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M-theory

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M-theory is a theory in physics, that incorporates and generalizes the five superstring theories. It was first proposed by Edward Witten in 1995, during a conference at USC. While not complete, M-theory can be applied in many situations, ironically including supernatural situations. The incompleteness of this theory provides good ground for the formulation of an M-theory creation model.

An interesting side note of M-theory is that in naming it, Witten did not say what the M stands for. He has stated that “’M’ stands for ‘magic,’ ‘mystery’ or ‘membrane,’ depending on your taste.” Other suggestions included “matrix” and “mother of all theories”. However as will be shown below, from a Creation Science standpoint M would best stand for miracles.

The one down side to M-theory, is that at present it makes no unique predictions that could be used to falsify it or at least none that is currently testable, but this is a common difficulty with cutting edge theories that are under development. This is a problem of developing the theory and technology catching up, and is not inherent to M-theory itself.

Basic Concept

Before M-theory, superstring theory required 10 dimensions (9 special dimensions and 1 time dimension) where the extra 6 dimensions are curled up many orders of magnitude smaller than an atom, thus making them imperceptible. M-theory not only adds an 11th dimension but allows the extra 7 dimensions to be as large or larger than the 4 dimensions of space-time that are already known. One way of dealing with the extra 7 dimensions, called Matrix theory, proposes that the extra 7 dimensions are related to the 4 dimensions of space-time in a non-spatial ways, like time, but this explanation is a little vague.

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A more elegant solution is based on membranes. Membranes are multidimensional objects also called p-brane referring to the spatial dimensionality (p) of a particular brane, such that a 1 dimensional string would be a 1-brane and a 2 dimensional surface would be a 2-brane. These structures are generally referred to as branes. Resulting from M-theory equations, they are membrane-like structures consisting of from 1-11 dimensions. The idea is that these branes exists in an 11-dimensional space, and that they contain universes. According to this model our universe is a 3-brane. This 11-dimensional space is called the bulk in Brane cosmology.

Multiverse.jpg

Each of these branes is its own universe and could have different laws. Furthermore these parallel universes could be closer than your computer screen, but in directions we can not perceive. Also since they are outside the space time of our universe, they would have a time all their own. The Bulk could even have its own distinct time or no time at all.

Strings on Branes

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In M-theory, most of the strings of string theory; in our universe; are open and attached to our 3 brane at their ends, these include the particles that make up atoms and transmit three of the four forces. Sense the atoms of our bodies are attached to our 3 brane we cannot move off of it into the extra 7 dimensions. Furthermore since we perceive the universe entirely through interactions with electromagnetism (light) and interaction with matter; that is likewise attached to our 3 brane; we cannot see or otherwise perceive the extra 7 dimensions. This is one reason why it is difficult but not impossible to test.

Gravitons.jpg

The exception among the four forces is gravity whose particle (graviton) is a closed loop, allowing gravitons to go out into the extra 7 dimensions, which is why gravity is so much weaker than the other three forces. This is an aspect of M-theory that provides the possibility of testing it in the near future.

Gravitons2.jpg

This also shows that interaction can occur between branes. In this case gravitons from one brane are shown interacting with another; this has been proposed as an explanation for dark matter. It is likely that gravitons are not the only closed loop strings and that other particles are capable of interacting with other branes.

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One possibility is that some open strings could be attached to one brane by only one end, and if another brane is close enough such strings could also be attached to the other brane thus providing another way for interaction to occur between branes.

Another possible way for interactions to occur between branes is for them to come into contact with each other. In fact collisions between branes have been proposed as a possible cause for the Big Bang proposed by Evolutionists as the beginning of the universe, however this is speculative and not a requirement of M-theory.

Thus an important aspect of M-theory is the existence of realities parallel to ours and that interactions are possible between them and ours.

M-theory and the Supernatural

Once upon a time parallel universes were an unacceptable topic in physics. It was a topic that resulted in ridicule, partly because of the inherent difficulty in testing such a model but also because it extended from a philosophical position of naturalism. The tendency was to see our universe as all the ever was, and all that ever will be, so the notion that there was anything outside our universe simply came too close to religion for the taste of some. M-theory has changed that by bringing the idea of parallel universes into the mainstream of physics.

Since the supernatural can be considered as anything from outside our universe, the direct interactions between anything and anyone from outside our universe by definition are supernatural events. In fact the event where Christ appeared to his disciples in a locked room can be easily understood in terms of Christ being able move his resurrected body through higher dimensions since the room would be open to those. So by using parallel universes M-theory blurs the line between natural and supernatural. This not only provides a scientific door to the supernatural but it also provides a physical theory for possibly modeling such events in a testable manner.

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The Bible mentions several places that in our current form are both unseen and unreachable. In 2 Corinthians 12:2 the Apostle Paul speaks of being “caught up to the third heaven”. The third heaven seems to be the place where believers go at death. While there is no specific mention of a second heaven, it is implied by the reference to the third heaven. Since what we call space is called heaven in Genesis 1, it is likely our universe is the first heaven; this is supported by Revelation 21:1. It is likely the second heaven is where angels and demons do their thing; in any case that realm is both unseen and unreachable. The Bible also mentions two other places: hell and the lake of fire, they too in our current form are both unseen and unreachable. In M-theory all of these unseen and unreachable places could be on separate branes. Furthermore M-theory shows how these different branes can interact, thus allowing the spiritual world and ours to interact.

M-theory and Creation Science

For Creation Science, M-theory offers tools for modeling phenomena and dealing with problems in unique ways. For example a very nearby brane (d<<10-36m) might react electromagnetically with our brane. If matter on the other brane were extremely cold it would draw heat from our brane, thus removing any excess resulting from accelerated nuclear decay, and high geologic activity. Now this is just speculation, but such possibilities would seem to be a natural result of M-theory. The point is that M-theory allows for the modeling of events that by definition would be considered miracles, thus the statement above that the M in M-theory should stand for miracles. Now such a model does not take God and other spiritual beings out of the equation, but simply provides a model of how miracles may work; after all knowing how a car works does not eliminate the designers or builders of that car.

By providing tools for the modeling of miracles, M-theory changes the scientific landscape in a manner favorable to Creation Science. While this will not deter hard core anti-creationists it is a great opportunity and one that needs to be pursued.

References