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Sodium chloride

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Sodium chloride
Sodium chloride crystal.png
NaCl ionic.png
Systematic name Sodium Chloride
Other names Salt, Halide, Table Salt
Molecular formula NaCl
Molar mass Molar mass::58.442g/mol
Appearance Crystallized and White
CAS number CAS number::7647-14-5
Density and phase [[Density::2.16 g/cm3]], solid
Solubility in water 35.9 g/100 ml (25°C)
Melting point Melting point::801°C
Boiling point Boiling point::1465°C
Crystal structure Face Centered Cubic
MSDS External MSDS
Main hazards Irritant
NFPA 704

NFPA 704 svg.png

Flash point Non-Flammable
R/S statement R: none
S: none
RTECS number VZ4725000
Related compounds
Other anions NaF, NaBr, Nal
Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl,
CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2
Related Salts Sodium Acetate
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Disclaimer and references

Sodium Chloride is a very important compound and it is used in thousands of ways in today's world. The molecular formula of Sodium Chloride is NaCl. Sodium Chloride is a combination of positively charged Sodium ions and negatively charged Chloride ions. Sodium Chloride is also known as Common Salt, Table Salt, Rock Salt, or Halite (the mineral form).


Sodium chloride crystals

The chemical formula of sodium chloride is NaCl, which are the symbols for Sodium and Chlorine on the Periodic Table of Elements. Sodium Chloride crystals are in cubic form. Table salt is just tiny cubes of sodium chloride tightly bound together through ionic bonding. [1] It is used for food seasoning, road ice melting, agriculture, and water conditioning, as well as thousands of other important uses. The molecular weight of Sodium Chloride is 58.442. The melting point is 801 degrees C, and its boiling point is 1465 degrees C. Sodium Chloride is an octahedral and its crystal structure is a face-centered cubic. The only main hazards of Sodium Chloride is that it can be irritant to the skin and it may sting when it comes in contact with an open sore or cut. Sodium Chloride is non-flammable. Sodium Chloride is very soluble in water, but not very soluble in other liquids. It is odorless, but has a very strong distinct taste. It's an ionic compound that is made up of equal numbers of + charged Sodium ions and - charged Chloride ions. When Sodium Chloride is melted or dissolved in water, the ions move freely. It can be decomposed into Sodium and Chlorine by passing electrical currents through it, a process called Electrolysis. [2]


Sodium Chloride is very abundant and occurs naturally. It is found in the mineral Halite (also known as rock salt) as well as in mixed evaporates in salt lakes. Sea water contains 2.7% by weight salt, and constitutes about 80% of the dissolved minerals in seawater. [3] The Dead Sea, located between Israel and Jordan, is the saltiest body of water on the earth. The Salt concentration in the dead sea is 34%! This extremely high content of salt makes it impossible for any plants or animals to live in it, hence its name, The "Dead" Sea.[4] One interesting fact about the Dead Sea is that, because of its extremely high salt concentration, swimmers are able to float in it very easily. The Dead Sea is known for its "floaters", and there are many well known pictures of people floating on their backs reading a newspaper.


Sodium Chloride has more than 14,000 uses in today's world. According to a 2006 survey by the National Science Teachers Association, the major uses of salt in the United States are 59% for Highway, 17% for Water Conditioning, 9% for Chemical, 8% for Food Grading, and 7% for Agriculture. [5]

Salt is one of the most effective ways to ensure winter road safety for cars. Road Salt trucks distribute salt all over the United States during the winter time in order to melt ice that builds up on the roads. Without sodium chloride, there would be thousands more road accidents during the winter time because cars would be mostly unable to drive without slipping and crashing into property, pedestrians, and other cars.

Another great use for Sodium Chloride is as a feedstock for the production of chemicals. The chlor-alkali industry uses salt to produce chlorine and caustic soda. It is also used to make sodium chlorate and metallic sodium by electrolysis, and sodium sulfate and hydrochloric acid by reacting with sulfuric acid.