> > > SUPPORT CREATION WIKI < < <
Donate -or- Patronize our Creation Science Store

Valium

From CreationWiki, the encyclopedia of creation science

Jump to: navigation, search
Valium
Valium molecular.pngValium molecular 2.png
General
Systematic name 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl
-1,4-benzodiazepin-2(2H)-one
Other names Diazepam
Molecular formula C16H13ClN2O
SMILES CN1C(=O)CN=C(C2=C1C=CC
(=C2)Cl)C3=CC=CC=C3
Molar mass 284.7 g/mol284.7 amu
Appearance light yellow or
cream crystalline powder
CAS number 439-14-5
Properties
Solubility in water Insoluble; less than 0.1 g/100 ml (20°C)
Melting point 125°C398.15 K
257 °F
716.67 °R
Boiling point 98°C371.15 K
208.4 °F
668.07 °R
Viscosity 5.97cP
Structure
Molecular shape Crystalline Solid
Hazards
MSDS Material safety data sheet
Main hazards Fire and Explosive
Flash point 48°C
RTECS number DF1575000
Related compounds
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Disclaimer and references

Valium (or Diazepam) is a sedative that depresses the activity of the central nervous system and is used to relieve feelings of anxiety and can help lessen the symptoms of panic attacks. It is a benzodiazepines-derivative medication that is marketed under the brand names Valium, Diastat, T-Quil, and Valrelease. It can be taken orally or through injection.[1]

It was invented by Sternbach of Hoffmann-La Roche and it was approved for use in 1960. Sternbach became a pharmaceutical industry giant in 1963 when he released his improved version of Diazepam called, Valium. It is used to treat a rare disorder called stiff-person syndrome.[2] The abuse of Diazepam is rising and is a substitute to heroin among drug addicts.[3] It is taken by many people because of its abilities to help lessen the symptoms of many illnesses.[4]

Contents

Properties

Valium is white or yellow and exists in a solid/crystal state. It is odorless and has a somewhat bitter taste. It is faintly soluble in water but is very soluble in alcohol and chloroform per the British Pharmacopoeia. The solubility of valium by the United States Pharmacopoeia is one in sixteen of ethyl alcohol, one in two of chloroform, and one in thirty-nine of ether. It is virtually insoluble in water. The pH value of valium is neutral. The shelf-life of Valium in oral tablets is five years and three years in parental formulation. To prevent them from wasting they are to be kept in air tight containers and away from any light. The melting point of Valium is 131.1 - 134.5 degrees C.[5]

Production

A box of Valium found on the street

Valium is an alternated benzodiazepine created by a series of reactions. One of these reactions involves cyclization. It is made by combing p-chloromethylaniline with benzoyl chloride and hydroxylamine to make the benzophenone oxime. When the oxime reacts with chloroacetyl chloride while in the presence of sodium hydroxide, diazepam, or valium, is formed.[6] Cyclization is "formation of rings: the formation of one or more hydrocarbon rings in an organic compound."(Encarta)[7]

Uses

Valium is used to treat muscle spasms and a few cases of seizures because it is an anti anxiety medication.[8]It is used for its sedative, anxiety-relieving, and and muscle-relaxing effects. Valium is given to calm severe anxiety and agitation. Valium is given to patients prior to the main medicines to help stabilize their mood as medication begins to take effect. It can also be used as short term treatment for children that suffer from sleep walking and nightmares as well as strict anxiety related to insomnia. It is not recommend as long term treatment as it may lead to addiction and dependency. Because it stays active in the body for many hours, drowsiness may be experienced throughout the next day. Other uses of Valium are as a pre-med before medical investigations, procedures, pre-surgery, and to help alcoholics that are suffering with severe alcohol withdrawal. Another very important use of Valium is in the controlling of muscle spasms caused by poisoning or seizures that affect fevered children. It is very helpful in controlling epileptic fits. Valium may be taken taken as tablets, syrup, injections, and rectal solutions(enemas). It depends on the seriousness of the condition and whats going on. [9]

Health Effects

Valium and Xanax.

The dosage prescribed by the physician will vary with the condition, how severe the symptoms are, and how the drug effects the recipient. Doses for the average adult ranges from two to ten mg taken two to four times a day, while the dosage for children and elderly adults ranges from one to two mg one to four times a day. The effect of Valium reaches its peak a couple of hours after it has been taken and its effects began to drop six to eight hours later. Valium can be consumed whether you are eating or not. If taken in its liquid form it can be mixed with other liquids or a few other foods. As with many other drugs, the dosage prescribed to you by your physician should not be exceeded as it may lead to addiction and dependency, and you should not take it after the prescribed time as you may build up a tolerance to it. While taking Valium, it is important not to skip any doses because it might worsen your condition. You should not mix Valium with other nervous system depressants because it may suppress breathing and lower blood pressure and cause unconsciousness and death. Because of the drowsiness related to Valium, those taking this drug must use extreme cause while driving and operating machinery. Nursing women should not take Valium, neither should those who suffer from epilepsy because it may cause an epileptic seizure. The side effects that accompany Valium are drowsiness, dizziness, blurred vision, headache, fatigue, muscle fatigue, memory loss, skin rash, diarrhea, dry mouth, upset stomach, decreased sexual drive, and an altered appetite. For those who suffer allergic reactions to Valium, there are alternate drugs that can be taken. A few of those drugs are Xanax, Librium, and Halcion.[10] Overdosing on Valium can be fatal. Symptoms of overdose are extreme drowsiness, confusion, limp or weak muscles, fainting, shallow breathing, or stopped breathing.[11]

References

Personal tools