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Hyksos

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Scarab bearing the final prenomen of the Hyksos pharaoh Apepi I

Hyksos - Amalekites - Amu

The Hyksos "rulers from a foreign land/Shepherd Kings" were credited as having introduced the lute, lyre, horse-and-chariot and compound-bow into Egypt[1]. They were formidable warriors.

In (Genesis 41:43) we see Pharaoh making Joseph a ruler and parading him through the streets of Egypt in his "second chariot". This event (using chariots) clearly places the reign of the Hyksos Kings before the arrival of Joseph.

The best estimate of this timeframe is near 1900 BC at the boundary of the 12th Dynasty just after the Hyksos had deposed them and set aside the rule of all prior Pharaohs, including Djoser, who reigned in the centuries prior and had no access to chariot technology.

The reference to chariots is important because Djoser is sometimes confused as the Pharaoh of Joseph, while Joseph is likewise linked to Imhotep. The significant differences between Joseph and Imhotep far outweigh any gossamer-thin circumstantial or superficial similarities. Joseph was famous for agrarian logistics (expected for a man with only a shepherd's education) and Imhotep was credited as having amassed and applied more scientific knowledge than any several people could apply in a lifetime. Without chariot technology, Djoser could not have been the Pharaoh of Joseph. Without deep scientific knowledge, Joseph could not have been Imhotep. The Famine Stele notes that Imhotep saved Egypt from a seven year famine, but does so at the end of the famine in real-time using applied science and technology. Joseph on the other hand, in Scripture is noted as saving Egypt in a time of plenty, predicting that it would end with the onset of a famine.

The Hyksos ushered in a time of mud-brick construction, setting aside the stone-casting/agglomerated-stone Pyramids constructed by prior dynasties. This carried through to the 18th Dynasty, where the Pharaohs enslaved the Israelites to continue making mud bricks for both the construction of Pyramids and the construction of common establishments such as palaces and homes.

The Hyksos kings, being Canaanite, honored Joseph and his family for many years.

Pharaoh Ahmose I[2] is credited for having deposed the Hyksos with superior chariot technology and weapons. The Victor Stele records his victory. This began the 18th Dynasty in the 16th century BC, less than a century before the birth of Moses. Ahmose I is referenced in the Bible only as the enigmatic king "who knew not Joseph" (Exodus 1:8). Moses rose to prominence in the 18th Dynasty with Tutmosis-III as the Pharaoh of his exile and Amenhotep II as the Pharaoh of the Exodus.

Ahmose I lost his father Seqenenre and his brother Kahmose fighting the Hyksos. The Hyksos were forced to leave Egypt and Ahmose I became the first pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (which was the beginning of New Kingdom of Egypt as it is known). Ahmose I became the pharaoh at a very young age and was coregent with his mother Queen Aahotep in the early part of his reign.

The rule of the Hyksos constitutes most of Egypt's second intermediate period (when foreigners ruled between the end of the Middle Kingdom (12-13th dynasty) and the beginning of the New Kingdom (18th dynasty)).

The Hyksos ruled in Lower Egypt from roughly 1900 BC (when they elevated Joseph to power) to around 1590 BC when Ahmose I deposed them.

References

  1. http://historymatters.appstate.edu/sites/historymatters.appstate.edu/files/egyptchariots_000.pdf
  2. http://historymatters.appstate.edu/sites/historymatters.appstate.edu/files/egyptchariots_000.pdf

Unwrapping the Pharaohs How Egyptian Archaeology confirms the Biblical Timeline. John Ashton & David Down. Master Books 2006. ISBN 978-0-89051-468-9 ISBN 0-89051-468-2

Chronicle of the Pharaohs The Reign by reign record of the rulers and dynasties of Ancient Egypt. Peter A Clayton. Thames and Hudson 2006 ISBN 978-0-500-28628-9

Links

[Debbie Hurn - The Amalekites - Were they the Hyksos?]

[John D Keyser The downfall of Egypt and the Amalekites of the Bible.]

[Ralph S Pacini In search of Amalek.]

[The time of the Judges in the Promised Land]

[Chart - The period of the Judges and the Amalekite / Hysos occupation of Egypt.]

[Terry Hurlbut The Hyksos Identified]

[Save-Soderbergh, T. Who were the Hyksos?

[Roger Henry. Synchronized Chronology Rethinking Middle East Antiquity]

[Ages in Chaos Immanuel Velikovski]

[Ahmose I]

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