Riemann was born in Breselenz, a village in the Kingdom of Hanover, near Dannenberg, Germany, the second of six children of Friedrich Bernhard Riemann, a Lutheran pastor in Breselenz. Growing up, Riemann displayed a remarkable gift for mathematics, even from a very young age. As a boy, Riemann had regular health issues, including symptoms of consumption.
Bernhard was very family oriented and grew up in a religious home. He wanted to follow in his father’s footsteps as a Protestant minister, but he was excessively shy. His shyness led to many breakdowns and exacerbated his health issues. Neverthless, he stayed true to his religion and sincere in his Christian faith.
In the spring of 1846 Riemann enrolled at the University of Göttingen. He entered the theology faculty but also attended some mathematics lectures and transferred to the faculty of philosophy so that he could study mathematics. In the University of Göttingen he began studying mathematics under Carl Friedrich Gauss.
Riemann moved from Göttingen to Berlin University in 1847 to study from the best at the time, including Steiner, Jacobi, Dirichlet and Eisenstein. His work with Eisenstein included the use of complex variables in elliptic function theory; this work eventually became a critical part of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity. Riemann also made significant contributions to the theory of functions, complex analysis, and number theory.
At age 36, he suffered respiratory diseases that sent him even further downhill. Despite all his troubles, his faith remained strong. Eventually, Riemann's lifelong health problems forced him into temporary retirement. He moved to the Harz area with his friends, focusing on excursions and "Naturphilosophie". He later returned to Göttingen to work as a professor; shortly after, he received word that his sister and brother had died.
On June 3 of 1862, Riemann married Elise Koch, a friend of his sister's. Their only daughter, Ida, was born in August of 1863. Just a month after their marriage, his health failed again and he did not recover again before his death in 1866. On his death bed his last words were the Lord’s prayer. His tombstone has the inscription of Romans 8:28, “All things work together for good to them that love God.” 
- Turning Points in the Conception of Mathematics
- Gallian, Joseph A (1994). Contemporary Abstract Algebra (3rd ed.). Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C.Heath and Company. p. 273. ISBN 0-669-33907-5.
-  The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. Created by John J O'Connor and Edmund F Robertson, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland . Accessed 10 September 2011.
- God created the integers: the mathematical breakthroughs that changed history,By Stephen W. Hawking, p.824
- Grave of Bernhard Riemann in Biganzolo (Italy) Monuments on Mathematicians. Accessed 10 September 2011.