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Moses and Amenemhet IV

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Amenemhet IV


Introduction

This article looks at the Egyptian identity of Moses in the light of new insights into Egypt's History and better understanding of the Egyptian chronology.

The Bible is a reliable source of historical information. It contains the historical records and the chronicles of Israel.

The Exodus of Israel can be dated to 1446BC as the Bible records that there were 480 years from the Exodus to the building of the Temple by Solomon (1Kings 6:1 ) and the date that the foundations of the Temple were laid by Solomon is agreed upon by most Archaeologists to be 966BC. (see Evidence for the Israelite Sojourn in Egypt) Moses was 80 yrs old at the time of the Exodus of Israel ( ).

If the Chronology of Egyptian History was as reliable as the Bible then it would be fairly easy to 'look up' Egyptian records and see which Pharaohs were ruling at a particular time. Unfortunately, Egyptian hieroglyphics no not have a timestamp and the art or reading them was completely lost until the discovery of the Rosetta Stone. Many records have been lost, destroyed or damaged by natural disasters or wars. Many important libraries were burnt down in the Roman period (eg the Libraries of Alexandria and Ephesus).

The traditional dates of Egyptian dynasties and the dates of Pharaohs reigns (the Egyptian chronology) based primarily on Manetho's records has turned out to be quite inaccurate. Manetho, who lived around the time of Alexander the Great, compiled a list of pharaohs and the length of their reigns from records in the Alexandrian library. His original writings were also destroyed and we only have the notes of people who saw them. Historians have assume that Manetho's list was sequential and have thus prolonged the Egyptian Chronology. Manetho's list was similar to the Turin King list and so it is considered to be a fairly reliable list of how long each pharaoh reigned. Manetho's list does not include dates and places and it is not clear where pharaohs reigned together or simultaneously in different parts of the country. We now know that some of the dynasties ran in parallel (in the North and the South of the country) and Pharaohs often co-reigned together at the beginning and end of their reigns. Egypt was also divided into 42 regions called Nomes. The rulers of these regions were called nomarches. It is likely that some of the pharaohs listed by Manetho and the Turin King list may turn out to be Nomarches (particularly those of dynasties 7-11 also known as the first intermediate period). Consequently, when allowance is made for parallel dynasties and co-regency, the dates and the time frame of Egyptian history is substantially more recent and shorter than the Traditional Chronology based on the sequential dynasties of Manetho (see David Down).

Due to the inaccuracies of the Traditional Chronology and multiple revisions, a number of Egyptian correlates of Moses have been put forwards by various people over the ages. Better understanding of the Egyptian Chronology requires a reassessment of the Archaeological Evidence. Candidates that were identified according to dates alone, that were a poor character profile match for Moses can now be excluded. And candidates that seemed to match the character profile of Moses exactly but were thought unlikely to be Moses based on the dates can now be reconsidered. Amenemhet IV of the 12th dynasty of Egypt is one such candidate that is a very good Character Profile match for Moses but thought to be unlikely because the Traditional Egyptian Chronology dated his reign to be around 1798-1786BC.

In a revised Egyptian Chronology the dates of Amenemhet IV's co-regency are likely to be around 1495-1486BC making it highly likely that Amenemhet IV was Moses of the Bible. This is supported by strong archaeological evidence that the Israelites were slaves in Egypt during the 12th dynasty and left Egypt in the 13th dynasty before the Hyksos invaded (or took over) Egypt to start the 15th dynasty (the second intermediate period).

18th dynasty candidates for Moses can now be excluded. Israel had little to do with the Hyksos when they were in Egypt and the defeat of the Hyksos at the beginning of the 18th dynasty was NOT the Exodus of Israel. The first 18th dynasty Pharaohs (Ahmose I,Amenhotep I,Thutmose I,Thutmose II,Hatshepsut) were contemporaries of Saul, David and Solomon. Saul seems to have encountered the Hyksos (the Amalekites) after they were ejected from Egypt; 400yrs after they took power! This was the end of the Second Intermediate Period and the beginning of Egypt's New Kingdom (the 18th dynasty). The Second Intermediate Period, when the Hyksos were ruling in Lower Egypt (dynasties 15 & 16), coincides with the Period of the Judges in Israel.

The Jews were enslaved during the 12th dynasty. Moses was born during the coregency of Sesostris III and his son Amenemhet III towards the end of the 12th dynasty. He was raised in pharaoh's own household by the Princess Sobeknefru the daughter of Amenemhet III who was the son of Sesostris III. Moses was adopted by the Pharaoh and was being groomed to be the next pharaoh after Amenemhet III. He may even have co-reigned with Amenemhet III for 9 years under the name Amenemhet IV. When Moses/Amenemhet IV had to flee to Midian at the age of 40 years, there was suddenly no heir to the throne. When Amenemhet III died shortly after this, Sobeknefru had to become the Queen. Sobeknefru only reigned for another 4-8 years and then she died. When Sobeknefru died, the 12th dynasty ended.

Amenemhet IV / Moses returned to Egypt to confront a different pharaoh (Neferhotep of the 13th dynasty) with the message "Let my people go" (namely, the Israelites who had been in Egypt for 430 years and treated as slaves during the 12th and 13th dynasties).

An approximate timeline showing a long Israelite Sojourn of 430 years and it's relationship to the dynasties of Egypt.

The Egyptians, weakened by a series of plagues and the loss of their first born children, were only too pleased to see the Israelites go. The Egyptians gave the Israelites cattle, food and gold and let the Israelites head off into the desert heading towards Midian in Arabia where volcanoes in the region of Mt Sinai were erupting.

After the Israelites set off into the desert, Neferhotep had a change of heart and decided to pursue the Israelites with his army which had 600 chariots at it's disposal.

Discovered by Ronn Wyatt in 1978. A pair of pillars on the Egyptian side (Nuweiba) and the Saudi side of the the Gulf of Aqaba - The Red Sea. The one on the Egyptian side had fallen over and was in the sea. It's inscriptions had worn off. The one on the Saudi side was inscribed with the words: Yahweh, Pharaoh, Mizraim, Moses, Death, Water, Solomon, Edom. The Saudi pillar has now been removed by the Saudi's but the one on the Nuweiba side is still standing and can be visited. Wyatt also found 4, 6 and 8 spoked chariot wheels covered with coral strewn across the bottom of the Red Sea at this point.
The Exodus Route. Mt Sinai and site of the Red Sea Crossing. Solomon left pillars at this site Nuweiba to mark the site of the Red Sea Crossing.

The Israelites, traveling at a speed of about one mile per hour, managed to find the Wadi Watir which was a deep ravine that lead to the Red Sea. Neferhotep pursued the Israelites with his army. The Israelites were trapped and had no where to go. Volcanos were erupting and earthquakes may have been happening. Suddenly, the Red Sea opened up giving the Israelites an exit. The Israelites were able to cross the Red Sea at the part that is now known as the Gulf of Aqaba where Nuweiba is located. (Solomon erected pillars to mark the site of the Red Sea Crossing). (See Evidence for the Israelite Sojourn in Egypt)

Neferhotep I and his army tried to follow the Israelites but while his army was crossing the Red Sea, the sea bed sank beneath the ocean once again. The Israelites had only just finished traversing the 8 miles to the other side of the gulf when a giant wave decimated the Egyptian army following them. Neferhotep I and his army drowned and all of Egypt's chariots went with them.

Not long after the Israelites left Egypt, they had an encounter with the Hyksos (Amalekites).[1][2][3] Exodus 17:8-16

This happened in the second month after the Israelites crossed the Red Sea (the Exodus), when they were camping at Rephidim after passing through the Desert of Sin. This was before they arrived at Mount Sinai.

The Hyksos (Amalekites) attacked them but Joshua and his men prevailed as Moses, who was standing on a hill, held his arms up for the men to see. Exodus 17:8-16 The Amalekites fled and eventually ended up going to Egypt. Egypt had been crippled by plagues, the loss of it's army and leader and the loss of it's chariots. It was easy pickings for the Hyksos / Amalekites. The Hyksos / Amalekites eventually took over Lower Egypt where they reigned for the next 400 years (dynasties 15 & 16, also known as the Second Intermediate Period).

Moses / Amenemhet IV continued to lead the Israelites in the Wilderness for the next 40 years. He never made it to the promised land but he saw it from a far. Moses / Amenemhet IV received the Law from God on Mt Sinai. Just before the Israelites invaded Canaan, Moses / Amenemhet IV gave a speech to the Israelites to prepare them for when they were in the Promised Land of Canaan. It was Joshua, however, who lead the Israelites across the Jordan into the Promised Land.

Biblical References to Moses

Biblical Genealogy

Genealogy: Abraham to Moses - according to the Bible

Biblical History

Biblical Achievements of Moses

Growing up in Pharaoh's Household - the first 40 yrs

The Israelites were oppressed after the death of Joseph (Imhotep). Exodus 1:1-22

Netjerikhet / Djoser (the pharaoh Joseph served) allowed the Jacob and his family to live in the most fertile part of the land of Egypt where they multiplied and became numerous. Joseph (Imhotep) ensured that the Jews were able to multiply without hindrance from the Egyptians. Joseph died at the age of 110 years, 80 years after he became the vizier (second in charge) under Pharaoh. Joseph would have lived well into the 4th dynasty and advised several pharaohs.

It was not until quite some time after Joseph's death, that a new Pharaoh Amenemhet I came to power. Amenemhet I was concerned that the Jews were becoming too numerous. He was afraid that they would join their enemies and fight against him.

Amenemhet I (the first pharaoh of the 12th dynasty) was the vizier of Mentuhotep IV (last pharaoh of the 11th dynasty). The Jews were treated well in the 11th dynasty. Amenemhet I may have even assassinated Mentuhotep IV to take power. He had a different attitude towards the Jews. He forced the Jews to make mud bricks and work the field.

Other pharaohs of the 12th dynasty continued in this vein. They needed a large slave labour force to make mudbricks for their building exploits. The 12th dynasty pyramids, unlike pyramids of earlier dynasties, were made of mubricks and only had a limestone veneer on the outside. The seven great pyramids of the 12th dynasty were constructed over a 200 year period. Each of the Pyramids contained millions of mudbricks.

By the end of the 12th dynasty, the Jews had come to number nearly 2 million with at least 600000 men of fighting age. If the Jews just produced one mud brick per person per day 5 days per week for 200 years, that would be a lot of mudbricks!!! More than enough for the needs of the 12th dynasty pharaohs.

The 6th pharaoh of the 12th dynasty Amenemhet III made two pyramids and also constructed the Labyrinth (a structure containing over 1000 rooms and considered one of the wonders of the ancient world). The Labyrinth was also constructed out of mud bricks. Moses was born during the reign of Amenemhet III at a time when he was co-reigning with his father Sesostris III. It was one of these pharaohs who ordered the Egyptian midwives to kill the Hebrew babies if they were male. It was Amenemhet III's daughter Sobekneferu who found Moses amongst the reeds of the Nile when she was bathing. Moses was just three months old at the time and had been left there by his sister Miriam who was keeping an eye on him. Sobekneferu allowed the Hebrew slave Jochebed (who was actually Moses's mother), to nurse him until he was old enough and then Sobekneferu took him as her own son. Sobekneferu would have groomed Moses to be the next pharaoh Amenemhet IV. Exodus 2:1-10

Moses in Exile - the second 40 yrs

If Moses was Amenemhet IV, he may have even co-reigned with Amenemhet III for a period of 9 yrs according to the Turin King List. Amenemhet IV never got to reign by himself. What's more, Amenemhet IV seem to have suddenly disappear from Egyptian records without a trace. His tomb has never been found. When Amenemhet III died a few years later, Sobekneferu had to assume the throne as there were no other heirs to the throne. When Sobekneferu died after reigning for only 4 years (possibly 8yrs according to the Turin King List), the 12th dynasty ended.

The sudden disappearance of Amenemhet IV at the end of the 12th dynasty when the Israelite oppression was taking place (40yrs before the Exodus) AND the absence of any Egyptian birth records as to the ancestry of Amenemhet IV has lead many historians and theologians to believe that Amenemhet IV was Moses.

The pyramid of Amenemhet III at Hawara was the last of the Great Pyramids to be built. When Amenemhet III died, the Israelite oppression ended. The Israelites had to wait another 30yrs after the 12th dynasty ended for Moses to return to force Pharaoh to 'let them go' and to 'lead them out of Egypt'.

The Bible tells us that Moses was found by the princess and raised as her own son. This means that Moses would have been next in line to the throne as women did not normally become pharaohs. Amenemhet III did not have any sons and he needed an heir to continue the 12th dynasty. This is why Amenemhet III allowed his daughter Sobekneferu to adopt a Hebrew infant Moses and groom him to be the next pharaoh Amenemhet IV.

Moses stayed in Pharaoh's household until the age of 40. If he was Amenemhet IV, he would have co-reigned with Amenemhet III for 9 years (Turin King List). When his affections for his blood kindred (the Hebrew Slaves) became apparent, Pharaoh Amenemhet III tried to kill him.Exodus 2:11-25 Moses / Amenemhet IV had to flee to Midian where he remained for 40 years. This accounts for the sudden disappearance of Amenemhet IV without a trace in the Egyptian records. We know from the Bible, however, that Amenemhet IV (if he was Moses), fled to Midian where he stayed with a Midianite priest called Jethro. He had encounters with God on Mt Sinai (burning bush) Exodus 3:1-22 and was told by God to go back to Egypt and tell the pharaoh to "let the Israelites go". Moses was warned that the Pharaoh would have a hard heart and God would have to inflict a series of plagues on the Egyptians before they would listen to him and let Moses lead the Israelites out of Egypt to the Promised Land of Canaan.

Sobekhotep I began the 13th dynasty but the pharaohs tended to change quickly and only had short reigns. One of the longest reigning pharaohs of the 13th dynasty, Neferhotep I (who reigned for 11 years) was reigning when Moses (alias Amenemhet IV) returned from exile.Exodus 2:23-25

God sent Aaron to meet Moses (who was his brother) and bring him back to Egypt where he went before the Elders of the Israelites and told them what God had said and perform the signs that were given to him.Exodus 4:1-17 The Elders of the Israelites believed Moses and appointed Moses as their leader and Aaron as their spokesman. Exodus 4:18-31

Confronting Pharaoh with God's Message

After Moses (Amenemhet IV) had been in Midian for 40 years, the LORD (Yehovah) appeared to Moses on Mt Sinai. Moses was told to go back to Egypt and tell the new Pharaoh to let the Israelites go.Exodus 3:1-22

The Israelites had been in Egypt 430 years. It was time for them to return to Canaan and take possession of it. Yehovah had promised to give Canaan to the Israelites after they had served as slaves in a foreign land for 400 years (4 generations).Genesis 15:12-16 Acts 7:6

The pharaohs of the 12th dynasty had forgotten what Joseph (Imhotep) had done for Egypt. The Jews, who had come to number around 2 million posed a threat to the Egyptians and so the 12th dynasty pharaohs oppressed the Jews and forced them to make mudbricks and work the fields. The 12th dynasty ended with the death of Sobekneferu; the princess that found Moses and raised him as her own.

The 13th dynasty pharaohs did not undertake massive construction projects like their 12th dynasty predecessors but they continued to oppress the Israelites. Yehovah saw their suffering and remembered his promise to Abraham. Exodus 6:1-12

Yehovah appeared to Aaron (the brother of Moses) and sent him to fetch Moses and be his spokesman. Moses returned to Egypt and appeared before the Elders of Israel. He told them what God had said and Moses (Amenemhet IV) performed the signs that were given to him. The Israelites believed and accepted Moses and Aaron as their leader and spokesman.Exodus 4:18-31

Moses and Aaron went before the Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) and presented the message that God had given them. Moses was 80 yrs old when he was sent to Pharaoh (Neferhotep I).Exodus 7:7 The Pharaoh's heart was hard and so God had to inflict 10 plagues upon Egypt before the Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) would finally agree to let the Israelites go.

Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) and perform Miraculous Signs and delivered God's Message : "Let My People Go into the Desert to Worship Me".Exodus 7:1-13 Ten Plagues were inflicted upon Egypt because Pharaoh Neferhotep I would not soften his heart and let the Israelites go: Blood - Exodus 7:14-25 Frogs - Exodus 8:1-15 Gnats - Exodus 8:15-19 Flies - Exodus 8:20-32 Livestock - Exodus 9:1-7 Boils - Exodus 9:8-12 Hail - Exodus 9:13-33 Locusts - Exodus 10:1-20 Darkness - Exodus 10:21-29 Egypt's Firtsborn - Exodus 11:1-10 Amazingly, none of these plagues affected the Israelites who were living in the country. The last plague in which all of Egypt's firstborn died is commemorated by the Jews today: The Passover. Exodus 12:1-30

The loss of Egypt's first born (Including Neferhotep I's son Haankhef) was the 'final straw'. After this Pharaoh Neferhotep I summoned Moses and Aaron and told the the Israelites to GO (and take their flocks and herds). The Egyptians even gave the Israelites considerable amounts of gold and sliver and clothes. Exodus 12:31-50

The Exodus

The Exodus. Exodus 12:31-50

The Israelites assembled at Succoth. That night, the Israelites set off, taking with them unleavened bread as well as their flocks and herds and the gold and silver that the Egyptians had given them. Exodus 12:33-39 The Israelites had over 600000 men of fighting age. Exodus 12:37 The Israelites had been in Egypt for 430 years.Exodus 12:40

Flinders Petrie found evidence to suggest that the town of Kahun was suddenly vacated. He also found the scarabs of various pharaohs including those of Sesostris II (the earliest) and Neferhotep I (the latest). The the most recent (latest) scarabs would indicate which pharaoh was ruling when the town was vacated, particularly if the pharaoh had been ruling for a while. The most recent scarabs found at Kahun were those of Neferhotep. Neferhotep also has the necessary credentials to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus in that he was reigning at the right time, his body (mummy) was never found and he had a son but his son did not succeed him. Neferhotep I was succeeded by his brother Sobekhotep IV who would not have normally been next in line to the throne but for the fact that Neferhotep's firstborn son Haankhef was killed in the last of the ten plagues that befell Egypt.

After assembling at Succoth the Israelites and set out towards Etham and the Red Sea, thus avoiding Philistine territory. Exodus 13:17-22 Moses took Joseph's (Imhotep's) bones with him. Exodus 13:19

The Israelites were guided by a pillar of fire by night and pillar of cloud by day. Exodus 13:21-22

The Israelites camped on the edge of the desert at Etham. Exodus 13:20

The Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) changed his mind about letting the Israelites GO and decided to pursue the Israelites with his army which had at it's disposal all of Egypt's chariots. Exodus 14:1-31

The Israelites were able to miraculously cross the Red Sea on dry ground but the Pharaoh (Neferhotep I) and his army were drowned when they tried to follow. Exodus 14:21-31

After Crossing the Red Sea

After crossing the Red Sea, the Israelites bypassed Marah where the waters were bitter. They camped at Elim where there were 12 springs and 70 palms. Exodus 15:22-27

The LORD provided bread (Manna) for the Israelites every morning while they were in the wilderness. (40 years) God provided meat in the evenings. Exodus 16:1-36

God provided water from a rock at Rephidim. Exodus 17:1-7

The Israelites bumped into the Amalekites / (Hyksos) at Rephidim where they had a scuffle. Joshua and his men deflect the Amalekites (Hyksos) as Moses stood on a hill with his arms uplifted. Exodus 17:8-16

Jethro visited Moses in the wilderness. Moses took his advice and appointed officials to help him govern the Israelites. Exodus 18:1-27

Receiving the Law on Mt Sinai

Exodus 19:1-25 The Israelites arrive at Mt Sinai in the third month after leaving Egypt.

Exodus 20:1-26 The Law is given to Moses on Mt Sinai (The Ten Commandments)

Exodus 21:1-35 Exodus 22:1-31 Exodus 23:1-33 Other laws given to Moses on Mt Sinai

Exodus 24:1-18 God makes a Covenant with Israel

Exodus 25:1-40 Exodus 226:1-37 Exodus 27:1-21 Exodus 28:1-43 Exodus 29:1-46 Exodus 30:1-38 Exodus 31:1-18 Setting up the Sanctuary

Exodus 32:1-35 Exodus 33:1-23 Exodus 34:1-35 The Golden Calf and the Stone Tablets

Exodus 35:1-35 Exodus 36:1-38 Exodus 37:1-29 Exodus 38:1-31 Exodus 39:1-43 Exodus 40:1-38 Completing the Sanctuary

Leviticus 1:1-17 Leviticus 2:1-16 Leviticus 3:1-17 Leviticus 4:1-35 Leviticus 5:1-19 Leviticus 6:1-30 Leviticus 7:1-38 Offerings to the LORD

Moses and the Israelites in the Wilderness - the last 40 years

Leviticus 8:1-36 Ordination of Aaron and his sons

Leviticus 9:1-24 The Sanctuary is ready

Leviticus 16:1-34 The Day of Atonement

Leviticus 20:1-27 Punishment for sin

Leviticus 23:1-44 Feasts of the LORD

Numbers 13:1-33 Spying out the promised land

Numbers 14:1-45 The People rebel against Moses

Numbers 20:1-13 The Israelites Camp at Kadesh - Miriam dies

Numbers 20:13-21 Edom denies the Israelites passage

Numbers 20:22-29 Aaron dies on Mt Hor

Numbers 21:1-35 Israel defeats the king of Arad (a Canaanite), the king of the Amorites (Sihon) and the king of Bashan (Og).

Numbers 20:13-20 The Israelites travel to the plains of Moab by the river Jordan opposite Jericho. Balak son of Zippor is the king of Moab at the time. He asks Balaam to curse the Israelites.

Numbers 26:1-65 Numbers 26:51 Moses and Eleazar take a census while on the plains of Moab opposite Jericho. There were 601,730 men who were able to serve in the army.

Numbers 27:12-23 Moses commissions Joshua to be Israel's next leader.

Numbers 31:1-54 The Israelites defeat the Midianites killing every man and taking their women and children and herds, flocks and goods as plunder. Numbers 31:8 Among their victims were Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur and Reba—the five kings of Midian. They also killed Balaam son of Beor with the sword.

Numbers 32:1-42 Then Moses gave to the Gadites, the Reubenites and the half-tribe of Manasseh son of Joseph the kingdom of Sihon king of the Amorites and the kingdom of Og king of Bashan—the whole land with its cities and the territory around them.

Numbers 33:1-56 Here are the stages in the journey of the Israelites when they came out of Egypt by divisions under the leadership of Moses and Aaron.

Numbers 34:1-29 Numbers 35:1-34 Numbers 36:1-13 Dividing up the land of Canaan.

Deuteronomy 1:1-46 Deuteronomy 2:1-37 Deuteronomy 3:1-29 Deuteronomy 4:1-49 Deuteronomy 5:1-33 Deuteronomy 6:1-25 Deuteronomy 7:1-26 Deuteronomy 8:1-20 Deuteronomy 9:1-29 Deuteronomy 10:1-22 Deuteronomy 11:1-32 Deuteronomy 12:1-32 Deuteronomy 13:1-18 Deuteronomy 14:1-29 Deuteronomy 15:1-23 Deuteronomy 16:1-22 Deuteronomy 17:1-20 Deuteronomy 18:1-22 Deuteronomy 19:1-21 Deuteronomy 20:1-20 Deuteronomy 21:1-23 Deuteronomy 22:1-30 Deuteronomy 23:1-25 Deuteronomy 24:1-22 Deuteronomy 25:1-19 Deuteronomy 26:1-19 Deuteronomy 27:1-26 Deuteronomy 28:1-68 Deuteronomy 29:1-29 Deuteronomy 30:1-20 Deuteronomy 31:1-30 Deuteronomy 32:1-52 Deuteronomy 33:1-29 Moses final words to Israel before they enter the promised land.

Deuteronomy 34:1-12 Moses dies at the age of 120 years, on Mt Nebo in Moab after seeing the promised land from a distance.

Is Moses Likely to have figured in Egyptian Records?

Where does Moses fit into Egyptian History?

Why has it been so difficult to find Moses in Egyptian History?

Who was Amenemhet IV?

Similarities and parallels between Moses and Amenemhet IV

Could Moses have been born during the 12th dynasty of Egypt?

The Israelites had grown to number around 2 million by the end of the 12th dynasty when Moses was born.

Joseph (Imhotep) had long since died and the Pharaohs of the 12th dynasty had forgotten his connection with the Jews. Joseph / Imhotep had looked after his family and ensured that they were able to multiply to become a great nation. Joseph died at the age of 110 years; 80 years after coming to Egypt.

The Jews were in Egypt for 430 years by the time of the Exodus.

The Jews had become so numerous by the start of the 12th dynasty that the Egyptians were beginning to feel threatened.

Amenmhet I (the first pharaoh of the 12th dynasty), was the vizier of Mentuhotep IV (the last pharaoh of the 11th dynasty) whom he may have assassinated.

The pharaohs of the 12th dynasty required a large slave labour force for the construction of their pyramids and other public works. The Jews were given the task of making mud bricks and working in the fields. The 12th dynasty lasted almost 200 years and at least seven pyramids were constructed during this time.

A semitic slave village at Kahun was built during the time of Sesostris II and occupied up until the time of the Exodus when Neferhotep I was reigning. We know this because scarabs of these pharaohs were found in the town.

The pyramids of the 12th dynasty had a core of mudbricks and a limestone veneer. The cores of each of these pyramids contained millions of mudbricks. Mudbricks were also used for other structures such as the Labyrinth which was built by Amenemhet III, the 6th pharaoh of the 12th dynasty.

Amenemhet III reigned for 46 yrs but had a 20 year co-regency with his father Sesostris III at the beginning of his reign. Moses was born early in the reign of Amenemhet III. It was Amenemhet III who tried to kill the male Israelite babies at birth. It was his daughter Sobekneferu who found Moses in a basket among the reeds of the Nile and adopted him and raised him as her own. Moses was groomed to be the next pharaoh Amenemhet IV and may have even been co-regent with Amenemhet III for 9 years (as Amenemhet IV). He never got to rule by himself. When his affections for the Israelites became known, Moses (alias Amenemhet IV) had to go into exile in Midian or be killed by Amenemhet III.

This not only fits well with historical records and the archaeological evidence, it allows complete synchrony of the Bible with the Egyptian Chronology.

Could Moses and Amenemhet IV have been the same person?

The Pharaoh of Moses had a daughter and no sons. Amenemhet III had a daughter (Sobekneferu) and no sons to inherit the throne and continue the dynasty.

The Pharaoh of Moses reigned for at least 40 years as it was the same pharaoh from Moses birth to his Exile at 40 yrs. Amenemhet III reigned for 46 yerars.

The Pharaoh of Moses had a big need for mud bricks. Amenemhet III built two pyramids (Hawara & Dashur) and The Labyrinth (Hawara) which were composed mainly of mud bricks.

The Pharaoh of Moses reigned towards the end of the Israelites' oppression. Amenemhet III's pyramid at Hawara was the last of the Great Pyramids to be built.

The Pharaoh of Moses reign ended around 40 years before the Exodus. Archaeologist Flinders Petrie found a workers village at Kahun which was occupied from the time of Sesostris II to Neferhotep I. Neferhotep I reigned about 30-40 years after Amenemhet III. The village appeared to have been suddenly vacated.

The Pharaoh of Moses's daughter adopted a child. Amenemhet IV had no records of his birth in Egyptian records. Sobekneferu is often cited as the wife sister of Amenemhet IV although there is no evidence to substantiate this.

Moses was raised in Pharaoh's Household by the Princess as her own and hence Moses was an heir to the throne but was never the Pharaoh who reigned.

Amenemhet IV never reigned over Egypt by himself but he did co-reign with Amenemhet III for 9 yrs.

Moses suddenly disappeared at the Age of 40 years. Amenemhet IV also suddenly disappeared.

The Jews were slaves for half of their time in Egypt (the first 200 yrs was for multiplication and then they were slaves for the next 200 yrs). The 12th dynasty lasted about 200 yrs.

The Jews had to make mud bricks that contained straw. There were millions of Jews and they served as slaves for 200 years. That is a lot of mud bricks!! The Pyramids of the 12th dynasty and The Labyrinth were made out of mud bricks containing straw. The 12th dynasty pyramids only had a limestone facing / veneer which no longer exists.

Who else could have made all these mud bricks?

What are the implications for Israel, Islam and Christianity?

The Abrahamic faiths, Christianity, Judaism and Islam all have their roots in Egypt.

Abraham, Joseph and Moses are common to all these religions.

They were real people who are considered the patriarchs of the faith.

Their ancestry and what they achieved is history and it is recorded in the Bible.

In an age when atheism and evolution are fairly common, it is good to be able to give evidence that the Bible is historically accurate.

Owing to the gross inaccuracies of the traditional Egyptian chronology, many historians and archaeologists have been looking for evidence of the Jews in Egypt in the wrong dynasties. Not surprisingly, they haven't found any.

The mud brick pyramids of the 12th dynasty have been staring us so blatantly in the face, yet somehow, over the ages, the fact that the Israelites made the mudbricks that went into them has been forgotten. Fact has become legend, and legend myth.

The loss of historical records (eg when the Alexandrian library burnt down), the whitewashing of history to cover up humiliating defeats, wars, natural disasters and pilfering has also contributed. For almost 2000 years, the art of reading hieroglyphics was lost and only recently recovered when the Rosetta stone was found.

When animals become extinct, people begin to doubt they ever existed.

When people no longer believe that the Bible is true, the fact that the Jews were in Egypt and played a big role in building the pyramids also gets lost.

Now, nobody can explain how the pyramids came to be. Some people have even suggested that they were made by aliens.

The Bible is the oldest, most reliable and ubiquitous source of historical information that we have. If we ignore it, it is no wonder that we do not know who built the pyramids.

When we believe it to be true, archaeological evidence and historical records and geological information just seem to fall into place.

The Bible provides the only credible explanation for where we come from and how the pyramids came to be.

Isn't God awsome and marvelous!!

What are the implications for Egypt?

If it is true that Joseph and Imhotep were the same person, then the first pyramid (the Step Pyramid in Saqqara) was designed by an Israelite at the beginning of Israel’s Sojourn in Egypt.

What’s more, if the last of the great pyramids (those of the 12th dynasty) were constructed with a core made from mud bricks which were made by Israelite slave labour, then the Israelites were in Egypt while all of the great pyramids were being constructed.

After the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt in the 13th dynasty, lead by Moses / Amenemhet IV, there were not enough slaves in Egypt to make construct pyramids any more.

If this is correct, the Pyramid Age coincides with the Sojourn of Israel in Egypt and all of the Great Pyramids would have been constructed over a period of around 430 years.

Josephus recorded that the Israelite slaves were given the task of building the Pyramids. The Pyramids of the 12th dynasty had an inner core that was made of mud bricks. The Bible records that the Israelites had to make mud bricks and work the fields. There were more than enough Israelite slaves in Egypt to make the mudbricks for all the 12th dynasty pyramids over a 200 year period.

Egypt’s wealth and power reached it’s peak in the 12th dynasty under Sesostris III and his son Amenemhet III but as they had no successors, the Middle Kingdom started to fall apart when they died.

Moses, an Israelite baby, was adopted by the Princess Sobekneferu and groomed to be the next Pharaoh (Amenemhet IV). Amenemhet IV did in fact co-reign with Amenemhet III for a period of 9 yrs but when he had to flee to Midian at the age of 40 years, there was suddenly no successor for Amenemhet III. Amenemhet III’s daughter Sobekneferu had to take over the reigns when Amenemhet III died. She only lived for another 4 yrs and when she died, the 12th dynasty ended, Egypt fell into turmoil and became politically unstable. There was a quick succession of Pharaohs in the 13th dynasty until Neferhotep I who was the Pharaoh who was ruling when Moses (Amenemhet IV) returned from exile in Midian. After a series of ten plagues that were inflicted on Egypt, Neferhotep I let Moses take the Israelites into the desert. When they did not return, he pursued them with his army. The Israelites were able to cross the Red Sea at the Gulf of Aqaba but Neferhotep I and his army drowned when they tried to follow.

Moses and the Israelites Crossed the Red Sea at Nuweiba in the Gulf of Aqaba in 1446BC.

Not only did Egypt lose its slave labour force, it lost it’s monarch, it’s entire army and it’s transportation system. It was a massive defeat and not something that Egyptian historians would want to memorialize.

When the Israelites left Egypt, Pharaoh and his son died and all the Egyptian army drowned in the Red Sea taking all of Egypts chariots with them. Egypt was then thrown into turmoil. The Hyksos were able to take power and the Egyptian second intermediate period followed (until the Hyksos were finally defeated in the 18th dynasty).

The Israelites, therefore, had a profound influence on Egypt having designed the first pyramid (in the third dynasty) and having provided slave labour for various public works which included making mudbricks for the construction of the last of the great pyramids (those of the 12th dynasty) and also the Labyrinth.

The country was destabilised when Moses (Amenemhet IV) went into exile as there was nobody to continue the 12th dynasty.

Egypt suffered massive losses as a result of the Exodus and as a result became vulnerable to invasion.

The Hyksos were able to take over Lower Egypt because of this. The Hyksos reigned for the next 400 yrs (the Second Intermediate Period).

Egyptians do not want to admit it, but the Israelites had a significant role in the construction of many of Egypt's national icons.

The Egyptian chronology needs to be revised and due credit given to the Israelites for their part in the construction of the pyramids of the 12th dynasty.

This would encourage many Christians, Muslims and Jews who would no doubt want to come and visit these national treasures.

Joseph / Imhotep also designed the first pyramid, developed embalming techniques, was amongst the first to use the papyrus and perform medical operations. Joseph also designed the first building that contained columns.

Joseph / Imhotep may have helped with the planning and design of other pyramids in the 3rd and 4th dynasty.

The Israelites do not appear to have played a role in the construction of the Old Kingdom Pyramids, in particular, those at Giza.

Conclusions

Pharaohs of the Israelite Oppression

The period when the Jews were oppressed in Egypt corresponds to the 12th dynasty of Egypt.

The pharaohs of the 12th dynasty required a large slave labour force for the construction of their pyramids and other public works.

The Pyramids of the 12th dynasty, unlike those of earlier dynasties, were made almost entirely of mud bricks which were finished with a limestone veneer. Over the centuries, the limestone veneer has fallen away due to erosion, earthquakes and pilfering. What remains is the inner cores of the pyramids which contain millions of mud bricks.

The Jews were given the task of making these mud bricks and working in the fields. The 12th dynasty lasted almost 200 years and at least seven pyramids were constructed during this time.

The Hebrew Oppression probably began with Amenemhet I, the first pharaoh of the 12th dynasty. By the time of Sesostris II, a workers villages had been built to house the slaves working on the pyramids at Hawara and Dashur. These villages were occupied up until the time of the Neferhotep I when the exodus occurred.

The pharaohs of the oppression therefore included: Amenemhet I, Sesostris I, Sesostris II, Amenemhet II, Sesostris III, Amenemhet III, Sobekneferu and the 13th dynasty pharaohs from Sobekhotep I to Neferhotep I.

Of note was Amenemhet III who was the 6th pharaoh of the 12th dynasty. He reigned for 46 yrs but had a 20 year co-regency with his father Sesostris III at the beginning of his reign. Moses was born early in the reign of Amenemhet III. It was Amenemhet III who tried to kill the male Israelite babies at birth. It was his daughter Sobekneferu who found Moses in a basket among the reeds of the Nile and adopted him and raised him as her own. Moses was groomed to be the next pharaoh Amenemhet IV and may have even been co-regent with Amenemhet III for 9 years (as Amenemhet IV). Moses never got to rule by himself. When his affections for the Israelites became known, Moses (alias Amenemhet IV) had to go into exile in Midian or be killed by Amenemhet III.

Pharaohs during the time of Moses' Exile

Moses (Amenemhet IV) was in exile in Midian for the last few years of Amenemhet III's reign and during the reign of Sobekneferu.Exodus 2:23-25

Moses remained in exile for much of the 13th dynasty from the reign of Sobekhotep I to Neferhotep I.

Pharaoh of the Exodus

Neferhotep I was one of the last Pharaohs of the 13th Dynasty. He reigned for 11 years according to the Turin King List; longer than any other Pharaoh of that dynasty. Neferhotep I was succeeded by his brother Sobekhotep IV rather than his son Haankhef[4] (Wahneferhotep).[5] He was probably the 'Pharaoh of the Exodus'. The Pharaoh that refused to 'let the Israelites go'. Moses (at the age of 80 years) and Aaron (aged 83 years) would have confronted Neferhotep in 1446BC which is when the Exodus occurred. Neferhotep I's mummy has never been found because he drowned in the Red Sea when pursuing the Israelites who were leaving Egypt (the Exodus). The semitic slave villages of Kahun and Tel ed-Daba were occupied up until the time of Neferhotep I. Scarabs of the 12th and 13th dynasty pharaohs from Sesostris II up until Neferhotep I were found by Flinders Petrie at Kahun indicating that it was Neferhotep I who was reigning when the Exodus occurred.[6] These towns were suddenly evacuated near the end of the 13th dynasty.

Pharaohs when Israel was in the Wilderness

Neferhotep I was succeeded by his brother Sobekhotep IV rather than his son Haankhef[4] (Wahneferhotep).[5]

A 14th dynasty started but did not last long.

The Hyksos saw their chance to become established in the region and so they built a fort at Avaris on Egypt's border.

From Avaris, they gradually began to occupy and take over Lower Egypt (The 15th dynasty) where they demanded tribute from the Nomarchs of the North and the South (The 16th dynasty in ?Lower Egypt and 17th dynasty in Upper Egypt).

Pharaohs during the time of the Judges in the Promised Land

Moses (Amenemhet IV) never got to enter the Promised Land. Moses only saw it from a distance.

The Israelites spent 40 years in the Wilderness before Joshua lead them into the Promised land (Canaan). Israel was then ruled by Judges for the next 360 years. This corresponds to Egypt's Second Intermediate Period.

The Hyksos (Amalekites) took over and ruled Lower Egypt (15th dynasty) for much of the Second Intermediate Period.

Upper Egypt was governed by the Pharaohs of the 17th dynasty although the Hyksos kings who were based in Avaris in Lower Egypt made them pay homage. The second last Pharaoh of the 17th dynasty Seqenenre was actually arrested and taken to Avaris by Apopi II (Agag) where he died.

This provoked Kahmose, the last pharaoh of the 17th dynasty in Upper Egypt (also the son of Seqenenre) to lead a rebellion against the Hyksos (Amalekites). Eventually, the Hyksos (Amalekites) were defeated and forced to leave Egypt where they encountered Saul of Israel who virtually wiped them out. Their king Apopi II (Agag) was captured alive and taken to Samuel who put him to death.

Pharaohs during the time of the Kings when Israel was united

Ahmose I, the brother of Kahmose and son of Seqenenre became the first Pharaoh of Egypt's New Kingdom (18th dynasty) at a time when King Saul of Israel was on the throne.


Summary

The Israelites Moses Pharaohs
Oppression Moses raised by Sobeknefru in Pharaoh's household until 40 years old during the reign of Amenemhet III. Moses co-reigns with Amenemhet III for 9 years as Amenemhet IV during this time Amenemhet I Sesostris I Sesostrist II Amenemhet II Sesostris III Amenemhet III (12th dynasty)
Waiting Moses (Amenemhet IV) flees to Midian where he lives with Jethro for 40 years Amenemhet III Sobekneferu (12th dynasty)

Sobekhotep I to Neferhotep I (13th dynasty)

Exodus Moses becomes the leader of the Jews and Aaron their spokesman Neferhotep I (13th dynasty)
Wilderness Moses leads the Israelites in the Wilderness for 40 years. During this time, Moses receives the Law on Mt Sinai, sets up the Sanctuary and positions the Israelites to take the Promised Land Sobekhotep IV (13th dynasty)

14th dynasty

Canaan - Judges Moses dies on Mt Nebo in Moab just before the Israelites invade Canaan (The Promised Land)

Israel is ruled by 'Judges'

Hyksos (15th dynasty))

(16th and 17th dynasties contemporary with 15th)

Israel United - Kingship Saul David Solomon Ahmose I Amenhotep I Thutmose I Thutmose II Hatshetsup (18th dynasty)


Timeline

A schematic diagram illustrating the relationship between the Egyptian Kingdoms and dynasties and the various phases of Israel as the Israelites grew to be a nation while they were in Egypt and then traveled to the promised land where they were ruled initially by Judges and later by Kings. The nation of Israel became divided into North (Israel) and South (Judah) after Solomon. There was no first intermediate period. [see timeline]

Suggested Readings

Biblical References

Exodus 1:1-22 The Israelites were oppressed after the death of Joseph (Imhotep)

Exodus 2:1-10 Moses birth and adoption by pharaoh's daughter

Exodus 2:11-25 Moses has to flee to Midian

Exodus 2:23-25 The Pharaoh dies while Moses is in exile

Exodus 3:1-22 Moses and the Burning Bush

Exodus 4:1-17 Signs for Moses

Exodus 4:18-31 Moses returns to Egypt

Exodus 5:1-23 Moses and Aaron go to Pharaoh but he does not obey

Exodus 6:1-12 God remembers his Promise to Abraham

Exodus 6:13-30 Genealogy of Moses

Exodus 7:6 Moses was 80 yrs old when he was sent to Pharaoh

Exodus 7:1-13 Moses and Aaron sent to Pharaoh to perform Miraculous Signs and deliver God's Message : "Let My People Go into the Desert to Worship Me"

Ten Plagues inflicted upon Egypt because Pharaoh would not soften his heart and let the Israelites go:

Blood - Exodus 7:14-25 Frogs - Exodus 8:1-15 Gnats - Exodus 8:15-19 Flies - Exodus 8:20-32 Livestock - Exodus 9:1-7 Boils - Exodus 9:8-12 Hail - Exodus 9:13-33 Locusts - Exodus 10:1-20 Darkness - Exodus 10:21-29 Egypt's Firtsborn - Exodus 11:1-10

Exodus 12:1-30 The Passover

Exodus 12:31-50 The Exodus

Exodus 12:33-39 The Israelites took unleavened bread and large droves of livestock with them. The Egyptians also gave them considerable amounts of silver and gold and clothings.

Exodus 12:37 The Israelites assembled at Succoth

Exodus 12:37 The Israelites had over 600000 men of fighting age

Exodus 12:40 The Israelites had been in Egypt for 430 years

Exodus 13:17-22 The Israelites assembled at Succoth and headed towards Etham and the Red Sea thus avoiding Philistine territory

Exodus 13:19 Moses took Joseph's (Imhotep's) bones with him

Exodus 13:21-22 The Israelites were guided by a pillar of fire by night and pillar of cloud by day

Exodus 13:20 The Israelites camped at Etham on the edge of the desert

Exodus 14:1-31 Pharaoh changed his mind and pursues the Israelites with his army and all of Egypt's chariots

Exodus 14:21-31 The Israelites were able to miraculously cross the Red Sea on dry ground but Pharaoh and his army were drowned when they tried to follow

Exodus 15:22-27 After crossing the Red Sea, the Israelites bypassed Marah where the waters were bitter. They camped at Elim where there were 12 springs and 70 palms

Exodus 16:1-36 The LORD provided bread (Manna) for the Israelites every morning while they were in the wilderness. (40 years) God provided meat in the evenings.

Exodus 17:1-7 God provided water from a rock at Rephidim.

Exodus 17:8-16 The Israelites bump into the Amalekites / (Hyksos) at Rephidim where they have a scuffle. Joshua and his men deflect the Amalekites (Hyksos) as Moses stand on a hill with his arms uplifted.

Exodus 18:1-27 Jethro visits Moses in the wilderness. Moses appoints officials to help him govern.

Exodus 19:1-25 The Israelites arrive at Mt Sinai in the third month after leaving Egypt.

Exodus 20:1-26 The Law is given to Moses on Mt Sinai (The Ten Commandments)

Exodus 21:1-35 Exodus 22:1-31 Exodus 23:1-33 Other laws given to Moses on Mt Sinai

Exodus 24:1-18 God makes a Covenant with Israel

Exodus 25:1-40 Exodus 226:1-37 Exodus 27:1-21 Exodus 28:1-43 Exodus 29:1-46 Exodus 30:1-38 Exodus 31:1-18 Setting up the Sanctuary

Exodus 32:1-35 Exodus 33:1-23 Exodus 34:1-35 The Golden Calf and the Stone Tablets

Exodus 35:1-35 Exodus 36:1-38 Exodus 37:1-29 Exodus 38:1-31 Exodus 39:1-43 Exodus 40:1-38 Completing the Sanctuary

Leviticus 1:1-17 Leviticus 2:1-16 Leviticus 3:1-17 Leviticus 4:1-35 Leviticus 5:1-19 Leviticus 6:1-30 Leviticus 7:1-38 Offerings to the LORD

Leviticus 8:1-36 Ordination of Aaron and his sons

Leviticus 9:1-24 The Sanctuary is ready

Leviticus 16:1-34 The Day of Atonement

Leviticus 20:1-27 Punishment for sin

Leviticus 23:1-44 Feasts of the LORD

Numbers 13:1-33 Spying out the promised land

Numbers 14:1-45 The People rebel against Moses

Numbers 20:1-13 The Israelites Camp at Kadesh - Miriam dies

Numbers 20:13-21 Edom denies the Israelites passage

Numbers 20:22-29 Aaron dies on Mt Hor

Numbers 21:1-35 Israel defeats the king of Arad (a Canaanite), the king of the Amorites (Sihon) and the king of Bashan (Og).

Numbers 20:13-20 The Israelites travel to the plains of Moab by the river Jordan opposite Jericho. Balak son of Zippor is the king of Moab at the time. He asks Balaam to curse the Israelites.

Numbers 26:1-65 Numbers 26:51 Moses and Eleazar take a census while on the plains of Moab opposite Jericho. There were 601,730 men who were able to serve in the army.

Numbers 27:12-23 Mosses commissions Joshua to be Israel's next leader.

Numbers 31:1-54 The Israelites defeat the Midianites killing every man and taking their women and children and herds, flocks and goods as plunder. Numbers 31:8 Among their victims were Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur and Reba—the five kings of Midian. They also killed Balaam son of Beor with the sword.

Numbers 32:1-42 Then Moses gave to the Gadites, the Reubenites and the half-tribe of Manasseh son of Joseph the kingdom of Sihon king of the Amorites and the kingdom of Og king of Bashan—the whole land with its cities and the territory around them.

Numbers 33:1-56 Here are the stages in the journey of the Israelites when they came out of Egypt by divisions under the leadership of Moses and Aaron.

Numbers 34:1-29 Numbers 35:1-34 Numbers 36:1-13 Dividing up the land of Canaan.

Deuteronomy 1:1-46 Deuteronomy 2:1-37 Deuteronomy 3:1-29 Deuteronomy 4:1-49 Deuteronomy 5:1-33 Deuteronomy 6:1-25 Deuteronomy 7:1-26 Deuteronomy 8:1-20 Deuteronomy 9:1-29 Deuteronomy 10:1-22 Deuteronomy 11:1-32 Deuteronomy 12:1-32 Deuteronomy 13:1-18 Deuteronomy 14:1-29 Deuteronomy 15:1-23 Deuteronomy 16:1-22 Deuteronomy 17:1-20 Deuteronomy 18:1-22 Deuteronomy 19:1-21 Deuteronomy 20:1-20 Deuteronomy 21:1-23 Deuteronomy 22:1-30 Deuteronomy 23:1-25 Deuteronomy 24:1-22 Deuteronomy 25:1-19 Deuteronomy 26:1-19 Deuteronomy 27:1-26 Deuteronomy 28:1-68 Deuteronomy 29:1-29 Deuteronomy 30:1-20 Deuteronomy 31:1-30 Deuteronomy 32:1-52 Deuteronomy 33:1-29 Moses final words to Israel before they enter the promised land.

Deuteronomy 34:1-12 Moses dies at the age of 120 years, on Mt Nebo in Moab after seeing the promised land from a distance.

Videos

References

  1. The Hyksos identified Terry Hurlbut http://www.examiner.com/article/the-hyksos-identified
  2. Debbie Hurn - The Amelekites - Were they the Hyksos? Debbie Hurn - The Amelekites - Were they the Hyksos?
  3. Who were the Hyksos? Save-Soderbergh, t. (1951) The Hyksos rule in Egypt, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Egypt Exploration Society.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, 231
  5. 5.0 5.1 Ken Ham Q&A Creation Ken Ham
  6. The Exodus of Israel Terry Hurlbut The Exodus of Israel Terry Hurlbut