Psicologia

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(Redireccionado de Psicóloga)
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Psychologists diagnose and evaluate mental and emotional disorders.

Psicologia é a ciência da mente ou dos estados e processos mentais.[1]Existem muitos tipos de psicologia com diversos requisitos e diferenças. Coisas como educação, grau e capacidade ou especialidade afetam suas chances de conseguir um emprego como psicólogo. Os vários tipos têm diferentes requisitos para os seus campos especiais localizados em vários lugares todos centrados em torno de uma compreensão do comportamento humano.

Tipos de Psicologia

Existem muitos tipos de psicologia praticada na sociedade de hoje. Estas são as nove áreas da psicologia em que é possível se tornar um psicólogo habilitado nos EUA:

  • Psicologia Clínica
  • Aconselhamento Psicológico
  • Psicologia da Educação
  • Psicologia Forense
  • Psicologia da Saúde
  • Neuropsicologia
  • Psicologia do Trabalho
  • Psicologia dos desportos e do exercício
  • Professores e pesquisadores em Psicologia


Estes tipos de psicologia são reconhecidos pelo Health and Care Professional Council (HCPC). Existem alguns outros tipos de psicologia, como psicologia infantil e animal, mas estes não são tão reconhecidos geralmente como práticas como estes nove. As pessoas também comumente confundem psicologia com outros campos semelhantes a ele, como a psiquiatria, psicoterapia e aconselhamento. [2]

Descrições de trabalhos

Psicólogos clínicos

Os psicólogos clínicos entrevistam pacientes, realizam testes de diagnóstico e proporcionam psicoterapia. Clínicas, centros de aconselhamento, hospitais e consultórios particulares ou em grupo são áreas comuns para o trabalho neste domínio. Esses psicólogos curam seus pacientes utilizando métodos psicológicos que afetam grandemente a saúde do paciente. Psicólogos clínicos muitas vezes podem trabalhar com alguns outros profissionais da área médica, como médicos, psicoterapeutas ou psiquiatras para maximizar a eficácia dos tratamentos e desenvolver planos de tratamento para uma melhor recuperação. As doenças mentais podem variar de distúrbios sociais para disfunção familiar e até para controle da dor. All these and more are treated by clinical psychologists. Clinical psychologists often deal with the more severe mental illnesses rather that the everyday issues, Although the problems they treat are comprehensive. Clinical psychologists have been known to move towards teaching courses at a college level and administering mental health programs rather then dealing directly with their patients.

Counseling psychologists often have their own practices.

Counseling Psychologists

One nickname for a Counseling Psychologist is generalist psychologist. With versatile training that utilizes basic therapeutic skills to help find ways to cope with everyday problems and emotions. Counseling psychologists can specialize in certain aspects of their field but they generally focus on emotional, social, educational, vocational and developmental concerns. Counseling psychologists perform diagnostic tests, assess the patient and devise a treatment plan, much like clinical psychologists. Clinical psychologists often consult with agencies such as schools or government. They may also conduct research and teach college courses. Therapeutic techniques are the basis for counseling psychologists because they work one on one with their patients. In fact, these professionals spend most of their time directly working with patients using therapy to better the patients behavior.

Developmental Psychologists

Developmental psychology was not listed in the previous list but it is another form of legitimate psychology. Developmental psychologists focus on studying human behavior throughout the various stages of life. Specializing in specific areas such as infancy, childhood, adolescence or adulthood, developmental psychologists can work with a wide assortment of patients. The effects of aging, how people cope with getting older, and handling sickness and death are also areas of study for a developmental psychologist. Development psychologists take a look at various aspects of life through different areas of being, including physiological, cognitive and social development. The research gained from developmental psychologists is critical to the understanding of human nature because it represents the study of our minds processes over the span of an entire lifetime.

Industrial-Organizational Psychologists

Industrial-organizational psychologists apply psychological research and methods to workplace issues.

Industrial-organizational psychologists focus on a topic that differs from what most psychologists deal with: work. These psychologists research various methods for improving the workplace. Such improvements can include but are not limited too, boosting employee morale, solving internal employee issues, and increasing productivity. Industrial-organizational psychologists begin work at the management level of a particular company. This allows them to improve the quality of life at the work setting to ensure a productive environment for all employees. They evaluate the current environment, conduct employee training and screenings so that they may organize methods to address particular problems within the work place. Industrial-organizational psychologists are commonly brought in by employers to intervene and disperse and control a specific work place issue.

Social Psychologists

The study of individuals in a social context is handled by social psychologists. Focusing in on how people are influenced by their social situation, they conduct research to find statistical evidence of social phenomenon. Almost mimicking sociology, although social psychology focuses on the individual instead of the group as a whole. Social psychologists evaluate why people behave in certain manners, why they look and feel the way they do especially in public, and how stereotypes of formed. They also focus on aspects of group behavior such as leadership, racism, sexism and attitudes toward others in general. Although this branch of psychology is complex, it opens up the world of human interaction to so many new and improved possibilities.

Research Psychologists

Research psychologists or as they are also commonly known, experimental psychologists, work privately in research centers or environments to ultimately study human behavior in a multitude of ways. Some also end up teaching university courses like many other psychologists. Using both humans and animals, they study human behavior to gain a better understanding for how we operate, receive information, and live our lives. Research psychologists can focus on areas ranging from motivation, attention, and memory, to sensory and perception capabilities. they can work with patients in experiments to research behavior in certain environments, however these experiments happen quickly whereas the data can take months to analyze, therefore most of these psychologists time is spent working without a patient. This does not change the fact that the research down by these people is crucial to the foundation of psychology.

School psychologists may administer psychological tests to students.

School Psychologists

School psychologists are those that work in lower level schools like elementary and secondary schools. Just like most psychologists and counselors, they resolve the problems and teach them ways to cope with behavioral problems. School psychologists interact between the student and their support network, they are the bridge between the student and the school and they help these students with problems other faculty members cannot. These individuals communicate and relay information to teachers, school staff and parents. School psychologists must be familiar with the school setting. They have to evaluate programs, services and behavior modification methods to aid the needs of the student. School psychologists assist children in succeeding academically, socially and emotionally. This is possible through the strengthening of the relationship between the school staff and family.[3]

Pay

There are many different fields of psychology and many different job opportunities out there but The three largest employment areas of psychology are clinical, counseling and school psychology. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average salary for these fields in 2010 was $68,640. The highest 10 percent earned more than $111,810, while the lowest 10 percent earned less than $39,200. The median annual wages of psychologist occupations in May 2010 were the following:

  • $87,330 for industrial-organizational psychologists
  • $66,810 for clinical, counseling, and school psychologists
  • $89,900 for psychologists, all other

[4]

Psicologia Evolucionista

A psicologia evolutiva é o termo usado para descrever a ciência de estudar a função mental, hábitos psicológicos e desenvolvimento cognitivo e interpretação dos resultados de acordo com a teoria da evolução. A psicologia evolutiva é uma abordagem biologicamente voltada para o estudo do comportamento humano..[5] Devido a esta visão no século 20 se formaram pressupostos em linha com a evolução darwiniana por meio de mutação e seleção natural.

Referências

  1. . [1] www.dictionary.com. Web. 2-27-13 (acessado).
  2. . [2] www.BPS.org. Web. 2-27-13 (accessed).
  3. . [3] www.smpmn.com. Web. January 16th 2013 (date last updated).
  4. . How Much Do Psychologists Make? www.bls.gov. Web. March 29, 2012 (publication).
  5. Evolutionary Psychology, First published Fri Feb 8, 2008 By Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Ligações externas

Ver também