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Biblical archaeology

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Caves at Qumran where the Dead Sea Scrolls were hidden.

Biblical archaeology is an important creation science discipline that substantiates the Bible as a valid historical document, and the Biblical chronology as accurate timeline. Each year new discoveries are made, and creationists are encouraged to keep themselves informed of progress in this field. The study of Biblical Archaeology is also an important aid to the correct understanding of the Bible, since it gives a description of the lands of the Bible and of social customs, civil and religious, of the biblical characters.[1] At least 50 major figures from the Old Testament have been confirmed from archaeology.[2]

Contents

Archaeological Discoveries

Name Image Date Institution Description
Tower/Walls of Jericho[3] Tower of Jericho 8,000 B.C.? Tell es-Sultan Walls destroyed around 1,400 B.C. by an earthquake and a city destroyed by fire matching the Bible perfectly. A preserved tower connected to the destroyed walls has been dated at 8,000 B.C.
Ebla Tablets[4] 150px 2500-2250 B.C. Syrian Museums 17,000 tablet library confirming names of Biblical cities (e.g. Jerusalem, Ashdod, Sidon, Carchemish), individuals (e.g. Adam, Michael, Esau), and early ritual sacrifice. The tablets provide evidence defeating the claims of Biblical critics such as a complex legal code and mention of both Canaan and the Hittites; critics claimed all were later revisions. The alphabet is strikingly similar to Hebrew. There is also a creation account similar to that of Genesis.
Code of Ur-Nammu[5] Image008.jpg 2100-2050 B.C. Iraq National Museum Ancient law code of Mesopotamia similar to the Laws of Eshnunna and Code of Hammurabi, it helped disprove the claims of critics who'd accused the Mosaic Law of being fictional, saying such a complex law could not have existed so long ago. Several laws are strikingly similar to the Mosaic Law, it may be that the Mosaic Law was actually based on similar ancient laws of Mesopotamia (where Abraham once lived). For detail on Moses' creation of the Law, see Exodus 18:13-27, John 1:17, and Matthew 19:7-9.
Laws of Eshnunna[6] Eshnunna.jpg 1930 B.C. Iraq National Museum Ancient law similar to the Mosaic Law like the better-known Code of Hammurabi and Code of Ur-Nammu.
Execration Texts[7] Execration Texts 1878-1630 B.C. Inscribed Egyptian bowls and figurines with early mention of Biblical locations and names such as Jerusalem, Abraham, Canaan, Job, Shechem, Hazor, Tyre, etc.
Code of Hammurabi[8] Code of Hammurabi 1790 B.C. The Louvre Ancient law with rules identical in numerous places to the Bible's Mosaic Law, silencing an early criticism by liberal scholars that a law as complex as the Mosaic could not have existed so early.
Atra-Hasis Tablets[9] Atra-Hasis Tablets 1650 B.C. British Museum Ancient Babylonian account with detail similar to the Garden of Eden and Noahic Flood, part of the Epic of Gilgamesh.
Soleb Inscription[10] 150px 1400 B.C. The earliest reference to the Biblical God Yahweh, the inscription refers to the "land of the Shasu of Yahweh." It has been discovered in two Egyptian locations, the temple of Soleb built by Pharaoh Amenhotep III (1400 B.C.) and Amarah-West built by Rameses II (1250 B.C.), both of which are in modern-day Sudan. As such, this is a powerful evidence that the Israelites were in Canaan by 1400 B.C. in support of an early date for the Biblical Exodus.[11]
Amarna Tablets[12] Amarna Tablets 1370-1350 B.C. British Museum, Vorderasiatisches Museum, Cairo Museum, et. al. Letters between Egyptian pharaohs and Canaanite kings mentioning the takeover of Canaan by the Apiru/Hebrews and disproving an early criticism of the Bible that the Canaanites were not as advanced as the Bible claimed.
Ipuwer Papyrus[13] 150px 1275 B.C. Dutch National Museum of Antiquities Egyptian account mentioning the plagues of Egypt (e.g. rivers turning to blood, death of firstborn children, plagues of hail/fire/darkness, etc.) and the exodus of Jews from Egypt.
Ugarit Cuneiform Tablets[14] 150px 1250 B.C. Institute for Antiquity and Christianity Ancient texts similar to the Bible suggesting Abraham did live in Canaan (Genesis 11:31) and verifying numerous Biblical details about ancient Canaan such as its prevalence of animal sacrifice.
Merneptah Stele[15] Merneptah Israel Stele Cairo 1209 B.C. Cairo Museum Long regarded as the earliest recorded explicit mention of Israel, the stele mentions Egypt's attack on Israel as part of a campaign in Canaan, and appears related to the Amarna Tablets. When discovered it refuted the claim that Israel had not existed so early.
Tell es-Safi Potsherd[16] 150px 1075-925 B.C. Bar Ilan University Proved the name Goliath (1 Samuel 17:4-10) was used in Israel close to the time the Bible said Goliath existed, with the possible hometown of Goliath (Gath) now excavated at Tell Es-Safi.
Ophel Inscription[17] 150px 1000-900 B.C. Discovered by Eilat Mazar at the palace of David, it contains the earliest undisputed use of the Hebrew alphabet in Jerusalem. It provides another powerful evidence against the criticism of Biblical minimalists that insinuate Israel was not the powerful kingdom under David and Solomon that the Bible claims.
Bubastite Portal[18] Bubastite Portal, wall displaying names of cities conquered 945-924 B.C. Karnak, Egypt Verifies the campaign of Shishaq I against Israel described in 1 Kings 14:25-28 and 2 Chronicles 12:2-12, as well as Biblical cities such as Megiddo and Ajalon.
Gezer Almanac[19] PikiWiki Israel 8691 tel gezer calendar 925 B.C. Istanbul Archaeological Museums Early example of Israelite writing, an agricultural calendar.
Tel Dan Stele[20] Black-obelisk 870-750 B.C. Israel Museum Refers to an Aramean king's victory over Israel and the "House of David," thus disproving critics who had claimed King David was a literary invention. Many Biblical scholars believe the stele mentions the defeat of King Jehoram of Israel and King Ahaziah of Judah by Hazael of Damascus as mentioned in 2 Kings 8-9.
Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III[21] Black-obelisk 858-824 B.C. British Museum Contains the earliest undisputed image of an Israelite, Omri, son of Jehu, a king of Israel. (1 Kings 16:16-28)
Kurkh Stele[22][23] Stele of Shalmaneser III, one of the Kurkh Monoliths 852 B.C. British Museum An early reference to the nation of Israel and King Ahab, as well as mention of his army (2,000 chariots 10,000 foot soldiers), which contradicts the claims of Biblical minimalists/critics who assert Israel had no such fighting force at the time. The Shalmaneser lineage is mentioned as rulers of Assyria in 2 Kings 17:3 and 18:9.
Mesha Stele[24] Mesha Stele 840 B.C. Louvre Museum Moabite monument mentioning Yahweh, Israel and its king, Omri, David, and the kingdom of Judah. When discovered it dealt a serious blow to the claims of critics who'd said David had not existed.[25]
Tell al-Rimah Stele[22][26] Tell al-Rimah Stele of Adad-Nirari III 811-783 B.C. Mentions King Jehoash of Israel paying tribute to Assyria. (2 Kings 12:18)
Kuntillet ‘Ajrud Inscription[27] 150px 750 B.C. Tel Aviv University Verifies the name Yahweh as well as Israelite idolatry to Asherah as mentioned in Judges 6:25-30.
Nimrud Tablet[28] Nimrud Tablet 733 B.C. British Museum One of the earliest references to the Kingdom of Judah, it mentions Ahaz as the ruler of Judah being forced to pay tribute to Syria's Tiglath-Pileser. It also mentions Hoshea being selected by Syria as his replacement per 2 Kings 17-18.
Nimrud Prism[29] 150px 720 B.C. British Museum Mentions the deportation of Israelites to Babylon captured from Samaria by King Sargon II, the Babylonian Exodus. It also confirms the specific location of Assyria that Israelites were deported to, Halah in Assyria.[30]
Siloam Inscription[31] 150px 701 B.C. Archaeological Museum of Istanbul Verifies the existence of Hezekiah's tunnel mentioned in 2 Kings 20:20 and 2 Chronicles 32:30. It was found in 1880 and is one of the oldest Hebrew inscriptions yet discovered.
Lachish Relief[32] British Museum Lachish Relief 700-681 B.C. British Museum Drawings of Assyria's King Sennacherib defeating King Hezekiah of Judah and capturing numerous cities, discovered in his palace at Nineveh. Provides a visual recording of the Biblical account mentioned in 2 Chronicles 32, 2 Kings 18-19, and Isaiah 36-37. Lachish has also been excavated, providing additional evidence of the siege.[33]
Sennacherib's Annals[34] British Museum Flood Tablet 690 B.C. British Museum, Oriental Institute of Chicago, Israel Museum Also known as the Taylor Prism, the annals were discovered in the Assyrian capital of Nineveh. They describe Assyria's King Sennacherib defeating King Hezekiah of Judah and provide evidence for the Biblical account (Chronicles, Kings, Isaiah) as well as some verification of the Angel of the Lord's destruction of Sennacherib's army per Isaiah 37:33-38.[35]
Flood Tablet[36] British Museum Flood Tablet 650 B.C. British Museum Ancient Babylonian account with detail similar to the Noahic Flood, part of the Epic of Gilgamesh.
Lachish Letters[37] Lachish III obv 588 B.C. British Museum Letters between military officers Joash and Hoshaiah before Lachish fell to the Babylonian army during the rule of Zedekiah, King of Judah. The Old Testament name for God, YHWH, is repeatedly used, and the letters verify the Bible's account of the Babylonian attack (Jer. 34:7). Elnathan of Jer. 26:22 is also mentioned.
Nabonidus Cylinder[38] Nabonidus Cylinder 555-540 B.C. British Museum and Pergamon Museum Clay cylinders of King Nabonidus of Babylon that mention Belshazzar and other details similar to the book of Daniel. The cylinders disprove the claims of critics who'd denied Belshazzar's historicity or that he was the child of Nabonidus and reveal the Nabonidus shared coregency with his son Belshazzar, thus explaining why Daniel could be appointed "third ruler of the kingdom." (Daniel 5:16)[39]
Cyrus Cylinder[40] Cyrus Cylinder 539-530 B.C. British Museum Clay cylinder by King Cyrus the Great verifying the return of exiled people from Babylon, such as the Jews after the Babylonian captivity, to their respective lands, and supporting the rebuilding of Jerusalem's temple. (e.g. Ezra 1:1) The cylinders are considered the world's first charter of human rights and are considered one of the most important artifacts in history.[41] They may also provide evidence of King Cyrus praising the God of the Bible as mentioned in 2 Chronicles 36:22-23.[42]
King Herod Wine Jug[43] 150px 19 B.C. While excavating King Herod's palace (Fortress Masada) archaeologists in 1996 discovered a wine jug bearing Herod's full title, Herod King of Judea. Herod's mausoleum, a royal theater box,[44] and coins bearing his image[45] have since been discovered as well.
Pilate Inscription[46][47] Pilate Stone 26-37 A.D. Israel Museum Contains the name Pontius Pilate, verifying his existence after minimalists claimed the Bible invented him.[48] Pilate's name has since been discovered inscribed on Roman coins as well.[49]
Caiaphas Ossuary[50][47] Caiaphas Ossuary 36-50 A.D. Israel Museum Burial chamber of Caiaphas, the Jewish high priest at the time of Jesus as mentioned in Matthew 26:3, John 18:13-28, and Acts 4:6. Its discovery was a major blow to Biblical critics who claimed the Gospel's accounts of Jesus were mythical. A separate ossuary of Caiaphas' daughter Miriam was authenticated in 2011.[51]

Dead Sea Scrolls

Main Article: Dead Sea Scrolls

The finding of the Dead Sea Scrolls is considered by many to be the most important archaeological find of the last century. Besides confirming the reliability of the Old Testament and its prophecies as untainted by later church leaders, they have also allowed us a glimpse into the era Jesus was born into, and the society that existed at the beginnings of Christianity.

Temple of Jerusalem

Main Article: Temple of Jerusalem

Not until the time of King Solomon did God permit the construction of a permanent building to be his temple. The first temple was built in Jerusalem in the 10th or 11th century BC by King Solomon. The site was the one purchased for the purpose by King David, the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite, on which he built an altar to the Lord. King David’s Altar, Solomon’s Temple, and Herod’s Temple all stood in the same location.

Jericho

Main Article: Jericho

In the 1950's, archaeologist Kathleen Kenyon supervised the excavation of the ruins of the once great city. Her lack of faith in the Biblical account of Jericho was evident in her statement that she believed the 'folk tale' of Joshua's encounter with the city was merely fabricated after the destruction. However, later digs have prompted other archaeologists to come to a bold conclusion: the walls really did fall as told in Joshua 6 .

James Ossuary

Main Article: James Ossuary

A 2,000-year-old box was discovered in October of 2002 that might be the ossuary (“Bone Box”) of James, the brother of Jesus. On the side of the bone box is inscribed in Aramaic: “Ya'akov bar Yosef akhui di Yeshua”, which is translated “James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus”. As the inscription was the first historic record found of Jesus apart from manuscripts, its authentication could prove to be the most significant New Testament find in modern times.

Synagogue and House of Peter

Main Article: Capernaum

Capernaum was a village inhabited from approximately 150 BC to 1100 AD. The ancient ruins of Capernaum have been thoroughly investigated by archaeologists revealing, most notably, an ancient Jewish synagogue and Christian church located at the site of the house of Simon Peter. Although tradition held that the ruins of Capernaum were there on the northwestern shore of the Sea of Galilee, it wasn't until 1838 that remains of a synagogue were correctly identified.

King David's Palace

Archaeologist Eilat Mazar has found strong evidence that the foundations of a structure in old Jerusalem, confirmed to date to the 10th-9th centuries B.C., are very likely the remains of the palace of King David. Furthermore, the remains match perfectly with the geographic and architectural description of the palace given in the Bible.[52]

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Biblical archaeology

Tell Dan

The ancient city of Israel contains the world's oldest known gated archway and is known today as Tell el-Qadi. An inscription found on site reads "To the God who is in Dan, Zoilos made a vow." Identified in 1838, the best-known excavations began in 1966, continuing to the present day. The Tell Dan Stele was discovered here, along with an elaborate gate, a pottery shard with the name Zechariah on it, and a series of huge defensive ramparts. Settlement appears to have begun as early as 4500 B.C.[53]

Evidence for the Exodus

See also Evidence for the Israelite Sojourn in Egypt

The earliest mention of the Biblical God, Yahweh, has been discovered from two Egyptian descriptions, with the oldest, the Soleb Inscription, dating to 1400 B.C. In mentioning a list of lands campaigned against by Egypt, the Soleb Inscription refers to the "land of the Shasu of Yahweh" so it is clear Israel had become a nation by that time. This provides strong evidence that the Israelite Exodus had completed by 1400 B.C.[11] The Ipuwer Papyrus provides evidence of the Biblical plagues. The ancient Egyptian document records events similar to the plagues of the Exodus.[54]

The distinctive 4-room Israelite house has been discovered in Tell el-Daba, Egypt dating back to 1175 A.D.[55] What is more, found among these distinctive Israelite houses was one which may have been Joseph's containing a tomb that very unusually had the skeleton removed consistent with Exodus 13:19 and Genesis 50:25.[56]

One of the tombs was monumental in construction and totally unique in finds. Inside were found stone fragments of a colossal statue of a man who was clearly Asiatic, based on the yellow painted skin, the red-painted mushroom-shaped hairstyle and a throwstick on his right shoulder (the hieroglyph for foreigner). The statue had been intentionally broken in antiquity. While the other tombs nearby had intact skeletons, the only finds in the monumental tomb were fragments of an inscribed limestone sarcophagus and a few bone fragments. The body was gone! While it was common to plunder tombs in ancient Egypt, the bodies were usually not taken. Could this be the tomb of Joseph, from which he commanded his bones to be carried back to Canaan (Gn 50:25; Ex 13:19)?

~ Gary Byers, Associates for Biblical Research[57]

A 3rd century B.C. Egyptian historian named Manetho wrote that the Hyksos founded their capital at Avaris, also known as Tell el-Daba, where the Israelite houses were found. As noted by Noah Wiener of the Biblical Archaeological Society, "After the Hyksos were expelled from Egypt, Manetho reports that they wandered the desert before establishing the city of Jerusalem... The Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut (1489–1469 B.C.E.) recorded the banishment of a group of Asiatics from Avaris, the former Hyksos capital."[58]

Furthermore, the Amarna Tablets record the Israelite takeover of Canaan. Letters such as those by Abdu-Heba and Rib-Addi show Canaanite kings pleading with Egypt to send them military aid to stop the Israelites from conquering the land.[59] Dating to the 14th century B.C., they provide strong evidence for an early date to the Exodus.

Where Are the Graves?

Those claiming the Exodus lacks graves evidencing the Exodus are not finding the graves because they are looking on the wrong peninsula, the Sinai Peninsula. The Exodus occurred across Saudi Arabia/the Arabian Peninsula, which does have thousands, possibly millions, of ancient graves supporting the Biblical Exodus.[60]

For the location of the Biblical Mount Sinai, see Jebel al-Madhbah. The Bible makes plain the Mount Sinai is in Seir or Edom. (Deuteronomy 33:2, Judges 5:4-5) As an interesting note, Edom or Esau literally means "red" and Jebel al-Madhbah is in Petra, a city that is one of the 7 wonders of the world, renowned for its blood-red stone and architecture.

Archaeology Sites

Site Country State / Province / Region
Capernaum Israel
Jericho Israel
Ephesus Turkey
Megiddo Israel Jezreel Valley
Mount Ararat Turkey
Mount Sinai Egypt Sinai Peninsula
Temple of Jerusalem Israel
Qumran Israel

Archaeologist

An archaeologist is a person who studies the past using scientific methods with the goal of recording, interpreting, and preserving knowledge of ancient and contemporary cultures. The following is a list of archaeologists whose work has played an integral role in Biblical apologetics.

Biblical Archaeology News

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Reference

  1. Berkhof, Louis (1928). Biblical Archaeology (3rd, revised ed.). Grand Rapids, Michigan: Smitter Book Company. p. 17. 
  2. Mykytiuk, Lawrence (2014, March 3). 50 People in the Bible Confirmed Archaeologically. Biblical Archaeology Society.
  3. Wood, Bryant G. (2008, May 1). "Did the Israelites Conquer Jericho? A New Look At The Archaeological Evidence." Associates for Biblical Research.
    Permanent Delegation of Palestine to UNESCO (2012, April 2). "Ancient Jericho: Tell es-Sultan." United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations.
  4. Wilson, Clifford (1977). EBLA: Its Impact on Biblical Records. Institute for Creation Research.
    Holden, Joseph M. & Geisler, Norman (2013). The Popular Handbook of Archaeology and the Bible. p. 86. Harvest House Publishers.
    Wieland, Carl. Archaeologist Confirms Creation and the Bible. Creation Ministries International.
    Sala, Harold J. (2008). Why You Can Have Confidence in the Bible: Bridging the Distance Between Your Heart and God's Word. pp. 125-127. Harvest House Publishers.
    Elwell, Walter A. & Comfort, Philip W. (2001). Tyndale Bible Dictionary. p. 397. Tyndale House Publishers.
    David Noel Freedman, "The Ebla Tablets and the Abraham Tradition," in Reflections on Mormonism: Judaeo-Christian Parallels, ed. Truman G. Madsen (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1978), 67–78.
    Milano, Luciano. Ebla Digital Archives. Ca' Foscari University of Venice.
  5. 8. Law. The Schoyen Collection.
    Andrews, Evan (2013, December 17). 8 Things You May Not Know About Hammurabi’s Code. The History Channel.
  6. Eshnunna. Encyclopaedia Britannica.
    Law Code of Eshunna. Iraq National Museum. U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs.
    Yaron, Reuven (1988). The Laws of Eshnunna. The Magnes Press. The Hebrew University.
  7. Sailhamer, John H. (1998). Biblical Archaeology. p. 45. Zondervan.
    Tenney, Merrill C. (2010). The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible. p. 144. Zondervan.
    Laughlin, John C.H. (2000). Archaeology and the Bible. p. 60. Routledge.
  8. Stele with Law Code of Hammurabi . American Historical Association.
    Rummell, S. The Hammurabi Stele. Texas Wesleyan University.
    Claire, Iselin. Law Code of Hammurabi, king of Babylon. Louvre Museum.
  9. Cuneiform tablet with the Atrahasis Epic. British Museum.
    The Epic of Gilgamesh. AncientTexts.org.
    Livingston, Dave. Who Was Nimrod? www.DaveLivingston.com.
  10. Greenspahn, Frederick E. (2008). The Hebrew Bible: New Insights and Scholarship. pp. 31-33. New York University Press.
    Livingston, David (2003). Israel's Origins. DaveLivingston.com.
    Down, Kendall K. (2011). The Shasu of Yahweh. Digging Up the Past.
    Alexander, T. Desmond, & Baker, David V. (). Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch: A Compendium of Contemporary Biblical Scholarship. p. 363. InterVarsity Press. ISBN: 0-8308-1781-6.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Aling, Charles, & Billington, Clyde (2010, March 8). The Name Yahweh in Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts. Associates for Biblical Research.
    Argubright, John (2013). Bible Believer's Archaeology, Volume 3: Behold the Man! p. 108. BibleHistory.net. ISBN: 978-09792148-2-0.
  12. Byers, Gary (2009, November 20). Tyre and the Tell El-Amarna Tablets. Associates for Biblical Research.
    Letter from Tushratta to Amenhotep III. British Museum.
    Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. "Entry for 'Tell El-Amarna; Tablets.'" "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". 1915.
    (2011, October 11). German Museum Puts Amarna Letters Online. Biblical Archaeology Review.
  13. McKinney, Kevin (2012, September 22). Ipuwer Papyrus - Does It Provide Proof of the Plagues?
    Ipuwer Papyrus. Christian Evidences Ministries.
    Becher, M. The Ten Plagues - Live From Egypt. Ohr Somayach Tanenbaum College.
    Gardiner, Alan H. (1909). The Admonitions of an Eygptian Sage.
  14. Ugarit and the Bible. Quartz Hill School of Theology.
    MRZH: An Ancient Canaanite Tablet from Ugarit. West Semitic Research Project. University of South Carolina.
    Pardee, Dennis (2002). Ugarit Ritual Texts. Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
    Hess, Richard S. (2002). Religious Texts from Ugarit: The Words of Ilimilku and His Colleagues. Denver Seminary.
    Languages: Ugaritic. Institute for Biblical and Scientific Studies.
  15. Wood, Bryant G. (1995). What has archaeology taught us about the origins of Israel? Associates for Biblical Research.
    Byers, Gary (2006, March 15). Great Discoveries in Biblical Archaeology: The Merenptah Stele. Associates for Biblical Research.
    Merneptah Stele. AllAboutArchaeology.org.
    Egypt: Merenptah's Victory Stele. Tour Egypt.
  16. Maeir, Aren M., Fantalkin, Alexander, & Zukerman, Alexander. The Earliest Greek Import in the Iron Age Levant: New Evidence from Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel. doi: 10.2143/AWE.8.0.2045838.
    Fisher-Ilan, Allyn (2005, November 13). Goliath's Name Found in Archaeological Dig. Reuters.
    Maeir, Aren M. & Ehrlich, Carl S. (2001, November/December). Excavating Philistine Gath: Have We Found Goliath's Hometown? Biblical Archaeological Society.
    Lipsom, Joshua (2013, July 17). Gath Goes Beyond Goliath. The Jerusalem Post.
  17. Petrovich, Douglas (2013, August 12). New Find: Jerusalem's Oldest Hebrew Inscription. Biblical Archaeology Society.
    Bogursky, Sasha (2013, July 31). 3,000-Year-Old Text May Reveal Biblical History. FOX News and Discovery Channel.
    Mazar, Eilat, Ben-Shlomo, David, & and Ahituv, Shmuel (2013). An Inscribed Pithos from the Ophel, Jerusalem. Israel Exploration Journal 63(1).
    Petrovich, Douglas (2013, August 17). Ophel Inscription: Oldest Hebrew Writing in Jerusalem Corroborates Biblical History. Creation Ministries International.
    Boyle, Alan (2013, July 10). Inscription Dates Back to King David - But What Does It Say? NBC News.
    Ngo, Robin (2014, May 9). Precursor to Paleo-Hebrew Script Discovered in Jerusalem. Biblical Archaeology Society.
  18. Kaiser Jr., Walter C., & Garrett, Duane (2005). NIV Archaeological Study Bible: An Illustrated Walk Through Biblical History. pp. 238-239. Zondervan.
    Bubastite Portal. University of California.
    Did Pharaoh Sheshonq Attack Jerusalem? Biblical Archaeology Society.
  19. Hanson, K.C. Gezer Almanac. KCHanson.org.
    Hebrew Alphabet. Encyclopaedia Britannica.
    Geva, Hillel. Gezer. Jewish Virtual Library.
    Hillel, Daniel (2006). The Natural History of the Bible. p. 144. Columbia University Press.
  20. Wood, Bryant G. (2011, May 4). The Tel Dan Stela and the Kings of Aram and Israel. Associates for Biblical Archaeology.
    Biblical Archaeology Society Staff (2013, October 22). The Tel Dan Inscription: The First Historical Evidence of King David from the Bible. Biblical Archaeology Society.
    Block, Daniel I. (2008). Israel: Ancient Kingdom or Late Invention? pg. 73. B&H Publishing Group.
    A House Divided: Davies and Maeir on the Tel Dan Stela (2013, January/February). BAR 39:01.
  21. The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III. British Museum.
    Hanson, K.C. Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III. KCHanson.com.
    Panel from the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III. Museum of Antiquities. University of Saskatchewan.
    Butterfeld, Bruce J. (1996). Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III. Marquette University.
    McClister, David (2001, January 4). The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III. Truth Magazine.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Wood, Bryant G. (2012, May 22). Israelite Kings in Assyrian Inscriptions. Associates for Biblical Research.
  23. The Kurkh Stela. British Museum.
    Douglas, J.D., & Tenney, Merrill C. (2011). Zondervan Illustrated Bible Dictionary. p. 56. Zondervan.
  24. Hanson, K.C. Mesha Stele.
    Caubet, Annie. The Mesha Stele. Louvre Museum.
    Wood, Bryant G. (1996). What does the Moabite Stone reveal about the Biblical revolt of Mesha? Associates for Biblical Research.
    (2011, July 15). The Importance of Bible Artifacts Found Outside the Trench: The Moabite Stone. Biblical Archaeology Society.
    Oded, Bustany (2008). Mesha Stele. Encyclopedia Judaica.
  25. The Moabite Stone. Bible History Online.
  26. Shea, William H. (1979, September). Biblical Archaeology. Ministry Magazine.
    Argubright, John (2013). Bible Believer's Archaeology, Vol. 3. p. 56. ISBN: 978-0-9792148-2-0.
  27. (2014, August 15). Puzzling Finds from Kuntillet ‘Ajrud. Biblical Archaeology Society.
  28. Douglas, J.D., & Tenney, Merrill C. (2011). Zondervan Illustrated Bible Dictionary. p. 272. Zondervan.
    Tiglath Pileser III (Pul). Bible History Online.
  29. Library of Ashurbanipal. The British Museum.
  30. Mazar, Amihai, & Mathias, Ginny (2001). Studies in the Archaeology of the Iron Age in Israel and Jordan. p. 258. Sheffield Academic Press.
    The Nimrud Prism, 720 B.C. The Center for Online Judaic Studies.
  31. Hanson, K.C. Siloam Inscription. KCHanson.com.
    Siloam Inscription (1906). Jewish Encyclopedia.
    Siloam Inscription. Istanbul Archaeological Museums.
    Hezekiah Inscription to Return to Israel. (2007, September 5). The Washington Times.
    Various Subjects of Archaeological Interest. Copy of the Siloam Inscription with Translation. Library of Congress.
  32. Collins, Paul. Lachish Reliefs. BBC.
    Stone Relief from the South-West Palace of Sennacherib. British Museum.
    Stone panels from the South-West Palace of Sennacherib (Room 36, nos. 8-10). British Museum.
    Bedlam Productions. Secrets of the Dead: Lachish Relief. PBS.
  33. Fletcher, Elizabeth. Lachish. Bible-Archaeology.info.
    Ussishkin, David. Excavations and Restoration Work at Tel Lachish. Tel Aviv University.
  34. The Flood Tablet, relating part of the Epic of Gilgamesh. British Museum.
  35. Fallen Empires: Sennacherib's Hexagonal Prism. Bible History Online.
  36. The Flood Tablet, relating part of the Epic of Gilgamesh. British Museum.
  37. Lachish Letter II. The British Museum.
    Hanson, K.C. (2007). Lachish Ostracon. KCHanson.com.
    Borowski, Oded (1984, March/April). Scholars’ Corner: Yadin Presents New Interpretation of the Famous Lachish Letters. Biblical Archaeology Society. BAR 10:02.
  38. Cylinder of Nabonidus. British Museum.
    Cuneiform Cylinder: Ehulhul Inscription of Nabonidus Describing His Work on Three Temples. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    Human Rights: Cyrus Cylinder. Council on Foreign Relations.
  39. 6. Archaeological Finds: Seven Compelling Evidences (2011, March 13). Answers in Genesis.
  40. MacGregor, Neil (2013, February 24). A 2,600-Year-Old Icon of Freedom Comes to the United States. CNN.
    Cyrus Cylinder. British Museum.
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