may turn out to be an over correction but in any case, the problems with the discrepant chronologies have been sufficiently accounted for by the 'Modern' Chronology / Alignment of Dynasties [18] making it quite possible, (in fact quite probable) that Joseph and Imhotep were the same person!

Summary

Joseph was the 11th son of Jacob, the Patriarch of Israel.

His brothers sold Him into slavery and he was taken to Egypt.

He came to the attention of Pharaoh because of his ability to interpret dreams.

Pharaoh put Joseph in charge of all of Egypt.

Joseph was 30 years old when he became the sage or visier to Pharaoh.

Joseph lead Egypt through a seven year famine.

The Pharaohs became wealthy and powerful because of Joseph.

Joseph bought up all the land of Egypt (except for that of the priest's) and reduced the Egyptian people to servitude.

He married the daughter of the High Priest in Heliopolis (Capital city 'On').

Joseph was the father of two tribes of Israel (Ephraim and Manasseh).

He received a double portion from Jacob for saving his family from a famine and allowing the Israelites to multiply to become a Nation in Egypt.

Joseph served the Pharaoh's for 80 years and died at the age of 110. He was given a royal Egyptian Burial.

Joseph would have been 44 years old (30+7+7) when the famine finished. What did he do for the next 66 years of his life?

The Bible is faily silent about this part of his life.

Egyptian history records a visier to Pharaoh Djoser of the third dynasty by the name of Imhotep who saved Egypt from a seven year famine and made Egypt very wealthy and died at the age of 110. In the latter part of his life, he is reputed with many achievements including building the first pyramid (The Step Pyramid in Saqqara), developing methods of embalming the Pharaoh's (hence the name "Son of Ptah"), performing operations, designing the first buildings with columns and was the first to use to use the papyrus (he wrote over 200 literary works).

Imhotep was also known as the High Priest of Heliopolis.

A quick search of the internet will reveal that historians have long recognised the resemblence of Joseph and Imhotep.

It has been difficult to be certain that they were the same person, however, because of considerable discrepancy in the estimated dates of their existance.

As the duration of Egyptian History continues to be revised down, the likelihood that Imhotep was the Joseph of the Bible increases.

In the last 50 years, a number of problems with the conventional alignment of the Egyptian dynasties has been discovered. Some dynasties ran in parallel (as Egypt was divided into Upper and Lower Egypt at various points in it's history) and some dynasties have been counted twice. What's more, many of the Pharaohs of Egypt were co-regent with one another during a particular dynasty. In other words, some pharaohs had overlapping reigns. (This could have been a way of training a successor) Consequently, an Alternative View of Egyptian History has been proposed.

This article focuses on the person of Joseph in the Bible and whether or not he was Imhotep of Ancient Egyptian History.

This article shows that Egyptian history and archaelogy are consistent with the Bible and that the Bible is a reliable source of historical information.

Timeline

An approximate timeline showing a long Israelite Sojourn of 430 years and it's relationship to the dynasties of Egypt.

Suggested Reading

1. J. Ashton & D. Down, Unwrapping the Pharaohs. how Egyptian archaeology confirms the Biblical timeline, New Leaf Publishing Group (Master books), 2006. ISBN-13 978-0-89051-468-9 ISBN-10 0-89051-468-2 http://masterbooks.net

2. H. Bible, “Jacob bore 12 sons,” Genesis chapter 29-32, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+29:1-30:43

3. H. Bible—”Keturah’s children sent away to Middle East,” Genesis 25:1-4, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+25:1-25:4

4. H. Bible—”Abrahams children to be reckoned through Issac,” Genesis 21:12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+21:12

5. H. Bible—”Ishmael sent away – Issac the child of promise,” Genesis 21:8-13, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+21:8-21:13

6. H. Bible—”Issac born to Sarai,” Genesis Chapter 21, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+21:1-21:7

7. H. Bible—”Ishmael born to Hagar,” Genesis Chapter 16, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+16:1-16:16

8. H. Bible—”God’s covenant with Abraham,” Genesis Chapters 15 & 17, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+15:1-15:21;Genesis+17:1-17:27

9. H. Bible—”Call of Abraham,” Genesis Chapter 12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+12:1-12:9

10. H. Bible—”Terah sets out from Ur,” Genesis 11:27-32, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+11:27-11:32

11. H. Bible—”The Dispersion after Babel,” Genesis Chapter 11, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+11:1-11:9

12. H. Bible—”The Flood,” Genesis Chapter 6, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+6:1-9:29

13. H. Bible—”The Biblical account of Jospeh,” Genesis chapter 37-50, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+37:1-50:26

14. H. Bible—”Jacob renamed Israel,” Genesis 32:22-32, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+32:22-32:32

15. H. Bible—”Jacob favours Joseph,” Genesis chapter 37, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+37:1-37:36

16. H. Bible—”Joseph sold into slavery and taken to Egypt,” Genesis 37:12-36, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+37:12-37:36

17. H. Bible—”Joseph falsely accused and imprisoned in Egypt,” Genesis 39:1-23, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+39:1-39:23

18. H. Bible—”Joseph able to interpret dreams,” Genesis 40:1-23, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+40:1-40:23

19. H. Bible—”Joseph recognised by Pharaoh,” Genesis 41:1-40, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+41:1-41:40

20. H. Bible —”The exodus,” Exodus 12:31-42, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+12:31-12:42

21. H. Bible—”Joseph reassures his brothers afer Jacob’s death,” Genesis 50:15-21, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+50:15-50:21

22. H. Bible—”Jacob dies,” Genesis 49:29 -50:14, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+49:29-50:14

23. H. Bible—”Jacob blesses his sons,” Genesis chapter 49, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+49:1-49:28

24. H. Bible—”Jacob blesses Joseph’s children,” Genesis chapter 48, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+48:1-48:22

25. H. Bible—”Pharaoh gives Jacob the land of goshen,” Genesis Chapter 45, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+45:1-45:28

26. H. Bible—”Joseph’s brothers go to Egypt to buy grain,” Genesis Chapters 42-44, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+42:1-44:34

27. H. Bible—”Death of Joseph,” Genesis 50:22-26, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+50:22-50:26

28. H. Bible—”Jacob moves to Egypt and settles in Rameses,” Genesis Chapter 46:1-47:12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+46:1-47:12

29. H. Bible—”Joseph buys up all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh,” Genesis 47:18-22, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+47:18-47:22

30. H. Bible—”Joseph saves Egypt by selling grain,” Genesis 47:13-17, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+47:13-47:17

31. H. Bible—”Joseph has two sons; Ephraim and Mannaseh,” Genesis 41:50-52, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+41:50-41:52

32. H. Bible—”Joseph stores up huge quantities of grain in Egyptian cities,” Genesis 41:47-49, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+41:47-41:49

33. H. Bible—”Pharaoh puts Joseph in charge of all Egypt,” Genesis chapter 41:41-46, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+41:41-41:46

34. H. Bible—”The Queen of Sheba visits Solomon,” 1Chron 9:1-12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=2Chron+9:1-12

35. H. Bible—”The Queen of Sheba visits Solomon,” 1Kings 10:1-13, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=1Kings+10:1-10:13

36. H. Bible—”Saul destroys the Amalekites,” 1Samuel 15:2-9, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=1Sam+15:2-15:9

37. H. Bible-"Moses flees to Midian and Pharaoh eventually dies" Exodus 2:11-25 http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Exodus+2:11-2:25

38. H. Bible, “The Israelites oppressed,” Exodus 1:1-22, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Exodus+1:1-1:22

39. H. Bible—”Pharaoh makes Israelites find own straw to make mud bricks,” Exodus 5:1-21, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Exodus+5:1-5:21

40. "The Wall Chart of World History - From earliest times to the present" 1998 Bracken Books ISBN 1-86256-306-3

References

  1. H. Bible, "Pharaoh puts Joseph in charge of all Egypt," Genesis chapter 41:41-46, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+41:41-41:46
  2. H. Bible "Joseph stores up huge quantities of grain in Egyptian cities," Genesis 41:47-49, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+41:47-41:49
  3. H. Bible"Joseph saves Egypt by selling grain," Genesis 47:13-17, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+47:13-47:17
  4. NationMaster.com, "Statemaster - Encyclopedia: Imhotep," , statemaster.com, 2009. http://www.statemaster.com/encyclopedia/Imhotep
  5. M. Wyatt, "Joseph in ancient Egyptian history," , 1994. http://web.archive.org/20080205234047/www.geocities.com/biblerevelations_org/ronwyatt/josephin.htm
  6. M. Millmore, "The Step Pyramid at Saqqara," , http://www.eyelid.co.uk, 2008. http://www.eyelid.co.uk/pyramid1.htm
  7. N. G. Society, "The Step Pyramid of Djoser. Egypt's first pyramid.," , http://www.nationalgeographic.com/pyramids, 2009. http://www.nationalgeographic.com/pyramids/djoser.html
  8. A. Kolom, "Is Biblical Joseph the Imhotep of Egypt (famine-savior)? (Extra-biblical proof!)," , 2009.
  9. E. Sweeney, "Were Joseph and Imhotep of Egypt the same man?," THE GENESIS OF ISRAEL AND EGYPT, B. E. Sweeny (Editor), http://s8int.com/joseph.html, 2001.
  10. B. Rhodes, "Was Imhotep and Joseph the same person?" , http://the-red-thread.net/joseph-imhotep.html, 2009.
  11. H. Bible, "Joseph buys up all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh," Genesis 47:18-22, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+47:18-47:22
  12. D. Fry, "Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt - Time calibrators," Hebrew Sages of Ancient Egypt II, http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew1.html 2004.
  13. J. Reilly, "Displaced Dynasties," Dysplaced Dynasties, http://www.kent.net/DisplacedDynasties/, 2009.
  14. G. Byers, "Israel in Egypt," , http://www.biblearchaeology.org, 2008. http://www.biblearchaeology.org/post/2008/09/Israel-in-Egypt.aspx
  15. E. Sweeney, The Genesis of Israel and Egypt (Ages in alignment), Vol. 1, Algora Pub, 2008. ISBN 0-87586-624-7 http://www.algora.com/238/book/details.html http://books.google.com.au/books?id=-3p5cfv6T_MC&printsec=frontcover#PPP1,M1
  16. D. Fry, "Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt Egypt’s first dynasty," , http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew3.html, 2009.
  17. J. Reilly, "The Exodus and beyond chapter 3: Joseph & Moses," The Exodus and Beyond, http://www.kent.net/DisplacedDynasties/Exodus%20Chapter%203.htm, 2009.
  18. D. Ashton. J & Down, D Unwrapping the Pharaohs. How Egyptian archaeology confirms the Biblical timeline, New Leaf Publishing Group (Master books), 2006. ISBN 978-0-89051-468-9 ISBN 0-89051-468-2 http://masterbooks.net
  19. E. Sweeney, The pyramid age, Ages in alignment series, Algora Publishing, 2007.
  20. D. Fry, "Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt - needed changes in modern records," , http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew10.html, 2009.
  21. E. Sweeney, The Genesis of Israel and egypt, Janus Publishing Company Limited, 1997. ISBN 978-1857563504
  22. J. Reilly, "The Exodus and beyond chapter 1: The Berlin chronology of the second millennium bc - limitations of the Berlin chronology," The Exodus and Beyond, http://www.kent.net/DisplacedDynasties/Chapter1.htm, 2009.
  23. R. Wyatt, "Joseph was imhotep of egypt," , Wyatt Archaelogical Research, 1994. http://www.arkdiscovery.com/joseph.htm
  24. H. Bible, "The Flood," Genesis Chapter 6, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+6:1-9:29
  25. H. Bible"The Dispersion after Babel," Genesis Chapter 11, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+11:1-11:9
  26. H. Bible"Terah sets out from Ur," Genesis 11:27-32, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+11:27-11:32
  27. H. Bible"Call of Abraham," Genesis Chapter 12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+12:1-12:9
  28. H. Bible"God's covenant with Abraham," Genesis Chapters 15 & 17, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+15:1-15:21;Genesis+17:1-17:27
  29. H. Bible"Ishmael born to Hagar," Genesis Chapter 16, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+16:1-16:16
  30. H. Bible"Issac born to Sarai," Genesis Chapter 21, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+21:1-21:7
  31. H. Bible"Ishmael sent away - Issac the child of promise," Genesis 21:8-13, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+21:8-21:13
  32. H. Bible"Keturah's children sent away to Middle East," Genesis 25:1-4, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+25:1-25:4
  33. H. Bible"Jacob bore 12 sons," Genesis chapter 29-32, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+29:1-30:43
  34. H. Bible"Jacob renamed Israel," Genesis 32:22-32, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+32:22-32:32
  35. H. Bible"Abrahams children to be reckoned through Issac," Genesis 21:12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+21:12
  36. H. Bible"Jacob favours Joseph," Genesis chapter 37, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+37:1-37:36
  37. H. Bible"The Biblical account of Jospeh," Genesis chapter 37-50, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+37:1-50:26
  38. H. Bible"Joseph has two sons; Ephraim and Mannaseh," Genesis 41:50-52, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+41:50-41:52
  39. H. Bible"Joseph's brothers go to Egypt to buy grain," Genesis Chapters 42-44, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+42:1-44:34
  40. H. Bible"Jacob moves to Egypt and settles in Rameses," Genesis Chapter 46:1-47:12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+46:1-47:12
  41. H. Bible"Pharaoh gives Jacob the land of Goshen," Genesis Chapter 45, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+45:1-45:28
  42. H. Bible"Jacob dies," Genesis 49:29 -50:14, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+49:29-50:14
  43. H. Bible"Jacob blesses Joseph's children," Genesis chapter 48, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+48:1-48:22
  44. H. Bible"Jacob blesses his sons," Genesis chapter 49, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+49:1-49:28
  45. H. Bible"Joseph reassures his brothers afer Jacob's death," Genesis 50:15-21, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+50:15-50:21
  46. H. Bible"Death of Joseph," Genesis 50:22-26, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Genesis+50:22-50:26
  47. H. Bible"The Exodus," Exodus 12:31-42, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Gen+12:31-12:42
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  54. D. Fry---"Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt - Joseph found in Egyptian records," , http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew4.html, 2004.
  55. D. Fry---"Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt The Pyramid age Joseph’s inspiration," , http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew5.html, 2009.
  56. D. Fry---"Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt The Great Pyramid," , http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew6.html, 2009.
  57. D. Fry---"Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt - Egypts weather changes," Hebrew Sages of Ancient Egypt, http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew7.html, 2009.
  58. D. Fry---"Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt - Moses found in Egyptian records," , http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew8.html, 2009.
  59. D. Fry---"Hebrew sages of ancient Egypt -the Exodus disaster in Egyptian records. The search.," , http://www.prophecyinstitute.org/temp/books/hebrew9.html, 2009.
  60. J. Reilly---"The Exodus and beyond chapter 2: The Patriarchal age," The Exodus and Beyond, http://www.kent.net/DisplacedDynasties, 2009.
  61. H. Bible, "Saul destroys the Amalekites," 1Samuel 15:2-9, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=1Sam+15:2-15:9
  62. H. Bible, "The Queen of Sheba visits Solomon," 1Kings 10:1-13, .http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=1Kings+10:1-10:13
  63. H. Bible"The Queen of Sheba visits Solomon," 1Chron 9:1-12, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=2Chron+9:1-12
  64. C. Miclaus, "Imhotep - one of The greatest personalities Of Egypt," , 2007. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/imhotep-one-of-the-greatest-personalities-of-egypt.html
  65. W. Whiston, The works of Josephus complete and unabridged, New Updated Edition, Hendrikson Publishers, 1987. ISBN 0-913573-86-8 ISBN 1-56563-167-6
  66. "From the start of the 12th dynasty to the 18th," , 2009. http://www.specialtyinterests.net/joseph.html
  67. L. Moeller, The case for the Exodus, .
  68. H. Bible"The Israelites oppressed," Exodus 1:1-22, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Exodus+1:1-1:22
  69. H. Bible"Pharaoh makes Israelites find own straw to make mud bricks," Exodus 5:1-21, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Exodus+5:1-5:21
  70. H. Bible, "Moses flees to Midian and Pharaoh eventually dies," Exodus 2:11-25, . http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?version=NIV&language=english&passage=Exodus+2:11-2:25
  71. J. Dunn, "Imhotep, doctor, architect, high priest, scribe and vizier to king Djoser," , http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/imhotep.htm, 1999.
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  73. R. Strachan, "Imhotep," , http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/history/people/imhotep.html, 2005.
  74. K. Matthews, "Imhotep," , http://www.greatbuildings.com/architects/Imhotep.html, 2008.
  75. Wikipedia, "Imhotep," , http://en.wikipedia.org, 2009.
  76. J. Gray, "The Empty sarcophagus of Imhotep in a funery chamber connected to the animal gallery. His tomb was orientated to the North and dates to the third dynasty of Djoser,", http://youtu.be/tIFajJF2WhA?t=38m1s, 2011.

Links

[| Were Joseph and Imhotep the same person?]

[Djoser]

[Joseph - the son that saved Israel and the Ancient World]

[Islamic Forums: Were Prophet Joseph and Imhotep of Egypt The Same Man?]

[The Empty sarcophagus of Imhotep in a funery chamber connected to the animal gallery. His tomb was orientated to the North and dates to the third dynasty of Djoser.]

[Porphet Yusuf (a.s) Imhotep?]

[History aligned with the Bible.]

Videos

[The Exodus - Wyatt Archaeological Research]

[Discovery of the Famine Stella by Flinders Petrie in 1887.]


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