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Orange

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Orange
Citrus Sinesis.jpg
Scientific Classification
Species

Citrus ×sinensis

JUICY!!!!!!! ohhh Citrus Sinensis.jpg

The Orange tree (aka Sweet orange) is a species of flowering plants with the scientific name Citrus sinensis. It is one of many different types of citrus plants and one of the main crops grown for income in Florida.

The orange fruit is actually a reproductive ovary of the tree. The orange, although grown in many places in the world, actually originated from Asia. These trees are grown on farmland for their delicious fruit. The flower of the orange tree, contrary to the name "orange" is actually white. Of the sixteen types of the genus Citrus, the Citrus sinensis is the most important of the citrus fruits. [1]

In 2005, Brazil was the number one leading orange producer with a production of 17,800,000 tons. America was in second place with 8,400,000 and Mexico in third with 4,100,000. Citrus fruits include: Oranges, Lemons, Grapefruits, and more. In Florida, the state flower is the orange blossom. [2]

Anatomy

The white flower from a Citrus sinensis

The Citrus sinensis is a dicot tree that grows to 20-30 ft tall and has a crown that spreads out a 15 ft area. The leaves of the trees are shiny and grow to about 4 inches. When the Citrus sinensis blooms its flowers are very white and bloom in the spring time. The actual orange itself does not grow until August. Oranges from the year before often still hang on the trees when the next flowers bloom. [3]There are three different types of the Citrus sinensis: 1) A normal orange which has no naval and is normal colored, 2) a Naval Orange with a naval center, and 3) a Blood Orange which are red and juicy. [4] These plants need lots of sun or light shade in order to properly grow. [5]

Reproduction

This is the fruit from the Citrus sinensis

The Sweet Orange can reproduce sexually and with a special method called nucellar embryony. They can self pollinate themselves which can only happen if both gender organs are on the plant. Nucellar embryony is the formation of maternal clonal embryos through normal fertilization. When plants pollinate normally they are usually pollinated by honeybees. The bees then transfer the pollen from the male organ of a flower to the female organ of another flower. The male part is called the Stamin and the female part is called the pistils. These trees usually produce fruit and seeds for about 50 years.[6]

Ecology

Citrus sinensis fruits hanging off of the trees.

The Citrus sinensis was originally from Vietnam, Northwest India, and China. It was found in tropical and subtropical areas. Oranges can be sweet or sour. They must have a sufficient amount of water, even though orange trees usually are able to survive a drought, or else the fruit will not grow healthily. The flowers from the Citrus Sinensis are favored by many insects especially bees. The oranges do not actually grow orange, when they grow they are green until cold temperatures come in or until they are sprayed with ethylene. [7] HOWEVER! If humans are in near proximity to the plants when they bloom, the results can be toxic. Also, the wood shavings can cause asthma. People who peel these oranges often can get blisters and rashes on their hands and fingers. Orange tree wood is often coveted for furniture and cabinets. [8]

Uses: Food, Medicine, Etc.

Oranges are used for many different uses, but most of them are about food or drink. Oranges are used for flavoring, candy, food, and drinks. Many people enjoy oranges because of their taste, but other people eat them because they are an excellent source of vitamin C. The orange can be made into juice, marmalade, or jelly. Orange leaves are also used by the Spanish, where they are dried up and made into tea. Oranges and other citrus plants are rich in Vitamin C.[9] Oranges are often used in fruit cups, juice, and candy. In Africa, oranges are used to make a soup. The orange peel is used by some people to help repel slugs. Some medicinal uses for orange are that they are eaten to help delay fever, the peel is used against acne, and the pulp is used to fight skin disease. The seed extract is used to help fight off malaria and the leaves are used for ulcers and boils. A mix of the dried leaves and flowers is used as a antispasmodic, cardiac sedative, antiemetic, digestive and used to stop flatulence. Orange trees are also used for shade.[10]

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