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Asparagine

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Asparagine
Asparagine.pngAsparagine1.png
General
Systematic name Asparagine
Other names 2-Amino-3-carbamoylpropanoic acid
Molecular formula C4H8N2O3
SMILES O=C(N)C[C@H](N)C(=O)O

C([C@@H](C(=O)O)N)C(=O)N

Molar mass Molar mass::132.12 g mol−1
Appearance White crystalline powder
CAS number CAS number::70-47-3
Properties
Density and phase Density:: 1,543
Solubility in water 20 g/L (20°C)
Melting point Melting point::235 °C
Boiling point Boiling point::438°C
Acidity (pKa) 2.02 (carboxyl), 8.8 (amino)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Disclaimer and references

Asparagine is one of the twenty amino acids that is usually found in animal proteins. Also asparagine is a non-essential to the diet because the human body can produce it.L-asparagine is the only in the biosynthesis of mammalian proteins. Asparagine was discovered in 1806 purification of asparagus juice and it was the first amino acids that isolated. There are three names that asparagine can be called, ASN, ASX, and 2-amino-3-carbamolypropanoic acid(IUPAC-IUB 1983). Its boiling point is 438°C and melting point is 235 °C. Asparagine is important in the metabolism of toxic ammonia in human body just like glutamine. The structure of asparagine is similar to that of the amino acid, and aspartic acid except the latter compound's acidic characteristic. Asparagine is the ß-amide of aspartic acid that produced by aspartic acid and ATP (adenosine triphosphate). [1]

Properties

Asparagine is not an essential amino acid that can metabolized in human body. Also, it is really active when it converts with other amino acids. It is a ß-amide of aspartic acid that combined from ATP and aspartic acid. This formation also can be used for the conversion of glutamic acid to glutamine. Glutamine and asparagine have a high-amount of ATP. Both need Vitamin B-6 and enzymes for their establishment. Asparagine plays important role for human body, it serves in liver transamination as an amino donor and serves the metabolic of human brain. In the nervous system, asparagine is really important because it helps human brain to be balance for over nervousness and over calm. [2]

Biosynthesis

biosynthesis

Asparagine can be synthesized in the human body because it is a non-essential amino acid. The oxaloacetate is the precursor of asparagine and it is converted to aspartate (aspartic acid) by an enzymes transaminase. From glutamate to oxaloacetate, the enzymes move to amino groups by making a-ketoglutarate and aspartate. Then the enzymes in the asparagine make adenosine, glutamate, asparagine, mono-phosphate (AMP),and pyrophosphate from aspartate, glutamine, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Glutamine gives up ammonium group and it reacts with β-aspartyl-AM to be asparagine and AMP. Also during the asparagine synthetase reaction, ATP works to activate aspartate by forming β-aspartyl-AMP. [3]

History

In 1806, Asparagine was isolated from the crystalline form by French chemists, Louis Nicolas Vauquelin and Pierre Jean Robiquet from asparagus juice, which has ample amounts of asparagine. Asparagine was also the first amino acid that was isolated from its natural source. The discovery of asparagine did not achieved wide recognition at first because of the lack of actual proof for the subsistence of the amino acid. Its affirmation would not occur until the 1930's when the amino acid became sure and obvious. Scientists found out that asparagus is accredited to many types of metabolic byproducts of asparagine. Later, in 1809, Pierre Jean Robiquet realized that liquorice root is a substance that qualified similar to asparagine. During 1828, Plisson defined that as asparagine itself. [4]

Uses

There are two uses of asparagine for human body, physically and mentally. Certainly, asparagine is significantly used for the medical usage for human. Asparagine affects specific processes that relate with the central nervous system. The amino acid is important for maintenance, proper functioning and chemical balance in the tissues for running the human brain properly. Asparagine and amino acids are also good medicine for the emotional problems that humans have like mood swings. Amino acids especially keep the human body in maintenance of mental calm. The asparagine in humans body protects the being from being too nervous or anxious and being too relax. Asparagine is also very important for physical processes in human body. It is connected all of biochemical processes that occur in the liver. More importantly, asparagine is one of the main chemical part that involved in DNA, RNA, and ATP (energy compound). Performance and functioning of antibodies and the assembly of collagen and enzymatic activity are also in the biochemical processes that are involved with asparagine. [5]

Usual Dosage

The usual dosage and amino acids have not yet determined perfectly. However, they rarely occur in the human body. The U.S National Academy of Science has expressed that the most of healthy people might acquire 0.36 grams of bio-available protein for pound of bodyweight. Which is equal to 0.8 grams of protein, and per 1 Kg of bodyweight per person. [6]

Asparagine synthetase

Asparagine synthetase is an enzyme that produces the asparagine from aspartate. This synthetase is also analogous with glutamine synthetase.

Identifiers

  • symbol: ASNS
  • Entrez: 440
  • HUGO:753
  • OMIM:108370
  • RefSeq:NM_001673
  • UniProt:P08243[7]

Different names of Asparagine

  • ASN
  • Amino acid N
  • Amino acid B
  • 2-amino-butane
  • 4 diotic acid-4-amide

[8]

Amino acid

Amino acid is an important part of human body because it builds the protein, and helps with the metabolism of human body. There are twenty amino acids in human body that deal with building the proteins. The proteins in the human body are really important, not only actuate most of living cells but also control the cellular process of it. Furthermore, proteins contain amino acids with essential information which in conclude how proteins will become three dimensional structures and the strength of the final structure.

Essential amino acid

Human body can synthesize the amino acids to build proteins except the ten amino acids, called "essential amino acids". Humans only can make ten amino acids out of twenty amino acids. But the others could be obtained from food. When people do not obtain the amino acids that humans cannot produce, it would cause the degradation of body's protein. The human body cannot store the extra amino acids so essential amino acids must be obtained from food for healthy body. (Arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine are the ten amino acids that human body can produce) Plants are able to make those amino acids too, however, there are none enzymes required for the biosynthesis of amino acids for human body. [9]

Amino acid(s) mg per kg body weight mg per 70 kg mg per 100 kg
I Isoleucine 20 1400 2000
L Leucine 39 2730 3900
K Lysine 30 2100 3000
M Methionine

+ C Cysteine

10.4 + 4.1 (15 total) 1050 1500
F Phenylalanine

+ Y Tyrosine

25 (total) 1750 2500
T Threonine 15 1050 1500
W Tryptophan 4 280 400
V Valine 26 1820 2600

[10]


Non-essential amino acid

Non-essential amino acids are those that are produced by human body. The non-essential amino acids are as important as the essential amino acids. The only differences are that essential amino acids cannot be produced by human body while non-essential amino acids are produced by the human body. [11]

  • Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids

Pyruvate (glycolytic end product)--> alanine

Oxaloacetate (citric acid cycle intermediate)--> aspartate

a-Ketoglutarate (citric acid cycle intermediate)--> glutamate

[12]

References

  1. introduction of aspasragine Part of Family Education Network, 2000-2011.
  2. properties of asparagine Innvista, Unknown.
  3. biosynthesis Wikipedia, 2 April 2008.
  4. History of asparagine google timeline, unkwon.
  5. uses of asparagine Herbs2000, 2002-2011.
  6. usual dosage of asparagine Herbs2000, 2002-2011.
  7. asparagine synthetase Wikipedia, 10 December 2009.
  8. different names of asparagine Innvista, Unknown.
  9. amino acids University of Arizona, September 30, 2003.
  10. essential amino acids recommended daily amounts Wikipedia, 16 February 2011.
  11. non-essential amino acid Unknown.
  12. nonessential amino acid Unknown.