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Lemon

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Lemon
Lemon 2.jpg
Scientific Classification
Binomial Name

Citrus ×limon

Lemon 1.jpg
Citrus limon (Lemon)

Lemon trees are fruit trees that produce small, oval, yellow citrus fruits. Their scientific name is Citrus limon. The lemons are a type of berry called a hesperidium. They grow in sub-tropical and tropical areas. They were originally from southeast Asia between south China and northeastern India near the Himalaya. They were brought to Europe about the time of the Crusades. An Italian navigator, Christopher Columbus, brought lemon seeds to America and lemons were well established in Florida. The first commercial lemon orchards were planted in the late 1800's in the United States. Now the lemons are produced in India, Mexico, Brazil, Iran, Turkey, Egypt, Argentina, Spain, Italy and the United States. The world's three leading lemon-producing countries are Argentina, Spain, and the United States. The lemon is very rich in vitamin C, so it is used in many ways such as food, beauty products and so on.

Anatomy

The inside of lemon

Lemon trees reach 10 to 20 feet (3 to 6 meters) in height. They have thorny twigs and large, pointed leaves, which are reddish when young and become dark-green above and light-green below. The leaves are about 2 1/2 to 4 1/2 inches long with wings on the petioles. Buds are red, and the flowers have 4 or 5 petals which are 3/4 inches (2 cm) and about 2O to 40 stamens. The lemons are about 2 3/4 to 4 3/4 inches (7 to 12 cm) long. The peels are yellow and 1/4 to 3/8 inches (6 to 10 mm) thick. Lemons have a bulge at one end. The interior of the fruit includes eight to ten segments, which contain the pulp, juice, and seeds. Some lemons do not have seeds inside. The yellow outer part has many tiny glands that contain fragrant oils. [1]

Reproduction

Lemon trees are mostly planted in sub-tropical or tropical areas. They prefer medium to heavy soils which are both well-drained and moist. They cannot be grown in shady areas. [2] The trees reach a height of 22 to 25 feet (6.8 to 7.6 meters). They produce purple-tinged white, fragrant flowers. They bloom most abundantly in the spring. It depends on the climate. [3] Only 2 percent of the blossoms produce fruit, but that number still can bring a lot of harvest. Lemons develop from the ovaries of the blossoms and ripen about seven to eight months after the flowers bloom. The trees often have blossoms and fruit at the same time. They are grown from buds from trees that produce the type of lemon. The buds are grafted to rootstocks, which are seedling lemon trees. The trees start to produce fruit about 2 years after grafting and continue to produce fruit for 100 years. [4]

Ecology

Lemons in the tree

Lemons grow in tropical areas. The cold conditions can kill or damage severely the lemon tree. The tree can die at temperature 22º to 24º F (-5.56º-4.44º C). The flowers and young fruits can be killed at 29º F (-1.67º C). [5] Growers use many methods to protect the trees from the frost. For example, some growers use oil-burning heaters to warm the cold air near the ground. Other growers use large fans called wind machines to mix the cold surface air with the warm air above it. Water sprays under the trees also help protect against cold. Lemon trees may be attacked by agricultural pests such as mites, scale insects, and thrips. Mites and scale insects feed on the leaves, fruit and twigs. Thrips attack the buds and the fruit. Growers grow varieties of trees that resist pests and spray the trees with insecticides to protect the trees. [6]

Uses of lemon

Lemons can be used in various ways in our life. They can be used as preventative and domestic medicine because they are very rich in vitamin C, bioflavonoids, acids and volatile oils that help the body fight infections. Since they are very acidic, they cause an alkalizing effect upon the body. The sweetened juice relieves gingivitis, stomatitis, and inflammation of the tongue. They can also be used for food like cakes, juice and beverages. The taste and scent of the lemon help food better. The lemon peel oil is used in soaps and shampoos. The petitgrain oil, which is from the leaves, twigs, and immature fruits, are important in colognes. The tree's woods are also very useful in furniture. [7]

Video

Gallery

References