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Mikhail Lomonosov

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Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov. By an unknown artist

Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (Russian: Михаи́л Васи́льевич Ломоно́сов; Born::November 19, 1711Died::April 15, 1765) the first Russian scholar, scientist, and grammarian of world importance (chemist and physicist), he went into the science as the first chemist who gave the definition of physical chemistry, is very close to the modern, purposed and an extensive program of physical and chemical research.


Mikhail was born on November 19, 1711 [O.S. November 8] in the village of Mishaninskaya (Denisovka near Kholmogory) to a peasant family. As a young man in 1730, he joined a caravan traveling to Moscow. An opportunity occurred when he was nineteen, and by the intervention of friends he obtained admission into the Slavic Greek Latin Academy in 1731. There his progress was very rapid, over 5 years he completed a 12 year course, and in 1736 he was sent to St. Petersburg.In 1734 he was sent from Moscow to the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, and later, to the University of Marburg in Germany, where, under the leadership of the Wolf, he studied mathematics, physics and philosophy. Later he studied at the Freiberg Henkel chemistry and metallurgy. He returned to St. Petersburg in 1741. In January 1742 established the academy Adjunct Physics, 1745 Professor of Chemistry, 1755 developed a charter of the Moscow University, 1759 dealt with the device the school and university in the academy.

He died on April 15, 1765 [O.S. April 4], in St. Petersburg.

Natural-scientific investigations

His molecular-kinetic theory of heat in many respects anticipated modern ideas about the structure of matter - many fundamental laws, including the second law of thermodynamics [1], laid the foundations of the science of glass. Astronomer, instrument makers, a geographer, a metallurgist, geologist.

He opened the presence of the atmosphere at the planet Venus [2][3][4].

Natural Science Works Mikhail Vasilyevich put him on a par with modern Western scientists, he was elected an honorary member of the Stockholm and Bologna Academy. Lomonosov founded the first academic chemical laboratory at the Academy of Sciences (1748). В “Слове о пользе химии” (1754). In "The Word of the benefits of chemistry" ( "Slovo o polze himii" 1754) Lomonosov correctly understood and explain the importance of mathematics in the study of chemistry.

Developed a project of Moscow State University, later named in his honor.

Humanitarian activities

Lomonosov was not only a scholar but also a poet, writer and artist, historian, advocate the development of national education, science and economy. Studies and discussions of science created a scientific language and terminology.

"Ode to Fenelon, 1738, sedan taking Khotina 1739; second attached" Letter of the rules Russian poetry”; Several the moral and spiritual odes, tragedies, "Tamira and Selim" and "Demofont", an unfinished poem "Peter B". These works created a new poetic and literary language.

Mikhail also approved the founding of modern Russian literary language,

System of the new language is theoretically grounded in "Russian grammar" in 1755 and in the argument on the benefits of books church in Russia's language" in 1757. The theory of three styles - high, medium and low, well-developed here Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov, prevailed in Russian literature to the time of Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin, as well as pseudo classical direction, borrowed by Lomonosov from the French authors and Gotshed.

Since 1891 Russia Academy of Sciences published the complete works of Lomonosov under the editorship Suhomlinov.


"Nature is in some sense, the Gospel and preach loudly creative power, wisdom and greatness of God. And not only heaven, but bowels of the earth declare the glory of God."
"We must think so, as the Holy Scriptures, but do not force him to speak as we think."


  1. Theoretical studies of MV Lomonosov Moscow State University Chemistry . Figurovsky NA Essay on the general history of chemistry. From ancient times to the beginning of XIX century. М,: Издательство Наука, 1969 M: Science Publishing, 1969
  2. materials for biographies of Lomonosov. Collected an extraordinary academician Bilyarskim. Санкт-Петербург. St. Petersburg. In the printing plant of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. 1865 1865
  3. History of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg Peter Pekarsky. Том первый. Tom first. The publication department of Russian language and slovestnosti Imperial Academy of Sciences. Санкт-Петербург. St. Petersburg. Printing of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. 1870 1870
  4. History of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg Peter Pekarsky. Volume Two. The publication department of Russian language and slovestnosti Imperial Academy of Sciences. Санкт-Петербург. St. Petersburg. Printing of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. 1873
  • Bilyarsky, "Materials for biography of L." 1865;
  • Pekarsky, "History of Science Academy” II, 1873; Sciences "II, 1873;
  • Ponomarev, "Materials for a bibliography of literature on Lomonosov, 1872.