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Sucrose

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Sucrose
Sucrose
General
Systematic name Sucrose
Other names Sugar, Saccharose
Molecular formula C12H22O11
Molar mass Molar mass::342.29648 g/mol
Appearance white solid
CAS number CAS number::57-50-01
Properties
Density and phase [[Density::1.587 g/cm3]], solid
Solubility in water 211.5 g/100 ml (20°C)
Melting point Melting point::186°C
Chiral rotation [α]D 66.47°
Crystal structure monoclinic hemihedral
Main hazards Combustible
NFPA 704

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RTECS number WN6500000

Sucrose, also known as table sugar, is probably one of the most loved compounds in the world. Loved for its sweet taste and ability to become addicting to humans of all ages, 150 million tons of sugar are consumed every year. Sucrose has hundreds of uses, and is made from sugar beet or sugar cane. After it has been purified and crystallized, it becomes a fine, white powder, which can be used to sweeten foods.

Properties

Sucrose, also known as saccharose, or more commonly, sugar, is generally a fine, white, odorless powder with a sweet taste. The stomic formula of sucrose is C12H22O11. The molar mass of sucrose is 342.29648 g/mol. The hydrogen ratio of sucrose is 2:1, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic bond between the first carbon atom, of the glucose unit, and the second carbon atom, of the fructose unit. Sucrose is covalently bonded because of the non ionic attraction of the carbon and oxygen atoms. The melting point of sucrose is 186 degrees C. When it is melted it forms caramel, and when combusted produces carbon, carbon dioxide, and water.

Uses

Sugar cubes
Cookies contain lots of Sugar

Sucrose, or sugar, is most often used as a sweetener for foods. Sugar is usually extracted from sugar cane or beet and then crystallized through purification. Sugar is used in almost every dessert recipe and thousands of other foods, such as: candy, cookies, cakes, pies, cereals, fruits, juice, muffins, ice cream, and many many many many many many many many many many many many many many many many many many many many many many many many many more.

Sucrose is used in the human body as a macronutrient that provides a source of energy to the body. When sugar is consumed, it causes a rapid rise in blood glucose. Sugar is not usually eaten just by itself, but it is mixed in with foods, or sprinkled on top of foods to sweeten the flavor.

Occurrences

Sugar Cane Plantation

Sugar is produced in over 121 countries all around the world. Its global production now exceeds over 120 million tons a year. 70% of sugar is produced from sugar cane, and 30% of sugar is produced from sugar beet. Sugar cane is a tall grass with large stems, generally grown in tropical areas. Sugar beet is a root, resembling a parsnip, generally grown in the temperate zones of the north.

In order to produce sugar from sugar cane, you have to first grow and harvest the cane. It takes about 12 months to grow a fully matured sugar cane. Harvesting the cane is done by chopping down the stems and taking them to the factory. Harvesting usually takes place during the dry season. Next, you have to extract the cane, usually using big roller mills. This produces a sweet juice which is the taken to the boilers to be evaporated into a thicker liquid. Then the liquid is boiled until it becomes the right density to form sugar crystals. Once the crystals have grown, they are spun, dried, and then stored until they are refined.

In order to produce sugar from sugar beet, you have to first harvest the beets, usually in autumn or winter, by digging them out of the ground. The beets are then sliced into thin chips and soaked in hot water. Extraction then takes place by, applying water pressure to the beet chips, producing a sweet liquid. The beets are then pressed, using screw presses.

In the Bible

Sugar is mentioned several times in the Bible. There are hundreds of verses in the Bible that talk about the things of the LORD being "sweeter than honey", and "sweet to the soul". God uses these kinds of verses to appeal to us and encourage us.

"And he cried unto the LORD; and the LORD shewed him a tree, which when he had cast into the waters, the waters were made sweet:" - Exodus 15:25 (KJV)

"How sweet are thy words unto my taste! yea, sweeter than honey to my mouth!" - Psalm 119:103 (KJV)

"Stolen waters are sweet, and bread eaten in secret is pleasant." - Proverbs 9:17 (KJV)

"Pleasant words are as an honeycomb, sweet to the soul, and health to the bones." - Proverbs 16:24 (KJV)

"Thy lips, O my spouse, drop as the honeycomb: honey and milk are under thy tongue; and the smell of thy garments is like the smell of Lebanon." - Song_of_Solomon 4:11 (KJV)

"And I took the little book out of the angel's hand, and ate it up; and it was in my mouth sweet as honey: and as soon as I had eaten it, my belly was bitter." - Revelation 10:10 (KJV)

References