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Atmosphere

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Atmosphere is a general name given to the layer of gases that surround a body of mass. The gases are attracted through the gravity caused from the mass and can be held close for longer periods of time if the gravity is high and the atmospheric temperature is low.

The study of the atmosphere is collectively referred to as atmospheric science. Within this field of science there are two main areas of inquiry, meteorology and climatology. Meteorologists monitor the atmosphere using both physical and chemistry methodology with the primary goal of forecasting weather. Climatology is the study of long term climate patterns and either natural or human factors that may effect or be affected by climate changes.

Components

Our atmosphere is composed mostly of nitrogen and oxygen, 78 and 21 percent respectively. [1]

Troposphere

The troposphere is where all the weather takes place and is about 14,000 meters high from the Earth's surface. Coupling it with the buffer zone before the stratosphere it is 18,000 meters from the surface.

Stratosphere

The stratosphere includes the thin ozone layer which houses a high concentration of a particularly reactive form of oxygen called ozone. The ozone layer is primarily responsible for absorbing the ultraviolet radiation from the sun.

Mesosphere and Ionosphere

The mesosphere is the third highest layer in our atmosphere, occupying a region of 50,000 to 80,000 meters above the surface. The ionosphere is beyond that reaching 350,000 meters into space measuring from the top of the stratosphere. This component of our atmosphere is very thin but is responsible for absorbing the most energetic photons from the sun and for reflecting radio waves, essentially making long-distance radio communication possible.[2][3]

Abelson's Hypothesis

Abelson's Hypothesis tells us that the genesis of the primitive atmosphere was the result of out-gassing. However, there is no geo-chemical evidence for a primitive methane-ammonia atmosphere and there is much evidence against it including:

  1. It has been estimated an amount of ammonia equivalent to present atmospheric nitrogen would be destroyed in about 30,000 years due to degradation by ultraviolet radiation. That is a negligible amount of time compared to the vast geologic ages needed for the accumulation of reduced organic compounds.
  2. If large amounts of methane had been present in the primitive atmosphere, irradiation would have produced large quantities of hydrophobic organic compounds that would have been absorbed by sedimentary clays. The earliest rocks would then have contaminated a large proportion of organic compounds, but such simply is not the case.
  3. If the earth were unable to retain xenon of atomic weight 130, other light constituents such as hydrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide would have been lost as well.[4]

It is thus concluded that the concept that the earth had a dense methane-ammonia atmosphere is not supported by geochemistry and it is contradicted by the scarcity of xenon and krypton in our present atmosphere.

Studies of the composition of volcanic gases have shown that water and CO2 are the major volatiles produced by out-gassing. A significant amount of reducing potential is also brought to the surface in the form of hydrogen. In this hypothesis the amount of reducing potential brought to the surface is estimated by making a balance sheet of the oxidized and reduced chemicals in the atmosphere, biosphere, and sedimentary rocks. [4]

Most of the carbon in sedimentary rocks is present as carbonate. Part is present as reduced carbon. The amount of oxygen that would be required to convert this material to CO2 and H20 is estimated to be 235x1020 power g. It is suggested in this hypothesis that a probable explanation for this discrepancy is that an appreciable amount of the carbon released from volcanoes was in the form of CO. Assuming that the discrepancy in the balance sheet for oxygen was due to H2 and CO produced by out-gassing, in this hypothesis, it was then calculated that the amount of these gases which reached the surface was 19x1020 power g of CO.

It is further assumed in this hypothesis that one of the precursors that gave rise to biologically important compounds was hydrogen cyanide (HCN). A combination of gases that could give to hydrogen cyanide consists of CO, H2 and N2. The CO produced by out-gassing, however, would be removed by reaction with the water of the primitive oceans to produce formic acid, resulting in a very low pressure of CO. It is, therefore assumed that the H2 produced by out-gassing would react with CO2 to produce enough CO to raise its pressure to a sufficient level.[4]

Further assumptions must be made, however, since CO, N2 and H2 will not react to produce hydrogen cyanide in the presence of water. In this hypothesis it is believed that on the primitive earth a very low temperature may have existed at an altitude no greater than 20 kilometers and that this low temperature which gave rise to hydrogen cyanide existed above this temperature minimum and that it constituted primarily of N2, CO, and H2.

While Abelson's Hypothesis, on the basis of geo-chemical and cosmological data has effectively demolished the methane-ammonia atmosphere (also known as Urey's Hypothesis), this hypothesis has failed to produce equally convincing evidence for a postulated primitive atmosphere of CO, N2, and H2O. The critical feature of this hypothesis is the assumption that out-gassing produced such large quantities of H2 and CO as 19x1020 power g and 17x1020 power g, respectively. This must be recognized as speculation not supported by the facts. A certain reducing potential was required for the abiogenic origin of reduced chemical compounds, so a hypothetical source was proposed.[4]

The main constituents of volcanic gases are H2O, CO2, and N2. The mean composition of volcanic gases from Halemaumau in Hawaii is, by volume: H2O = 68%, CO2 = 13%, N2 = 8% and the rest is mainly sulfurous fumes. In Urey's hypothesis it has been pointed out that the gases escaping from lava lakes of Hawaiian volcanoes are so highly oxidized that it is difficult to account for the high state of oxidation. The proposal that out-gassing produced vast quantities of H2 AND CO is thus not supported by known data but seems to be contradictory.[4]

It should be emphasized that Abelson's Hypothesis, like all others, must appeal to hypotheses where data are lacking, and that, in the final analysis, no model of the primitive earth can be considered as anything more than a working hypothesis.

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References

  1. Hamilton, Calvin J. "Earth Introduction." Views of the Solar System, 2001. Accessed January 11, 2008.
  2. "Entry on Mesosphere." Encyclopedia of the Atmospheric Environment, 2000. Accessed January 11, 2008.
  3. "Lecture on the Earth's Atmosphere." Astronomy 161, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, n.d. Accessed January 11, 2008.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 The Primitive atmosphere by D. Denner Creation 3(3):23–27 August 1980

See Also