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Human biology

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Human biological systems.PNG

Human biology is the scientific discipline the studies of the physical or biological component of the human being. It is a multidisciplinary field that focuses on anatomy and physiology, medicine, nutrition, genetics, reproduction, and anthropology.

Homo sapiens is the species name given to modern humans, which means wise man. Modern humans generally differs from other members of the taxonomic genus homo in having a lighter skeletal build and larger brains, although these characteristics still overlap with the normal range found in living humans.[1]

Contents

Anatomy and Physiology

Main article: Human body

Human anatomy and physiology is the study of the human body, its structural components and their function. Although the human body is a single entity, it is made up of billions of smaller structures of four major kinds: cells, tissues, organs, and system. Humans are arguably the most complex organism on Earth. Billions of microscopic parts, each with its own identity, work together in an organized manner for the benefit of the total being.[2] Such is the body that God has created for us. In Psalm 139, David declares his body is wonderful evidence of God's creative love. Its wonderful design serves to provide evidence of God's creative power and the love He has for us.

Name Description
Auditory system
Circulatory system
Digestive system
Endocrine system
Immune system
Integumentary system
Limbic system
Lymphatic system
Muscular system
Nervous system
Olfactory system
Reproductive system
Respiratory system
Sensory system
Skeletal system
Urinary system
Visual system
...Edit list of biological systems
Name Description
Appendix
Brain
Colon
Eye
Kidney
Liver
Lung
Mouth
Pancreas
Thyroid
Tonsils
...Edit list of biological organs


Reproduction

Main Article: Sexual reproduction
A picture of a human fetus at 9 weeks of development.

Human reproduction is a biological process by which descendants are created by combining of the parent's genetic material. Sexually reproduction involves two different adult sexes (male and female) that produce sex cells (sperm, ovum) through a special type of cell division called meiosis. These cells possess only half of the DNA of normal cells, and are genetically unique from all others in the body due to genetic recombination. Offspring are then produced following the fusion of the sex cells to form a zygote. After fertilization, the resulting zygote is in possession of DNA from both parents, and all the information required to build the child.

Genetics

Main Article: Genetics

Genetics is the branch of biology that studies heredity and trait variation in organisms. It is concerned with how particular qualities or traits are transmitted from parents to offspring, and the molecular basis of those traits. Geneticists study genetic material (DNA) and mechanisms in attempt to determine how genes are related to variations of inherited characteristics among related or similar organisms. Geneticists also study the basis and possible treatment for genetic disorders such as Cystic fibrosis, Down syndrome, Hemophilia, or Sickle cell anemia.

Human genetic material is made up of two distinct components: the nuclear genome and the mitochondrial genome. The human nuclear genome contains 24 distinct linear DNA chromosomes (22 autosomes + 2 sex determining X and Y). The mitochondrial genome is a circular DNA molecule separate from the nuclear DNA. Although the mitochondrial genome is very small, it codes for some very important proteins.[3]

Medicine

Main article: Medical science

Medical science is the field of research that deals with the maintenance of health and the prevention and treatment of disease (also simply known as Medicine). Most medical scientists conduct biomedical research and development to advance knowledge of life processes and living organisms, including viruses, bacteria, and other infectious agents. Past research has resulted in advances in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of many diseases. Basic medical research continues to build the foundation for new vaccines, drugs, and treatment procedures. Medical scientists engage in laboratory research, clinical investigation, technical writing, drug application review, and related activities.[4]

Anthropology

Main Article: Anthropology

Traditional Biological Anthropology or physical anthropology is an evolution-based study of human biological variation in time and space; including human evolution, genetics, as well as human growth and development. The evolutionary view holds that humanity evolved from ape-like ancestors, and therefore this discipline frequently includes the study of living and extinct primates as part of its study (see paleoanthropology).

By contrast, creation anthropology is an effort to study humans from the perspective that we are the result of divine creation. Like other fields of creation science, anthropology relies upon religious texts for insights into the origin and nature of man. Biblical creation-based anthropology holds that humanity was created by God as described in the book of Genesis, and was formed in the "image of God". It acknowledges that humans were affected by key events described in the Bible, and in principle deals with the nature of man both before and after the fall, the global flood, the Tower of Babel, and the Messiah.

References

  1. Homo sapiens Smithsonian Institute
  2. Introduction to the Human Body SEER Training Modules, National Cancer Institute.
  3. What is a Cell? by the National Center for Biotechnology Information
  4. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 Edition: Medical Scientists by U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

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