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Contents

Creationwiki:

  • - Creationwiki should be approached as professional. Like journalism it should be an accurate, in tune, with matters, and avoid bias.
  • - E.g., In subjects of ancient History:
  • - Sources of chronology should verify, sourced, and referenced.
  • - E.g., My main sources as new sources:
  • - I like:
  • - CNN self-proclaimed "most trusted name in trust news." Although sometimes I reference ABC.
  • - Honest: free of deceit; truthful and sincere. fairly earned. simple and unpretentious. genuinely; really. - (based on Oxford dictionary definition)
  • - Accurate: correct in all details. capable of or successful in reaching the intended target. - (based on Oxford dictionary definition)
  • - Reliable: able to be relied on. - (based on Oxford dictionary definition)
  • - Wonderful resourceful sources:
  • - Quackwatch:
  • - [www.quackwatch.org]
  • -Spell Check:
  • - www.spellchecker.net/spellcheck
  • - Oxford dictionary:
  • - Visual thesaurus:
  • - www.visualthesaurus.com
  • - Questions: What? When? Where? Which? Who? Whom? Why? and How? are important but, it must be relevant! Relevance is of utmost importance, in this encyclopedic database, at least in my personal opinion and, take of mine own perspective and Wikipedia...
  • - Relevant: closely connected or appropriate to the matter in hand. - (based on Oxford dictionary definition)
  • - Egypt:
  • - Goals we should have:
  • - We need to satisfactorily show that the Bible record on history is reliable and trust-worthy.
  • - We need to properly confront the "Out of Africa" theory. - (http://jewsandjoes.com/images/ftdna-y-haplogroup-migrations-map.jpg), (http://news.wustl.edu/news/Pages/20732.aspx)
  • - We need to properly confront the Neanderthal issue. - (Y-chromosome)
  • - We need to accurately show how the Bible's chronology is accurate.
  • - We need to accurately show how DNA supports (specifically haplogroups) the Bible's record on the origin of humanity.
  • - We need to appropriately question the questionable.
  • - My project to synchronize information of historical figures and their contemporaries: ==
  • - Formala:
  • - P1 (First Person) is a C (contemporary) to P2.
  • - P2 is a C to P3 (but not necessary a C to P1).
  • - P1 - (Any Biblical character e.g, Judean King, prophet, etc.,)
  • - P2 - (A foreign Biblical character e.g., foreign King, etc.,)
  • - P3 - A non-Biblical character linked to P1/P2.
  • - A comparison could provide a better though possibly still rough model of human history. Narrowing things down a bit.
  • - Using MiniFiler for DNA. - [1], [2] will help us...
  • - Astronomical indicators.
  • - Pros:
  • - Cons:
  • - Subject to misidentification and myth.
  • - "Dendrochronology"
  • - Pros:
  • - Cons:
  • - [3]
  • - [4]
  • - Radio carbon dating
  • - Pros:
  • - Cons:
  • - Carbon 14 level have varied through-out history. Time magazine reported: “ Moreover, carbon 14 levels in the air -- and thus the amount ingested by organisms -- are known to vary over time, and that can affect the results of carbon dating.”
  • - Contamination.
  • - Ground level
  • - Pros:
  • - Cons:
  • - Contamination.
  • - Chronology needs works.


  • - Date... Event... Reference...


  • - 4026 B.C.E. "Adam’s creation." - (Genesis 2:7).
  • - a. 4026 B.C.E. "Edenic covenant made, first prophecy." - (Genesis 3).


  • - b. 3896 B.C.E. "Cain slays Abel." - (Genesis 4:8).
  • - 3896 B.C.E. "Birth of Seth." - (Genesis 5:3).
  • - 3404 B.C.E. "Birth of righteous Enoch." - (Genesis 5:18).
  • - 3339 B.C.E. "Birth of Methuselah." - (Genesis 5:21).
  • - 3152 B.C.E. "Birth of Lamech." - (Genesis 5:25).
  • - 3096 B.C.E. "Death of Adam." - (Genesis 5:5).
  • - 3039 B.C.E. "Transference of Enoch; ends his period of prophesying." - (Genesis 5:23, 24; Jude 14).


  • - 2970 B.C.E. "Birth of Noah." - (Genesis 5:28, 29).
  • - 2490 B.C.E. "God’s pronouncement as to mankind." - (Genesis 6:3).
  • - 2470 B.C.E. "Birth of Japheth." - (Genesis 5:32; 9:24; 10:21).
  • - 2468 B.C.E. "Birth of Shem." - (Genesis 7:11; 11:10).
  • - 2370 B.C.E. "Death of Methuselah floodwaters fall (in autumn)." - (Genesis 5:27; Genesis 7:6, 11).
  • - 2369 B.C.E. "Making of the covenant after the Flood." - (Genesis 8:13; 9:16).
  • - 2368 B.C.E. "Birth of Arpachshad." - (Genesis 11:10).
  • - a. 2269 B.C.E. "Building of the Tower of Babel." - (Genesis 11:4).
  • - a. 2269 B.C.E. Large scale migration out of Babel.
  • - 2020 B.C.E. "Death of Noah." - (Genesis 9:28, 29).
  • - 2018 B.C.E. "Birth of Abraham." - (Genesis 11:26, 32; 12:4).


  • - 1943 B.C.E. "Abraham crosses Euphrates on his way to Canaan; Abrahamic covenant validated; beginning of the 430-year period to Law."
  • - 1900 B.C.E.
  • - 1800 B.C.E.
  • - 1700 B.C.E.
  • - 1613 B.C.E. (before 1613 B.C.E) Job's trial.
  • - 1600 B.C.E. (after 1600 B.C.E.) "Egypt attains prominence as first world power" - Exodus 1:8.
  • - 1593 B.C.E. "Birth of Moses".
  • - 1513 B.C.E. "The Exodus".
  • - 1500 B.C.E.
  • - 1400 B.C.E.
  • - 1300 B.C.E.
  • - 1200 B.C.E.
  • - 1100 B.C.E.


  • - 1000 B.C.E.
  • - 900 B.C.E.
  • - 800 B.C.E.
  • - 700 B.C.E.
  • - 600 B.C.E.
  • - 500 B.C.E.
  • - 400 B.C.E.
  • - 300 B.C.E.
  • - 200 B.C.E.
  • - 100 B.C.E.


  • - 100 C.E.
  • - 200 C.E.
  • - 300 C.E.
  • - 400 C.E.
  • - 500 C.E.
  • - 600 C.E.
  • - 700 C.E.
  • - 800 C.E.
  • - 900 C.E.
  • - 999 C.E.
  • - 1000 C.E.


  • - 1100 C.E.
  • - 1200 C.E.
  • - 1300 C.E.
  • - 1400 C.E.
  • - 1500 C.E.
  • - 1600 C.E.
  • - 1700 C.E.
  • - 1800 C.E.
  • - 1900 C.E.


  • - 2000 C.E.
  • - 2001 C.E.
  • - 2002 C.E.
  • - 2003 C.E.
  • - 2004 C.E.
  • - 2005 C.E.
  • - 2006 C.E.
  • - 2007 C.E.
  • - 2008 C.E.
  • - 2009 C.E.
  • - 2010 C.E.
  • - 2011 C.E.
  • - 2012 C.E.

Archeology, Tombs:

  • - Cave of the Patriarchs. - (31.524744, 35.110726) - (Genesis 49:30-33) - [5], (http://www.machpela.com/english/content.asp?pageid=28)
  • - Timnath-heres. - (32.119519, 35.157183) - (Joshua 24:30)
  • - Tomb of Cyrus. - (30.193889, 53.167222) - (Isaiah 45:1) - [6]
  • - Naqsh-e Rustam. - (Persian kings Xerxes (485-465 B.C.), Artaxerxes I (465-424 B.C.), and Darius II ) (29.988611, 52.871944) -
  • - Herodium; Tomb of Herod. - (31.665906, 35.241468) - (Matthew 2:1-23) - [7]
  • - Mausoleum of Augustus. - (41.906111, 12.476389) - (Luke 2:1, 2; Acts 25:21, 25) - [8]

The Divine Name:

  • - History:
  • - Theoretical: Yahueh.
  • - We have the possible Judean Pronunciation of: Yahueh and Yahweh.
  • - Whereas we know the Samaritan pronunciation: Yabe. (Samaritan pronounce the letter Waw/Waa as Baa)
  • - Hebrew names containing the Prefix/Sufix: - Yahu -.
  • - Theory based on a musicological understanding of the Hebrew Ta'amim: all seem to favor a three syllable pronunciation. (Ya-hu-eh vs Yah-weh)
  • - Favorable Greek and Ethiopian transliterations: Iahueh and Iahbeh.
  • - Usage in English: ... <more to come>

Creation:

  • - The formula m = E/c² (mass equals energy divided by the speed of light squared) - (Psalms 19:1, 2; 90:2; Isaiah 40:26; Jeremiah 32:17)


  • - Previous to period of creative days: "A beginning"
  • - Previous to period of creative days: [A primitive earth in darkness and enshrouded in heavy gases and water]


  • - (Chart below is based on the book — How Did It Get Here? By Evolution or by Creation?)


  • - Day 1: “Let light (אור) come to be” [light visible] - (It should be noted: at this point the earth and light already existed (Genesis 1:1; think of the many stars, nebulas and galaxies in our Universe) however it was not always visible on earth)
  • - Day 2: “Let an expanse come to be” [an expanse/atmosphere]
  • - Day 3: “Let the dry land appear” [large areas of dry land]
  • - Day 3: “Let the earth cause grass to shoot forth” [land plants]
  • - Day 4: ‘Let luminaries (Hebrew: maohr) come to be in the expanse, the greater for dominating the day and the lesser for dominating the night’ ["sun, moon and stars discernible in the expanse, and seasons beginning"]
  • - Day 5: ‘Let the waters swarm forth living souls and let flying creatures fly over the earth’ [sea monsters and flying creatures]
  • - Day 6: ‘Domestic animal and wild beast according to its kind’ [wild and tame beasts, mammals]
  • - Day 6: “Male and female he created them” [man]


  • - Quoting a reference: Was Life Created? 2010 Printing (published by the: The Watchtower Bible and Tract society)
  • - "Genesis was written by a Hebrew in Hebrew mainly with Hebraic audience in mind. Therefore it with contains a Hebraic perspective. It takes the approach of a person on earth. It describes events as they would have been seen by human observers had they been present themselves." We see that in Genesis 1:1, 2 are classified separate from the creative days.


  • - 'Science and the Genesis Account:


  • - "The Genesis account opens with the simple, powerful statement: “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” (Genesis 1:1) A number of Bible scholars agree that this statement describes an action separate from the creative days recounted from verse 3 onward. The implication is profound. According to the Bible’s opening words, the universe, including our planet, Earth, was in existence for an indefinite time before the creative days began.
  • - "'Geologists estimate that the earth is 4 billion years old, and astronomers calculate that the universe may be as much as 15 billion years old. Do these findings—or their potential future refinements—contradict Genesis 1:1? No. The Bible does not specify the actual age of “the heavens and the earth.”"
  • - The universe and the earth have existed here for billions of years before man was here. It’s humanity which is 6,000 years old.


  • - Quoting a reference: Reasoning from the scriptures (published by the: The Watchtower Bible and Tract society)
  • - (1) "Light from the Andromeda nebula can be seen on a clear night in the northern hemisphere. It takes about 2,000,000 years for that light to reach the earth, indicating that the universe must be at least millions of years old. End products of radioactive decay in rocks in the earth testify that some rock formations have been undisturbed for billions of years.
  • - (2) End products of radioactive decay in rocks in the earth testify that some rock formations have been undisturbed for billions of years.
  • - Genesis 1:3-31 is not discussing the original creation of matter or of the heavenly bodies. It describes the preparation of the already existing earth for human habitation.
  • - ..."However, the Hebrew word translated “day” [יום] has a variety of meanings, including ‘a long time; the time covering an extraordinary event.’ (Old Testament Word Studies, Grand Rapids, Mich.; 1978, W. Wilson, p. 109) The term used allows for the thought that each “day” [יום] could have been thousands of years in length."
  • - "In the first century C.E., some 4,000 years downstream in history, the Bible referred (to Apostle Paul divine inspired indication) to the seventh rest “day” as still continuing. (Hebrews 4:4-6) So the seventh “day” was a period spanning thousands of years, and we can logically conclude the same about the first six “days.”
  • - Now consider the bold accusation: "...in an attempt to merge the Bible with the theory of evolution, many old-earth creationists argue for nonliteral interpretations of the word "Day" in Genesis 1, and instead hold to these descriptions as representing vast periods of time..."
  • - However, we see otherwise in the light of the knowledge of Bible truth and common sense.
  • - Is not the understanding the earth resulted from a 6 non-24 hour creative day process that is an attempt to merge the Bible with human doctrine/philosophy. Instead, in it is "young earth"...
  • - Creationwiki claims: God created time and language, and described these events in terms that clearly define the length of time involved.
  • - Evidently not or there would be no disagreement! The Hebrew word [יום] can be vague.


  • - Creationwiki claims: "An old earth creationist position known as Progressive creationism or day-age creationism, holds that the account in Genesis is true, but argue that the Creation "days" were not 24-hour periods.
  • - However, the Bible never stated when the (Hebrew: "Bereshith"; which in also the Hebrew name for the book of Genesis) "The beginning" was.
  • - Genesis 1:1, 2 "described things already accomplished, and they fall outside any time frame encompassing the creative days." Saying otherwise would be inaccurate to say the least.
  • - "It helps us when we understand that, just as Bible writers used the term “day” in more than one sense, so they also used the terms “heavens” and “earth” in more than one sense". - (Jeremiah 4:25)
  • - And I took a course in Hebrew so shold know what "yom" means.
  • - Understanding Hebrew and the Hebraic perspective (in the case as a person stand on the surface of the earth) we can begin to understand the seemly contradiction between day 1 (light) and day 2 (sun created).
  • - Consider in some cultures the terms “left” and “right” are foreign they go by landmarks instead. The account was written with the perspective a person was standing on earth watching.
  • - With this understanding it would be logically:
  • - 1. The earth was covered in dark gas.
  • - 2. The sun was the main source of light and it was during the first creative day the light become visible on earth.
  • - 3. Plants created: plants filter certain gases.
  • - 4. The luminaries became fully discernible. Which would offer a logical explanation to how plants which require photosynthesis came being in existence previous to the luminaries (because meant before they become fully discernible).
  • - The expression: "And there came to be evening and there came to be morning," see Hebraic thought on light and darkness. (Proverbs 4:18)


  • - Creationwiki: "It is generally held the Hebrew word Yom may represent vast periods of time."
  • - First "generally held" is "weasel words!" Second the scriptures use "yom" to refer more or less than a 24 hour solar day (check out: Genesis 2:4)
  • - Once again the seventh “day” was a period spanning thousands of years.
  • - All period of creation described as a “day”Genesis 2:4.'
  • - The day/-s of harvestGenesis 30:14 & Proverbs 25:13.
  • - I also find the phrase: "In an attempt to merge the Bible with the theory of evolution,"... to be very offensive! Please don't ascribe a motive that's not there! Why not just fairly represent this differing views? I resent being labeled as a "progressive creationist." I'm not part of a political party as it were. I'm a Bible believer. The Bible says God created Adam from the dust and formed Eve from the material from Adam ribs. So I don't believe God created a magic cell which spring out of some magic soup and morphed into ape-man-person then into Adam. I'm not sure how others feel on this, however I feel that "progressive" in used to suggested those in favor of the day-age model of creation have an agenda to merge with evolution. This is totally false and I consider the term offensive!


  • - Examples of sea monsters in modern times:

Adam & Eve Parallels:

  • - Adam (Adam: earthing man) and Eve (Chawwah: (feminine) (Living one)
  • - Enki & Ninti. - Sumerian literature. - (Adam & Eve??) - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enki), (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ninti)
  • - Teshub & Khebat. - Hurrian mythology. - (Adam & Eve??) - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teshub), (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebat)
  • - Yima & Yama. - Persian literature. - (Adam & Eve??) - [10]
  • - Mashye and Mashyane. - Persian literature. - (Adam & Eve??)
  • - Manu & Satarupa. - Hindu literature. - (Adam & Eve??)
  • - Manu & Parsu (personified rib)... - Rig-Veda, Hindu literature. - [11]
  • - Yama (यम) & Yamī. - Rigveda, Hindu literature. - (Adam & Eve??) - [12]
  • - Epimetheus & Pandora. - Greek literature. - (Adam & Eve??) - [13], (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandora)
  • - Vatea & Varima-te-takere. - In the mythology of Mangaia, Cook Islands. - (Adam & Eve??)
  • - Ymir. - Norse literature. - (Adam??)
  • - Adamu. - Assyrian literature. - (Adam??)
  • - Amuta. - Babylonian literature. - (Adam??)
  • - Adapa & Ninti (life). - Sumerian literature. - (Adam??) - [14]
  • - [15]
  • - Sumerian origin to the account of the garden of Eden?
  • - Or a Hebraic origin to the Sumerian story
  • - In contrast one can take the Sumerian myth of: Adapa in Garden of Edinu and see a Hebraic origin.
  • - As the phrases Adam and Eden are Hebrew.
  • - Adhama: Earthling man (אדם); ground (אדםה), root meaning “red”. - (Genesis 1:26; 2:7)
  • - (See: "mother earth," Gaia, Prithvi Mata, etc.,)
  • - Eden (עֵדֶן) ('Eden: Pleasure/delight, lush. See Hebrew root 'dn) - (Genesis 2:8, 9, 16; 1:27-31)
  • - Given that these specific puns with "Adam" and "Eden" are present only in Hebrew, arguably could not linguistic criticism instead place the Hebraic account as the older, as the narrative influence on the Sumerian story of creation?
  • - Interesting ocurrances:
  • - The Garden and garden places
  • - From The Dust

Genesis 2:7: "And Jehovah God proceeded to form the man out of dust from the ground and to blow into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man came to be a living soul." - NWT.

  • - Africa:
  • - "In Yoruba African mythology, the god Obatala created the human race from clay" "which were supposedly brought to life by Olorun's breath." - Wikipedia.
  • - "In Egyptian mythology, the ram-headed god Khnum made people from clay in the waters of the Nile." - Wikipedia.
  • - Americas:
  • - "Mayan mythology, Tepeu and Kukulkán (Quetzalcoatl) made the first humans from clay, but they were unsatisfactory." - Wikipedia.
  • - "The Abenaki people believe that after Tabaldak created humans, the dust from his body created Glooscap and his twin brother, Malsumis." - Wikipedia. - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gluskabe)
  • - Europe:
  • - Greek mythology: Prometheus created humans from clay. - Wikipedia.
  • - Greek mythology: Gaia (earth personified) was the great mother of the Greek 'gods.' (See: Porto-Indo mythology)
  • - Middle-East:
  • - "Babylonian Mythology creation epic Enuma Elish, the goddess Ninhursag created humans from clay." - Wikipedia.
  • - Austro-polynesia:
  • - "The Māori people believe that Tāne Mahuta, god of the forest, created the first woman out of clay and breathed life into her." - Wikipedia. - [16]
  • - The divine Mother Goddess
  • - Some of Athena's similarities with Eve:
  • - Athena: is born full grown out of Zeus' body.
  • - Eve: is born full grown out of Adam's body. - Genesis 2:22, 23
  • - Associated with Hera, Born in the presence of Hera; Alcaeus, refers to Hera as panton genethla, or "mother of all."
  • - Eve: is called by Adam is "Chawwah" in Hebrew because she is the "the mother of all living" - Genesis 3:20 (Hera's "gift" of curiosity.)
  • - Sanchuniathon's account would make Athena the sister of Zeus and Hera, not Zeus' daughter. - Genesis 2:23, 24
  • - Eve: is wife and similar to a twin sister to Adam.
  • - Closely associated with the serpent (Erichthonius & the head of gorgon).
  • - Eve is greatly associated with the serpent. Genesis 3:1-17.
  • - Associated with Pandora, sculpted Pandora: Pandora birth was on a 'divine' origin opened a forbidden box unleashing misery to the world.
  • - Eve: ate the forbidden fruit and offered it to Adam who willy accepted it. (Sin entered the world through Adam because of this) - Genesis 2:9; 3:1-19
  • - Covered in an animal skin.
  • - Eve: after banished from the garden wore garments of skin. - Genesis 3:21
  • - And holds Nike (victory) in her right hand.
  • - Eve achieved a Satanic victory and recieved independence from God.
  • - Wiininwaa - A woman entitled as "Norishment" who became immortal through manidoowiziwin (the process of taking on qualities of a Manitou); daughter of Nookomis and mother of Nanabozho. - Wikipedia.
  • - The Tree of Life
  • - I am not saying there a necessary connection with and between everyone. I observed this interesting expression “tree of life” and ancient motif among many ancient peoples.
  • - See:
  • - Germanic: Ash tree.
  • - Hinduism: Bayan tree.
  • - Slavic: Oak tree.
  • - Celtic: Hazel tree.
  • - Grecian: Concept of Mt. Olympus? Tree sawed by the Kallikantzaroi.
  • - See also:
  • - The serpent:
  • - See: (Genesis 2:15-17; 3:1-5.)
  • - Africa:
  • - Austr-Polynesia:

Antediluvian Society, Places:

  • - Places:


  • - Garden of E'den: (According David Rohl's theory: 38°048242"N, 46°188242"E) linked the with location Tabriz, iran. (This is according to David Rohl's theory)... - [17], [18]


  • - Located in Northern Mesopatmia: "Now there was a river issuing out of Eden to water the garden, and from there it began to be parted and it became, as it were, four heads. ((Therefore: located near at the source of the rivers in northern Mesopatmia)) The Hebrew term: "Rosh" or "Roshim" (Literally translates as head) indicates a Northern Mesopatmia location. - Genesis 2:10. (See: The Anchor Bible (1964), which compares this scripture with Joshua 15:5 and Semitic Akkadian langauge cognate: Resu)


  • - Pishon: David Rohl's identifies as Qezel Uzun [19] river (Old Persian: Uizhun; Modern Persian: Qezel Uzun) - (37°538.54"N 47°4614.26"E) -

"The first one’s name is Pishon; it is the one encircling the entire land of Havilah (sand), where there is gold. And the gold of that land is good. There also are the bdellium gum (gum gugul) and the onyx stone."

  • - Gihon: Gaihun-Aras. - (40° 1'6.24"N 48°27'12.60" E) and the Land of Cush: The Kassites and Mount Kusheh Dagh. - [20], [21], [22]

"And the name of the second river is Gihon (Jihoun-Araxes); it is the one encircling the entire land of Cush (Kassites)."

  • - Hiddekel: (Akkadian Idiqlat) Tigris. - (38°16'19.42"N 43°49'9.97" E) - (Compare with: Daniel 10:4, 5; 11:5, 6) - [23]

"And the name of the third river is Hiddekel (Tigris); it is the one going to the east of Assyria."

  • - Perath: (Arabic: Firat; generally agreed to came from the Old Persian: Ufrātu "the good") Euphrates. - (39°31'4.01"N 43°30'25.57" E), [24]

"And the fourth river is the Euphrates."


  • - Paradise: It of possible interest is that King Solomon used the word Pardes in his desciption of his royal gardens. - Eccelesiastes 2:5; Song of Solomon 4:13; also see Nehemiah 2:8. Greek: parádeisos > Persian: Pairidaeza > Old Persian: Pairidiz... - (Akkadian: pardesu. Elamite: partetas "domain") "paradise" derives from the Persian word for "park," also implying a circumscribed, protected area. The Hebrew word "Pardes" meaning "Paradise" has a four letter root vs. usual Hebraic three.


  • - The term Paradise linked with the Garden of Eden The Septuagint uses the word around 30 times, both of Eden, (Genesis 2:7 et.) and of Eden restored (Ezekiel 28:13, 36:35) etc. The Septuagint calls the Garden of Eden 'Paradise' (paradeisos) after the ancient Persian pairidaeza meaning 'enclosed parkland'. - [25]


  • - Paradise gardens The great Meidans (royal squares) of Islamic Persia, particularly the beautiful Meidan-é Imam of Isfahan, are symbolic representations of the original Garden of Eden with their high enclosures and formal gardens containing fountains and pools. [26] Persian Gardens dating from antiquity = representing; a pool, four rivers, orchards. What legends states about the hanging gardens of Babylon. (His Median/Northern Iranian wife). - [27] Although some view this association between the two caused from later Islamic influence. - [28], [29]


  • - Nod (Land of Fugitiveness): Noqi, Iran. (According David Rohl's theory) - Genesis 4:16. - [30]
  • - See places:
  • - Aratta, on the plain of Edin. - [31]
  • - Dilmun. - [32]

Antediluvian society, plants of Eden:

  • - Plants in Eden:
  • - Ezekiel 31:8 references: Cedar trees, Jupiter trees, and plane trees.
  • - Cedar trees: [33] - Cedrus_libani...
  • - Jupiter trees: [34] - Juniperus excelsa...
  • - Plane trees: [35]...
  • - Genesis 1:14: "And God went on to say: “Let luminaries come to be in the expanse of the heavens to make a division between the day and the night; and they must serve as signs and for seasons and for days and years." - The astronomy, time Indicators and the calendar.
  • - Genesis 1:25: "...And God got to see that [it was] good."
  • - See:
  • - "Interconnectivity:"
  • - "forest bathing" [[36]].
  • - "The carbon cycle" [[37]].
  • - "The field of bionics" [[38]].
  • - "Symbiosis" (Phoresis, Commensalism, Mutualism) e.g., clownfish and the sea anemone, hermit crab and the sea anemone, shark and remora fish, buffalo and the oxpeacker.
  • - "Design:" [[39]] [[40]] [[41]] DNA code.

Antediluvian Society, Lifestyle And Technology:

  • - Agriculture. - Genesis 4:2, 3; 9:20 (compare with: Genesis 1:29)
  • - Astronomy: - Genesis 1:4 (compare with: Genesis 7:11)
  • - Botany. - Genesis...
  • - Exile. - Genesis 4:16...
  • - Horticulture. - Genesis 2:9
  • - Linguistics: poetry Genesis 2:23, word coining. - Genesis 2:20.
  • - Livestock: Genesis 4:20.
  • - Fashion. - Genesis 3:7; 21.
  • - Marriage unions: (mono) - Genesis 2:23, (poly) - Genesis 4:19.
  • - Metal forging: Tool making, knowledge of geography. - Genesis 4:22.
  • - Musical instruments: - Genesis 4:21.
  • - Songwriting. - Genesis
  • - Sheep herding. - Genesis 4:2-4. (Wool?)
  • - Religion. - Genesis 2:16; 4:1-4.
  • - Time keeping. - Genesis.
  • - Tent making: implies the preparing of fabric, and textiles making, etc. - Genesis 4:20.
  • - Vendettas. - Genesis....
  • - Village building; architecture, construction. - Genesis 4:17.
  • - Zoology. - Genesis 2:20.
  • - Paints a very different picture than "uniformitarianism."

Antidiluvian Society, The Nephilim:

  • - The Nephilim:
  • - "then the sons of the [true] God began to notice the daughters of men, that they were good-looking; and they went taking wives for themselves, namely, all whom they chose." - Genesis 6:2. (NWT)
  • - The account used the expression: "the daughters of men" not "the daughters of Cain."
  • - "The Neph′i·lim proved to be in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of the [true] God continued to have relations with the daughters of men and they bore sons to them, they were the mighty ones who were of old, the men of fame." - Genesis 6:4. (NWT)
  • - Why would the mere mention of their marriage to the daughters of men as something special? Marriage, childbearing, had been taking place for more than 1,500 years. Comparison can be made with: Job 1:6; 38:7. Psalm 83:9; Hebrews 13:2; 2 Peter 2:4; Jude 6, 7. Terms: beneh′ ’e•lim′ and beneh′ ha•’Elo•him′ occur in: "Sons of men" — Compare: Psalm 4:2; 57:4; Proverbs 8:22, 30, 31; Jeremiah 32:18, 19; Daniel 10:16. The timing, vocabulary, and subject are related to Genesis. Consider Job is believed to written by the prophet Moses who would penned the inspired record of Job. - 1 Peter 3:19, 20; 2 Peter 2:4, 5. Gib·bo·rim′ and hag·gib·bo·rim′ [Mighty ones] > Biblical Koine Greek: Gi′gan·tes (giants).
  • - So the "Sons of God" thus are fallen angels.
  • - Angels (spirit creatures) possess the ability materialize. - Genesis 18; 19; 32.
  • - The term Archangel with its prefix: “arch,” signifying “chief” or “principal,” implies that there is only one archangel, the chief angel. Further the belief of existence of more one archangel is not supported by the Bible itself; as the term never occurs in plural form.
  • - Did the Nephilim survive the flood? No! - Genesis 6:12, 13, 17; 7:21; 9:11; 15-17; Matthew 24:39; 1 Peter 3:20.
  • - Some giants in mythology
  • - Kroni: "He is the primordial manifestation of evil, and manifests in various forms of evil, such as Ravana and Duryodhana.” - Indian mythology - Wikipedia. - [42]
  • - Hiranyaksha: "A Datiya, He was slain by Lord Vishnu after he (Hiranyaksha) took the Earth to the bottom of what has been described as the “Cosmic Ocean.” His name in Sanskrit literally means "Golden eye"." - Indian mythology - Wikipedia. - [43]
  • - Oni: "Depictions of oni vary widely but usually portray them as hideous, gigantic, creatures with sharp claws, wild hair, and two long horns growing from their heads. They are humanoid for the most part, but occasionally, they are shown with unnatural features such as odd numbers of eyes or extra fingers and toes. Their skin may be any number of colors, but red and blue are particularly common." - Japanese folklore. - Wikipedia. - [44]
  • - Wiindigoog: "(singular wiindigoo) are giant, powerful, malevolent cannibalistic spirits associated with the Winter and the North. If a human ever resorts to cannibalism to survive, they are said to become possessed by the spirit of a wiindigoo, and develop an overpowering desire for more human flesh." -Wikipedia. - Anishinaabe, First Nations peoples mythology." - [45] & http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wendigo#In_Algonquian_mythology]
  • - Some demigods in mythology
  • - Mesopotamian: Gilgamesh.
  • - Hindu: Ganas.
  • - Greek: Aeacus, Aeneas, Achilles, Amphion, Heracles, Achilles, Orpheus, Satyr.
  • - Polynesian: Mui.

Hebrew, An Overview:

  • - "Hebrew is remarkable for its brevity, the frame of its structure allowing for such terseness. Aramaic, the closest to Hebrew of the Semitic tongues, is by comparison more ponderous, roundabout, wordy." - Insight on the scriptures, volume two, under Hebrew, page 1073.
  • - Brevity: "Concise and exact use of words in writing or speech. shortness of time. From Latin brevitas, from brevis 'brief.'" - Oxford.
  • - Terse: "Sparing in the use of words." - Oxford.
  • - Ancient Hebrew phonology:
  • - Alef (Ox). – (ʔ) (is not ayin)
  • - Bayit (house). – (b) - (Allophonically: v)
  • - Gamal (Camel or a foot) – (g) – (Allophonically: ʒ)
  • - Dalet (Door?). – (d) – (Allophonically: ð)
  • - He' (Man: Behold). – (h) – (Allophonically: hh)
  • - Waw – (w) & (û) – (is not vav)
  • - Zan – (z)
  • - Heth – (ħ) & (χ)?
  • - Teth – (tʼ) – (is not taw)
  • - Yad (arm). – (j)
  • - Kaf (hand). – (k) (Allophonically: χ) - (not the same as qof)
  • - Lam (staff). – (l)
  • - Mayim – (m)
  • - Samehh – (s) -
  • - Ayn (eye). – (ʕ) – (is not aleph)
  • - Ghayn (twisted rope?). – (ɣ) – (this letter merged with Ayin)
  • - Pe' (mouth). – (p) – (Allophonically: f)
  • - Tsadheh – (t͡s)
  • - Quf – (q) – (not the same as kaf)
  • - Resh – (ɾ) – (tapped)
  • - Shin (two front teeth). - ʃ & (ɬ).
  • - Taw (mark). – (t) – (Allophonically: θ) - (is not teth)
  • - The Hebraic "family tree:"
  • - Proto-Semitic > Proto-Hebrew... (*Canaanite shift: a > o e.g., Shalam > Shalom. )
  • - PreExH/Pre-Exilic Hebrew
  • - Early...
  • - Judahite Hebrew - (JEH)...
  • - (Northern-Kingdom) Israelite Hebrew...
  • - Post-Exilic - (PostExH; Post-Exilic Hebrew)..
  • - Qumran - BHQum...
  • - Tiberian -
  • - Babylonian - BHPal - Biblical Hebrew pointed with Palestinian Vocalization (from c. 7th c. CE)
  • - Palestinian - BHBab - Biblical Hebrew pointed with Babylonian Vocalization (from late c. 9th c. CE)
  • - BHGk-Lat - Biblical Hebrew as reflected in Greek and Latin transcriptions (mainly 3rd c. BCE-4th c. CE)...
  • - MidH - Medieval Hebrew. Various forms of Hebrew c. 1000-c. 1850 C.E.
  • - Rabbinic Hebrew...
  • - Dialects:
  • - Ashkenzi, Yemenite...
  • - Modern Hebrew... (Aleph and Ayin...)
  • - See:
  • - Ephraim.
  • - Manasseh.
  • - Southern Galilee.
  • - Western Galilee.
  • - Eastern Galilee.
  • - Gilead.
  • - Wrong pronunciation = An unauthentic sound, a loss of the original rhythm, and a loss of poetic rhymes. - [46]
  • - There's no proof that Moses' wife Zipporah died and re-married a Cushite woman. - Habakkuk 3:7.
  • - According to the Bible, the Biblical Levite priests descended from Aaron (the brother of Moses). - Leviticus 10:1-11
  • - Not every single person in a court or region has baring on the language worked. - ...
  • - According to the Bible, Jerusalem was choosen by God. - Genesis 14:17, 18; 22:2; Deuteronomy 12:5; 26:2; 2 Chronicles 7:12; Psalms 76:2; 78:68.
  • - "Pachad" - Job 4:14.
  • - "Garfinkel bases his identification on a three-letter verb from the inscription meaning to do, a word he said existed only in Hebrew." - [47]
  • - Genesis 41:51 nashani (see Arabic).
  • - Earliest Hebrew in scripture: 1513-1473 B.C.E. – Genesis, Job, Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, Psalm 90 & possibly Psalm 91. - (Source...)
  • - "The vigorous authentic style of Hebrew poetry used in the book of Job makes it evident that it was an original composition in Hebrew,..." - (Source...)
  • - "It could not have been a translation from another language such as Arabic." - (Source...)
  • - Interesting facts:
  • - There are 8674 different Hebrew words in the Bible. - <source>
  • - The Hebrew word Yadh literally meaning arm with it's different uses is translated in over 40 different way in most English Bible translations. This is because words share concepts. - <source>
  • - Make it practical...
  • - New reader...
  • - It's Biblical Hebrew let's get serious. - (Muslims have tajweed)
  • - 'Aleph is
  • - Behth.
  • - Ayin
  • - Ghayin does exist!
  • - Waw is waw not vav.
  • - Make it practical...
  • - New reader...
  • - It's Biblical Hebrew let's get serious. (Muslims have tajweed)
  • - Songs.

Hebrew, Learning Biblical Hebrew:

  • - Spoken Hebrew: - <more to come>
  • - Written Hebrew: - <more to come>
  • - Classical Hebrew, e-teacher... - <more to come>
  • - Pros:
  • - Teachers actually know Hebrew and live in Israel.
  • - Cons:
  • - Needed to incorporate the "four strands" ()
  • - <more to come>
  • - Most frequent Hebrew words in the Bible, in order of frequency:
  • - Most frequent Hebrew words in the Bible, verbs.
  • - Most frequent Hebrew words in the Bible, nouns.
  • - Tanakh audio (Read by Abraham Shmuelof, Divine name read as Adonai, Masoretic text [48]) [49], [50]--Anaccuratesource 21:30, 15 January 2012 (PST)
  • - Hebrew: Ma’agarim website: [51]

Hebrew, An Antidiluvian Language?'

  • - Was the language which is now known as Hebrew, the one language spoken before the lingual confusion at Babel.
  • - Points to consider:
  • - The usage of Hebrew poetry and word coinage contained in: Genesis 1:26 (The word/name Adam); Genesis 2:22-24 (the ish-shah, compare verses: Genesis 18-22), Genesis 3:20 (the Hebrew name of Eve: Chawwah′); Genesis 4:23, 24.
  • - Other names:
  • - Cain ('something produced')
  • - Enoch ('one trained up; inaugurated; that is dedicated,'...)
  • - Irad (...)
  • - Mehujael ('struck by God')
  • - Methushael ('Man of God')
  • - Lamech (his two wives: A′dah (Decked) & Zil′lah ('shadow, shade')
  • - Ja′bal (son of Lamech and A'dah)
  • - Tubal-Cain, son of Lamech and Zilah and the brother of Naamah (pleasant) his sister.
  • - Abel: ('exhalation')
  • - Seth ('appointment, put, or set').
  • - Enosh ('Mortal man').
  • - Cainan
  • - Mahalaleel
  • - Jared.
  • - Enoch ('one trained up; inaugurated; that is dedicated,'...)
  • - Methuselah
  • - Lamech
  • - Noah (rest).
  • - The Hebrew text at Genesis chapter 3, uses the plural form you. - (Circumstantial evidence)
  • - Genesis 1:5, 8, 10. "...calling the light Day, but the darkness he called Night." - (Circumstantial evidence)
  • - That "lack of emphasis on verbal time may reflect the outlook of man in his perfection." - Insight on the scripture volumes 1, under Hebrew, page... - (Circumstantial evidence)
  • - The names proceeding the flood but previous to the language change have Hebrew meanings:
  • - Tarshish, son of Javan, son of Japheth: "scatter" (Genesis 10:4)
  • - Havilah, son of Cush, son of Ham: "region of sand" (Compare with: Genesis 2:11; 10:7)
  • - Shem and thereby his descendants were blessed by Noah. - (Genesis 9:26.)
  • - Although Shem was Abraham's great-great-great-great-great-great-great- (7 Greats) grandfather. He was also his contemporary living ten years after the marriage of Isaac and Rebekah (1878 B.C.E.). Shem would have evidently spoke the same language as Noah and Abraham and Isaac would evidently spoke the same language of Shem. - Genesis 11:10, 11.
  • - The name of Babel has a Hebraic meaning.
  • - "That is why its name was called Ba′bel (Bab (gate) + Hebrew: el (God) Akkadian : ilu (God) Arabic: il (God)), because there Jehovah had confused (ba·lal′) the language of all the earth, and Jehovah had scattered them from there over all the surface of the earth." - Genesis 11:9, NWT.
  • - The question also arises where did Abraham gain his understanding of God? His father Terah does not seem a to likely source by any means. Terah (Abram/Abraham's father) was a idolatrous polytheist. - Joshua 24:2.
  • - Where Abraham family was:
  • - Haran (36°51'54.86"N 39° 1'27.03"E) is place of Abraham's family and relatives live. Abraham referred to it as "my country" - Genesis 24:4.
  • - Haran is about 340 miles away from Mount Ararat* (39°43'1.59"N 44°17'28.74"E).
  • - Haran is about 220 miles W of Nineveh (36°31'12.70"N 43° 2'37.73"E) which in turn is some 230 miles SSE of Mount Ararat.
  • - A radius of 550 miles around Haran (36°51'54.86"N 39° 1'27.03"E) includes all locations and sites in Israel, the region of Ararat, and all of Mesopotamia.
  • - Abraham Father evidently later move to city of Ur. - [52]
  • - To put this into perspective:
  • - Iraq is "slightly more than twice the size of Idaho." - CIA factbook.
  • - And Jordan "slightly smaller than Indiana." - CIA factbook.
  • - Secular understanding of the development Semitic languages is limited. There is not much information on Semitic languages prior to the 15 century B.C.E., with the exception of Akkadian. - See: Akkadian dictionary: (http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/07/science/07dictionary.html) 21 volume, 28,000 word. It should Akkadian shows Sumerian influence.
  • - Aramaic: "evidence the earliest use of the language, dating from the 10th century B.C.E." - Wikipedia.
  • - Arabic, Old North: "dating ... roughly the 6th century B.C.E " - Wikipedia.
  • - Arabic, Old South: "1000 B.C.E-1200 B.C.E"
  • - Ugaritic: "The Ugaritic language is attested in texts from the 14th through the 12th century B.C.E."
  • - Sample comparing similarities of Ancient Hebrew and Akkadian
  • - Greeting: - Ancient (pre-Biblical) Hebrew: Shalām. (SH-L-M) - Akkadian: Shalāmu. (SH-L-M)
  • - Head: - Biblical Hebrew: Rēsh (R-SH). - Akkadian: Rēshu. (R-SH)
  • - Father: - Biblical Hebrew: Ab (A-B) - Akkadian: Ab (A-B).
  • - Mother: - Biblical Hebrew: Uma - Akkadian: ummu.


  • - To test the claim of considerable degree of mutual intelligibility
  • - Hebrew language (lang-A)
  • - Other ancient Semtic language (lang-B)
  • - Factors to consider:
  • - Exposure factors: A person's familiarity with the language (lang A or B) due to exposure.
  • - Disguishing the differences between the literary and spoken form. Which has a greater degree of mutual intelligibility to lang-A?
  • - Everyday speech (spoken) as opposed to regular speech. Does regular everyday speech reflect a greater degree of mutual intelligibility to lang-A? Factors like the non-technical speech or advance vocabulary etc.,
  • - Asymmetric intelligibility. Does a speaker of lang-A understand lang-B better or does a speaker of lang-B understand lang-A better?

Hebrew, Hebrew vs. Arabic: The Which Is Older Debate:

  • - Is Arabic older than Hebrew? Debate...
  • - Which language is older is the subject of debate, since they both share the same origin. Further complicating it is how an individual would determine what is constitutes what as being older. What aspects a person uses to measure one language older than another vary. (case system, phonology, articles, vocabulary, word meaning)
  • - We have not discovered tablets or inscriptions in “Proto-Semitic” yet. So therefore what “Proto-Semitic” is based only educated guesses.
  • - Simplified English is still English.

== Hebrew, It's Relative: Ancient Semitic Languages:

  • - Akkadian ("East Semitic"):
  • - Arabic, North ("Central"):
  • - Arabic, South ("South"):
  • - Aramaic:
  • - Eblaite language (""), "ancient city of Ebla, at Tell Mardikh Eblaite is an Eastern Semitic language like Akkadian, indeed it may be identical to pre-Sargonic Akkadian." - Wikipedia.
  • - Hebrew ("Central Semitic, North-West Semitic"): (Oldest inscriptions date to...)
  • - Ugaritic.
  • - Where did the "Proto-Semitic" language come from? The Bible shows it comes a northern location: Specifically from the region of what is now Southern Turkey and Northern Syria (the approximate area of the 37th parrallel) as opposed to proposed secular theory of a southern location in Arabia.
  • - Think of these places and their associated Semitic languages:
  • - Aleppo, Northern Syria: Aramaic
  • - Byblos, Northern Lebanon: Phoencian.
  • - Ebla, Northern Syria: Syrian Akkadian.
  • - Haran, Southern Turkey: Ancient Proto-Hebrew? - the land of Abraham's family.
  • - Mari, Syria: Ugaritic.
  • - Nineveh, Northern Iraq: Assyrian Akkadian.

Hebrew, A Canaanite language?

  • - The Canaanites were like an island in a sea of speakers of Semitic languages.
  • - To put this into perspective: The Canaanites population where areas dotting what is now Israel, West bank, and Lebanon:
  • - The modern state of Isreal is "slightly larger than New Jersey." - CIA - The World Factbook. (note Israel includes Negev region)
  • - The West bank is "slightly smaller than Delaware." - CIA - The World Factbook.
  • - And modern Lebanon is "0.7 times the size of Connecticut." - CIA - The World Factbook.
  • - Their neighbors spoke:
  • - Ancient Aramaic (Hebrew's closest relative; largely is what is now Syria).
  • - Ugaritic (Ras Shamra, Syria)
  • - Old Akkadian. (Is what now known as Iraq and some regions of what is now Syria; an ancient lingua franca of the Middle East)
  • - Old/ancient Hebrew (Edomites, Ammonites, Moabites, Israelites, and possibly other peoples like the Ishmaelites? Medanites? Shuhites? Descandants of Jokshan son's Sheba and Dedan?)
  • - Old North Arabic. (Northern Arabia peninsula)
  • - Old South Arabic. (In Southern Arabia peninsula, e.g., Sabeans)
  • - The Canaanites had the Ocean to them on the West.
  • - Ancient Semitic snake spell: [53] [54] [55] (see: Isaiah 3:17 dispute of the "crown of the head," or female genitalia... words: yad (hand), ari (lion), beit (house)...)
  • - Early Hebrew Inscriptions:
  • The ostracon found at the valley of Elah: dated to the tenth century B.C.E. (Location: around the Wadi es-Sant)
  • Tel Zayit inscription: dated to the tenth century B.C.E. (Location: Tel Zayit)
  • Gezer calendar inscription: believed to be from the tenth century B.C.E. (Location: Tel Jezer; Gezer)
  • - If today's scholars, accepted Moses as recording the bible books: Job, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and most of Deuteronomy, and additionally the 90th Psalm in the framework of the biblical chronology, in the ancient Hebrew script; it would mean a revision to the information present mainstream academic theory regarding the origin of the alphabet.
  • - Framework: The writing would have completed at 1473 B.C.E., and some of books started at very least as early as 1513 B.C.E.
  • - Scholars usually date 1050 B.C.E., as the mark beginning of the Phoenician script.


Hebrew, A Living Language Of The First Century:

  • - Hebrew literature: Dead sea scrolls, Masada letters, Simon bar Kochba letters, etc.,
  • - At a bare min... the Judeans would fluent in Ancient Hebrew for liturgy purposes especially considering the role in Judaic life.
  • - Bethzatha – (Hebrew)
  • - Talitha cumi.
  • - Gabbatha. – (Hebrew)
  • - Golgotha. – (Hebrew)
  • - Rabboni. – (Hebrew)
  • - Eli Eli lama sabachthani. – (Hebrew? Sabachthani is found in Mishanaic Hebrew)
  • - Abaddon. – (Hebrew)
  • - Har-magedon. – (Hebrew)

The Flood, The Overview:

The Genesis account is not a vague description. Reflect on the account how it answers the 5 W's.

  • - Who? (Mr. Noah, Mrs. Noah, Mr. Japheth, Mrs. Japheth, Mr. Shem, Mrs. Shem, Mr. Ham, Mrs.Ham) - Genesis
  • - What? (Bitumen, ark, ratio, gopher-wood (possibly cyprus wood).) - Genesis 6:14-16
  • - Where? (What is now region of Persia, Turkey, and Armenia. - Genesis 8:4
  • - When? - 2370 B.C.E.
  • - Why - Genesis
  • - How? Genesis 1:7
  • - The Year: 2370 B.C.E.
  • - The flood begins on:
  • - Heshvan/Bul 17: (the Mid-late October— early November)
  • - Source of the flood water:
  • - Then God proceeded to make the expanse and to make a division between the waters that should be beneath the expanse and the waters that should be above the expanse. And it came to be so. - (Genesis 1:7)
  • - "...all the springs of the vast watery deep were broken open and the floodgates of the heavens were opened." - (Genesis 7:11b)
  • - "And the springs of the watery deep and the floodgates of the heavens became stopped up, and so the downpour from the heavens was restrained." - (Genesis 8:2) NWT.
  • - The enormity of flood:
  • - "And the waters overwhelmed the earth so greatly that all the tall mountains that were under the whole heavens came to be covered" - (Genesis 7:19) NWT.
  • - "Could the ark have held all the animals?"
  • - The ark 125,280 sheep-sized animals. - [59] - [60]
  • - See: "micro-evolution."
  • - "How could Noah dispose of animal waste?"
  • - "According to one researcher: between the basement and the first floor of the ark there was a double fund for ballasts and excrement." (information provided by Mr. Roberto Tiso)
  • - The ark rests on: - Genesis 8:4
  • - Abib/Nisan 16: (Mid-late March— early April)...
  • - Raven: - Genesis
  • - Dove: - Genesis
  • - Dimensions of the ark. - Genesis
  • - [61]
  • - length-to-depth ratio of 10 to 1. (January 07, 2007; Awake! magazine: "Noah's Ark and Naval Architecture.")
  • - "How would Noah his family and the animals descend from Mount Ararat?"
  • - "Walking with their legs... no problem as many Armenians pilgrims climbed in the past centuries to visit the ark so also Noè, family and animals came down easily since as soon as after the deluger there was no snow or ice yet." - (information provided by Mr. Roberto Tiso)
  • - 2369 B.C.E. Making of the covenant after the Flood. - Genesis 8:13; 9:16
  • - Names and places associated with the Flood: * - [62]
  • - Kargakonmaz: (40° 22′ 0″ N, 43° 59′ 0″ E) - "The raven won't land" - Genesis 8:7.
  • - Echmiadzin: (40°10'2.74"N 44°17'26.15"E) - "those who descended" - Genesis 8:18.
  • - Yereven (40°10'29.34"N 44°30'40.19"E) - [63]
  • - Masis: (40° 4'0.41"N 44°26'9.48"E) - [64]
  • - Arghuri/Ahora. - "The planting of the vine." - Genesis 9:20.
  • - Effect on geology. - Psalms 104:6-8.
  • - The study of the path of the ark: * - [65] --
  • - Other:

The Flood, Myths And Legends Possibly Associated With:

  • - Philip Freud's book: Myths and Creation, describes some 500 stories about great deluge from 250 different tribes. - (Genesis 11:9).
  • - "Chinese, Egyptian, Greek, Semitic, and Siberian legends depict the raven as a foreteller of storms or bad weather. Perhaps such legends had Noah and the Flood as their origin." (source...)
  • - "The raven signifies life and creation in the legends of Siberia and is the creator-god of the Aboriginals in North America." (source...)
  • - "In legends of Africa, Asia, and Europe, the raven portends death." (source...)


  • - Persons parallel
  • - Africa:
  • - Zulu: (Oshunmare - divine rainbow serpent associated with creation and procreation, the creator of Beer. - Wikipedia.)
  • - Americas:
  • - Austr-Polyensia:

The Flood, The List Of Mount And Places:

  • - Mount Ararat: (39°43'1.60"N 44°17'28.72"E) - [66]
  • - Atlas mountains: (31°59'55.13"N 1°59'59.13" W) - [67]
  • - Fiji: Mbengha island: (18°23'59.49"S 178° 7'32.41" E) - []
  • - Hawaii: (19°49'59.63"N 155°28'3.81" W)
  • - Malaya Mountains: (8°27'19.22"N 76°57'18.58" E) - (Malaya Mountains) - [68]
  • - Mount Ararat: probably (39°43'1.62"N 44°17'28.72" E) - (Judaism, and Christianity) - [69]
  • - Mount Broome: (17°21'0.12"S 125°23'0.02" E) - (aboriginals of Australia)
  • - Mount Gerizim: (32°12'4.48"N 35°16'24.94" E) - (Samaritan, influenced from the Biblical account)
  • - Mount Judi: (جود&#1610) 37°22'28.16"N 42°28'16.04" E (Islam, influenced from the Biblical account')
  • - Mount Ida: (39°41'59.47"N 26°50'0.04")
  • - Mount Kailash: (31.066667, 81.312500) (the Bön faith, certain branches of Hinduism, certain branches of Buddhism, Jain)
  • - Mount Konokti: (38°58'28.35"N 122°45'58.57" W)
  • - Mount Merapi: (0°22'59.96"S 100°28'45.46" E)
  • - Mount Nisir: (35°32'26.96"N 45°26'12.41" E) (Babylonians)
  • - Mount Niitakayama: (23°28'12.00"N 120°57'26.16" E)
  • - Mount Othrys: (39° 1'0.92"N 22°42'35.00" E)
  • - Mount Parama Kamboja: probably (38°14'17.72"N 72°22'49.16" E)
  • - Mount Parnassus: (38°31'58.65"N 22°37'0.14" E)
  • - Egypt: Legend of Osiris (Mythological Egyptian deity of the dead), Hathor (Mythological Egyptian deity protector of tombs of the dead)

The Flood, Celebrations Possibly Connected To:

  • - Americas:
  • - Mesoamerica: Day of the Dead. - [70]
  • - Europe:
  • - Samhain – November 1. - [71]
  • - All-Saints days (Pope Gregory III (731-741 C.E.) – Number 1. - [72]
  • - All Souls’ Day – November 2 (monks of Cluny, France). - [73]
  • - Halloween – October 31. - [74]
  • - Middle-East:
  • - Mesopatamia: Marcheshwan.
  • - Iran: Mordad.
  • - Israel: Heshvan (Bul): The month follows the month of the nation of ancient Israel’s secular New Year. Corresponds to October—November.

After The Flood, Post-Flood world:

  • - Genesis 11:1 Could mean they migrated eastward through from what is now Iran into Iraq.
  • - Nimrod’s kingdom - Micah 5:6.
  • - 10. And the beginning of his kingdom came to be Ba′bel and E′rech and Ac′cad and Cal′neh, in the land of Shi′nar. 11. Out of that land he went forth into As·syr′i·a and set himself to building Nin′e·veh and Re·ho′both-Ir and Ca′lah 12. and Re′sen between Nin′e·veh and Ca′lah: this is the great city. - Genesis 10:10-12, NWT.
  • - Babel: (Babylon) [Bab (gate) + El/il/ilu (God)]
  • - Erech: (30°57'45.68"N 46° 6'11.32" E).
  • - Accad: (33° 5'60.00"N 44° 5'60.00" E).
  • - Calneh: (36° 5'57.00"N 43°19'39.00" E?).
  • - Land of Shinar: (Shinar: Sanhar of the Amarna letters.)
  • - Shinar might be a contraction of the Hebrew words: Shene + nahar meaning two rivered or two rivers. Compare with the phrase in the 60th Psalm "Aram-naharaim" meaning Aram's rivers; naharaim is plural and nahar in singular. This also makes sense since is spoken of as the plain of Shinar.
  • - Comparing the terms Aram-naharaim and Shinar: Genesis 4:10 (Northern Mesopotamia); Deuteronomy 23:4; Judges 3:8, Psalm 60. "In a narrower sense, however, Babylonia is excluded, only the region to the N being termed Mesopotamia. This northern region consists of a low undulating plateau having numerous enclosed basins. It is also a rocky area." - Insight on the scriptures, volume two, Mesopotamia, pages 384-385.
  • - Nineveh:
  • - Re·ho′both-Ir: ?
  • - Calah:
  • - Resen:
  • - Early post-flood technology, culture and "achievements"
  • - Reference to man-made fire: Genesis 8:20
  • - Reference to a (post-flood) Law code: Genesis 9:1-7.
  • - Reference to (post-flood) agriculture: Genesis 9:20.
  • - Vine culture: vineyard, wine making: Genesis 9:20.
  • - First reference to alcohol intoxication: Genesis 9:24.
  • - Archery: Genesis 21:20
  • - Birth-right: Genesis 14:18.
  • - Clothing: Genesis 24:53.
  • - Cooking: Genesis 14:18; 18; 25:29-33.
  • - Construction: City building. - Genesis 10:11.
  • - Domestic dogs: - Job 30:1
  • - Gold jewelry: - Genesis 13:2; 24:22, 30, 47.
  • - Government. - Genesis 10, 11.
  • - Warfare. - Evidence seems to indicate Nimrod empire would came through bloodshed. - Genesis 10:8, 22; 1 Chronicles 1:10.
  • - Kilning. - "...Let us make bricks and bake them with a burning process..." Genesis 11:3a. (The New World Translation)
  • - Hunting. - "He displayed himself a mighty hunter" footnote: Literally meaning, “mighty one in hunting.” Genesis 10:9. (New World Translation)
  • - Mortar. - "...So brick served as stone for them, but bitumen served as mortar for them." Genesis 11:3b. (The New World Translation)
  • - Mythology. - Logically myth making was in motion very early on: 1. Noah's descendants were not united; divide in belief. 2. Oral tradition was shpaed by opinion would also shape people varying belief systems. 3. Nimrod's rebellion reveals how much division in the belief system had already occurred. 4. The motivate for building the tower. 5. Ignorance, people would have lacked accurate knowledge and understanding of pure worship, quickly try to fill the gap with their superstitious beliefs.
  • - Camel: Genesis 12:16.
  • - Cattles: Genesis 12:16. - (See: Did Abraham Really Own Camels? June 15, 2011, The Watchtower.)
  • - Sheep raising (post-flood): Genesis 12:16.
  • - Asses: Genesis 12:16; 13:5; 15:9.
  • - Footwear: Genesis 14:23.
  • - Footnote: references to Holy bible are used in the proceedings.
  • - Headdress/headcover: Genesis 38:65
  • - Honey: "Genesis 43:11"
  • - Horses: Genesis 49:17, Job 39:19-25.
  • - Butter: Genesis 18:6.
  • - Baking pastry (post-flood): Genesis 14:18; 18:6.
  • - Cheese: Job 10:10.
  • - Writing (Early references to writing In the bible)
  • - (Passages probably, alluding to writing: Genesis 38:18, 25 time: circa 1750 B.C.E, “seal ring,” Genesis 41:42, “signet ring,” time: 1737 B.C.E.) Job 19:23, 24; 31:35 time period written circa 1613.
  • - (Dates mentioned are based on the the study of Biblical chronology, as presented in the book entitled: “All Scripture Is Inspired of God and Beneficial,” published by the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc.)
  • - Usage of flint:
  • - "From very early times knives, axheads, chisels, spearheads, arrowheads, and other tools and weapons have been fashioned out of this rock." - Insight on the scriptire volume one.
  • - Job 28:9 (merely mentions the rock).
  • - Deuteronomy 8:15 (merely mentions the rock).
  • - Exodus 4:25. "...took a flint and cut off her son’s foreskin..." - New World Translation.
  • - Joshua 4:19; 5:2, 3, 8, 9. e.g., - Joshua 5:2: "Literally, “daggers (swords) of rock.” Heb., cha·revohth′ tsu·rim'." - New World Translation reference edition, footnote.
  • - The language confusion was a major technological setback to ancient humankind. - Genesis 11:6.
  • - Tower of Babel
  • - King Nebuchadnezzar is reported said, “I raised the summit of the Tower of stages at Etemenanki so that its top rivalled the heavens.” One fragment relates the fall of such a ziggurat in these words: “The building of this temple offended the gods. In a night they threw down what had been built. They scattered them abroad, and made strange their speech. The progress they impeded. (paraphased from the All scriptures inspired).
  • - The same Nebuchadnezzar, but king Nebuchadnezzar was only restoring an older temple (called in ancient times E-temen-an-ki). Also a pattern exists in describing the tower as well. - Compare Genesis 11:4; Jeremiah 51:53.
  • - Also a text of Skarkalisharri, king of Agade (Accad) in time of the biblical patriarchal era, mentions him restoring a temple-tower at Babylon, implying that such a structure existed prior to his reign. (Bible and Spade, by S. L. Caiger, 1938, p. 29)
  • - The Ziggurat located at Uruk (the Biblical: Erech) was built with clay, and bricks, as well as asphalt (bitumen).—Compare: Genesis 11:1-9. Clay bricks, and bitumen.
  • - Usage of salt: Leviticus 2:13.


  • - Turkey (especially in and around Şanlıurfa) seems to be one of the earliest places of human inhabitant after the flood.
  • - To be honest I am kind of sick of "hunter-gathers" cliche.
  • - There is perpetuated idea that some almost "20,000" years ago [76] (varies depending on who you ask; secular opinion from my observation seems to roughly range anywhere 70,000-10,000 years) earth had an "ice age." [77] And there's those perpetuated "ice age" stereotypes of e.g., all these peoples were crude "hunter-gathers" forging for food in some cold tundra landscape (generally living in caves) draped in fur.
  • - Dates for the "ice age/-s" are based on ice levels? Really? This means the dates are based on conjecture. Think about it: snow drifts, wind blows, ice melts and water freezes. It's an absurd way to date things!
  • - In contrast according to the Bible most peoples after flood (when earth climate and ... had become drastically different and cooler, roughly some 4,400 years) (Genesis 2:5, 6) were anything from crude. Maybe some were lead a 'simple' life but were not necessary and more crude.
  • - Modern archaeological finds challenges the idea these ancient peoples were crude "hunter-gathers." Mammoths died off much later then originally thought. And we should asking yourselves are the "experts" fairly accessing their finds. When they find something extremely old which is less elaborate are they the work of the "crude" "hunter-gather" just because?
  • - We should be asking ourselves were these people really just "hunter-gathers" forging around for food and stuff (longer-time frame) or were they migrating (faster-time frame).
  • - Past ice ages? - Genesis 1:2?

After The Flood, Domestication And Cultivated Of Plants:

  • - Almond Near East. - [78]
  • - Apricots: "The apricot was known in Armenia during ancient times, and has been cultivated there for so long it is often thought to be native there. Its scientific name Prunus armeniaca (Armenian plum) derives from that assumption." - Wikipedia.
  • - Apples: The wild ancestors of Malus domestica are Malus sieversii, found growing wild in the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Xinjiang, China... "The center of diversity of the genus Malus is in eastern Turkey..." [[79]] [[80]] Song of Solomon 2:3.
  • - Avocado "P. americana, or the avocado, originated in the state of Puebla, Mexico." - Wikipedia.
  • - Barley: Job 31:40; Exodus 9:31; Deuteronmy 8:8.
  • - Bottle gourd: Bottle gourd: The origin and domestication of the plant Lagenaria Siceraria (also known as the bottle gourd, the opo squash, calabash, and long melon) in the Am
  • - Buckwheat: [...]
  • - Cherries: "A cultivated cherry is recorded as having been brought to Rome by Lucius Licinius Lucullus from northeastern Anatolia, also known as the Pontus region, in 72 BC." - Wikipedia.
  • - Coconut: "The origin of the plant is the subject of debate." - Wikipedia.
  • - Common climbing bean: (Phaseolus vulgaris) Andes. - Wikipedia.
  • - Corn: Mexico. - Wikipedia.
  • - Dates: Persian gulf. - Wikipedia.
  • - Eggplants: India. - Wikipedia.
  • - Figs: "Nine subfossil figs of a parthenocarpic type ... were found in the early Neolithic village Gilgal I (in the Jordan Valley, 13 km north of Jericho).
  • - Fonio:
  • - Lentils: India, Pakistan? -Wikipedia.
  • - Loquat: "The loquat is originally from southeastern China."
  • - Melons: "Melons are believed to have originated in the hot valleys of southwest Asia—specifically Iran (Persia) and India." - Wikipedia.
  • - Millet:
  • - Nectarines: See peaches.
  • - Oats: "Avena byzantina... grew in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East. "
  • - Olives: Armenia.
  • - Peaches: "Although its botanical name Prunus persica suggests the peach is native to Persia, peaches actually originated in China, where they have been cultivated since the early days of Chinese culture." - Wikipedia.
  • - Pears: The genus is thought to have originated in present-day western China in the foothills of the Tian Shan, a mountain range of Central Asia. - [81]
  • - Plums: Armenia? [82]
  • - Pomegranate: Iranian Plateau [83]
  • - Potatoes: Peru.
  • - Quinoa: Peru.
  • - Rice: China.
  • - Rye: "Rye is one of a number of species that grow wild in central and eastern Turkey, and adjacent areas. Domesticated rye occurs in small quantities at a number of Neolithic sites in Turkey, such as PPNB Can Hasan III, but is otherwise virtually absent from the archaeological record until the Bronze Age of central Europe, c. 1800-1500 BC." - Wikipedia.
  • - Sage:
  • - Spelt: The earliest archaeological evidence of spelt is from the fifth millennium BC in Transcaucasia, north of the Black Sea,
  • - Sorghum:
  • - Tomatoes: "enetic evidence shows the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit and a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. One species, Solanum lycopersicum, was transported to Mexico, where it was grown and consumed by Mesoamerican civilizations. The exact date of domestication is not known." - Wikipedia.
  • - Triticale
  • - Wheat:
  • - Referencing: Genesis 30:14; 41:22, 23
  • - (Alluding and possibly alluding to the plant: Genesis 1:11, 12, 29; 14:18; 27:28)
  • - Emmer Wheat: "Archaeological analysis of wild emmer indicates that it was first cultivated in the southern Levant with finds at Iraq ed-Dubb in northern Jordan." And "DNA studies on emmer wheat have shown its place of domestication to be near Şanlıurfa (36°51'54.86"N 39° 1'27.03"E), in southeast Turkey." - Wikipedia. Şanlıurfa = Haran, Turkey.
  • - Einkorn Wheat: DNA finger printing suggests einkorn was domesticated near Karaca Dağ (37°40'12″N 39°49'48″E) in southeast Turkey" - Wikipedia. Karaca Dağ is about 70 miles away from Haran, Turkey.
  • - Yams: "Sweet potatoes are native to Central America... The sweet potato was also grown before western exploration in Polynesia. Sweet potato has been radiocarbon-dated in the Cook Islands to 1000 AD, and current thinking is that it was brought to central Polynesia around 700 AD, possibly by Polynesians who had traveled to South America and back, and spread across Polynesia to Hawaii and New Zealand from there." - Wikipedia. See Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact: [[84]], [[85]] - (compare with Jonah 4:5-11.)
  • - For those interested in Pre-Columbian I recommended look into topics as the domestication of the dog, Opo squash, and the Sweet potato and the development of paper in Mesoamerica.

If the opo squash was brought to Americas from Asia and the sweet potato was bought from the Americas (Quechua/Aymara: ku'mara) to Polynesia (Easter island: "kumara") would show contact.

After the Flood, Places Associated With Food:

After The Flood, Legends About Language Change:

  • - The Sumerian myth of "Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta." ... <more to come>
  • - Hindu legend telling of the language confusion as a punishment from Brahma... <more to come>
  • - Aztecs mythology... <more to come>
  • - Andaman islands... <more to come>
  • - Maya mythology, speaks of Votan, the first human, helped build a huge house reaching into the heavens, which turned out to be “the place where God gave every tribe its particular language.” (source ...)
  • - The Maidu tribe in California speak of during “during a funeral ceremony, [all the people] suddenly began speaking in different languages.” (source ...)
  • - Inca legend... <more to come> (source: ("The Fables and Rites of the Yncas, by Cristóbal de Molina of Cuzco, quoted in South American Mythology")
  • - Ziggurats and Pyramids:
  • - Africa:
  • - Austr-Polynesia:
  • - Europe:

After The Flood, Religion, The Astrology:

  • - Job 38:32; Deuteronomy 17:2-7, 2 Kings 23:5.
  • - God’s view it is digusting, “shiq•quts′.”
  • - A demonic star became a symbol of adornment in Christmas; notice the pagan easterns, likely a religious class of Iranian Zoroasterians astrological priest, of the distant land of Persia. Christmas: Roman festival of Saturnalia; Birthday of Mithra. “dies natalis Solis Invicti” Consider, even according to gospel, written by Jews, a supernatural star appear to (magi) astrologers, it did not lead them to infant Jesus no to Jerusalem, to murdious king Herod. Evidence is shown even in early Christian sources that demons try to allure desceptive practices of astrology and star worship. A scriptural view on stars: We star are not to be worship. But celestial stars are part creator works, of course not the creator himself. – Genesis 1,2; 15:5; Job 26:7, Psalms 8:1, 3, 4; 115:16 136:9,147:4, Isaiah 40, Jeremiah 31:35-37;.
  • - Persian, Roman Mithra/Mithras. Mitra of Hindusim. “god of light.” Known as Mithras to the Romans. It was the mainly pagan Romans, that corrupt the early Christian congregation.
  • - Pre-deluge.
  • - Nimrod’s time.
  • - After Nimrod’s time; Time of Abraham’s forefathers.
  • - Time of Abraham contemporaries.
  • - Time of the Patriachs after Abraham.
  • - Time of being in Egpyt.
  • - Time in existing Egypt.
  • - During the royal reign of King Solomon.
  • - After the royal reign of King Solomon.
  • - During the reign of Jeroboam I, King of Samaria.
  • - After the reign of Jeroboam I, King of Samaria.
  • - Before the exile.
  • - After the exile.
  • - Period of Hellenization.
  • - Rabbinic period prior to Jerusalem destruction by the Romans.
  • - Medieval period of Jewish history.
  • - The last 500 hundred years. The occultic practices of Kabbala (Cabala).
  • - The present era. (E.g., Flag of state of Israel.)
  • - Members of Wicca and New age movements, as well as people who are outright claim to worship Satan the Devil use the pentacles in the rituals adoration. Pentacles are used in the “ calling (wicked) spirit forces into human contact.”
  • - Wikipedia: “The first known uses of the pentagram are found in Mesopotamia…” “the five planets Jupiter, Mercury, Mars and Saturn, and Venus as the "Queen of Heaven" (Ishtar) above.” In my humble opinion, the worship of Venus, lead to Christendom form early apostate Christians in corrupting the biblical position on Mary, from humble servant into Mother-goddess, and Jesus the son of God, into “Jesus God the son.”
  • - The interpretation of the “star” changed from the symbol occult of summoning spirits, into a magic “star” which controls wicked spirits offering ‘protection.’ This practice of superstition is comparable to worshiping pagan Canaanite deity Ba’al for protection from wicked spirits.
  • - Isaiah 65:11, “those setting in order a table for the god of Good Luck.”
  • - Deuteronomy 32:17: “They went sacrificing to demons, not to God, Gods whom they had not known, New ones who recently came in, With whom YOUR forefathers were not acquainted.”
  • - Use as a symbol of the Jewish army, and present during sacrifices:
  • - Psalms 106:37; Deuteronomy 32:17; 2 Chron 11:15.
  • - “Astrology is a disease, not a science. . . . It is a tree under the shadow of which all sorts of superstitions thrive.”—Moses Maimonides (1135-1204), Jewish scholar of the Middle Ages.
  • - “As regards the heavens, to Yahuéh the heavens belong, but the earth he has given to the sons of men.” – Psalms 115:16 (based on the NWT)
  • - The Jewish virtual library says (italics mine): "relatively new...symbol... (Israelite worship) permitted no images of Him; (it) was & still is opposed to the acceptance of any symbols." The Jewish Encyclopedia: "sign on amulets." – Deva•rim´ (Deuteronomy) 18:9-11, Se´pher Tehil•lim´(Psalms) 58:4.
  • - The Jewish encyclopedia says, it's connected to pentacles, used in worship God condemns, use to call spirit forces, Genesis chapter 6. Pentacles are even used to worship has-Satan himself. We will be hurt God's heart if use this symbol, as Genesis 6:6 shows is possible.
  • - This symbol would hurt God to his heart, means separation & disfavor. Is this really possible? What do you think? A scripture in Tanakh help us to see God's view, in (the Nevi'im) Ezekiel 8:13-14, God reveals his view to us, when many were using a pagan symbol. We want to praise God, not hurt him, who resides in Ha'shamayim. Imagine the day described here at Isaiah 11:9. There is no need of this so-called star, besides why no use menorah' it is mentioned in the holy writings. (Shemohth´: Exodus 25:31, 39, 40; 37:17, 24; Bemidh•bar´: Numbers 8:4)
  • - “And YOU will certainly carry Sak′kuth YOUR king and Kai′wan,
  • - YOUR images, the star of YOUR god, whom YOU made for yourselves.”
  • - Amos 5:26. – (NWT)

--Anaccuratesource 21:22, 13 September 2010 (PDT)

  • - About "The Star Of David:"
  • - THE “STAR OF YOUR GOD (SHIQ•QUTS)”:
  • - Amos 5:26, “And YOU will certainly carry Sak′kuth YOUR king and Kai′wan, YOUR images, the star of YOUR god, whom YOU made for yourselves.”
  • - “And YOU will certainly carry Sak′kuth”
  • - The Septuagint*, also used the words, “the tent of Moloch.” Portable shrines tents.
  • - Babylonian astral Diety: (suggested by the usage of poetic Hebrew parallelism)
  • - “Sakkut,” this being the Babylonian designation for Saturn (a star-god). (Siccuth – JPS Tanakh)
  • - Also, one versed in Hebrew understands, This name was purposely vocalized in the Hebrew Masoretic text to correspond to shiq•quts ′, meaning “disgusting thing.”
  • “YOUR king”
  • - Heb., mal•kekhem′; Gr., Mo•lokh′; Syr., demal•kum; Lat., Mo′loch.
  • - Maybe a play on words (a pun), the Canaanite deity Moloch/Molech/Milcam/Malcam. Moloch
  • - The Septuagint*, also used the words, “the tent of Moloch.” “Tent of Moloch.”
  • - There is evidence to show that astrology was closely allied with the worship of Molech, a god who was sometimes depicted with a bull’s head. The bull was worshiped by the Babylonians, Canaanites, Egyptians, and others as a symbol of their deities—Marduk, Molech, Baal, and so forth. The bull was one of the most important signs of the zodiac, Taurus. The sun-god was often represented by bulls, the horns signifying the rays, and the bull’s strong reproductive power, the sun’s power as “giver of life.” The female, the cow, was given equal honor as a symbol of Ishtar or Astarte, as she was variously called.
  • - Exodus 32:4, 8; Deuteronomy 9:16; 1 Kings 12:28-30; 2 Kings 10:29.
  • - Leviticus 18:21; 20:2-5; Deuteronomy 12:31; 1 Kings 11:5-8, 33, 2 Kings 16:3; 2 Kings 23:10-13; 2 Samuel 12:30 and 1 Chronicles 20:2 (It is generally agreed that the Malcam referred to idol image of the Ammonite god Milcom, or Molech, although the Hebrew term could be rendered “their king.”) 2 Chronicles 28:3; Psalms 106:37, 38; Jeremiah 7:31; 19:4, 5; 32:35 (Molech is referred to in parallel with Baal, suggesting, if not an identification, at least some connection between the two.)
  • - Ba’al:
  • - Ba’al of Peor. Ba′al-ze′bub, Be•el′ze•bub, Beezeboul, possibly meaning, “Owner of the Lofty Abode (Habitation)”; or, if a play on the non-Biblical Heb. word ze′vel (dung), “Owner of the Dung”]. “Beelzebub” is a designation applied to Satan the prince, or ruler, of the demons.). Ezekiel 20:26; 23:4, 36-39. Amos 5:26, Acts 7:43. As well pagan Babylonian deity Bel (“Owner; Master”) – Isaiah 46:1, 2; see also: Jeremiah 50:2, 51:44.
  • - Anu and Enki (Ea) and Bel. – The Babylonian triad (trinity.)
  • - Ishtar, Sin, Shamash. - Another Babylonian triad (trinity.)
  • - Mother, the son, ‘god.’
  • - Nebo.
  • - Ba’al, Moloch/Molech, Cronos/Kronos, Saturn.
  • - Plutarch. - (circa: 46–120 CE).
  • - Tertullian. - (circa: 160 – c. 220 AD).
  • - Orosius. - (b. circa 375, d. not before 418),
  • - Diodorus Siculus - (circa: 60 and 30 B.C.E.),
  • - Philo. - (circa: 20 BC – 50 AD)
  • - Satan mean resister and Devil means slander.
  • - “and Kai'wan”
  • - Akkadian name:
  • - Evidently the Akkadian star kaimanu or kaiwanu is meant, since this occurs in Akkadian inscriptions as the name of Saturn (a star-god). (Chiun – JPS Tanakh)
  • - Quoting the Septuganint*, Repa or Repha, one of the names of the Egyptian Saturn (Seb).
  • - Rhai•phan′/Rhom•pha/ Rephan.
  • - “YOUR images, the star of YOUR god, whom YOU made for yourselves.
  • - “YOUR images,”
  • - Idolatry.
  • - “the star of”
  • - A Star-symbol, used in false worship.
  • - Connected to star worship.
  • - YOUR god:
  • - Your (false) god
  • - Became a symbol made.
  • - Comparison can be with Acts of the (Jewish) Apostle 7:42, 43. 1 Kings 11:7.
  • - Astrology: In this false science of astrology a different god was believed to rule over each section of the heavens.
  • - Isaiah 47:12-15.
  • - The so called, ‘Star of David’s’ history:
  • - Associated with pentacles, used for pagan worship, “calling spirit forces into human contact.” –
  • - Exodus 20:4, 5 ““You must not make for yourself a carved image or a form like anything that is in the heavens above or that is on the earth underneath or that is in the waters under the earth. 5 You must not bow down to them nor be induced to serve them, because I Yahuweh your God am a God exacting exclusive devotion, bringing punishment for the error of fathers upon sons, upon the third generation and upon the fourth generation, in the case of those who hate me;”

After The Flood, Religion, "Holidays:"

Holidays:

  • - December 25: Winter Solstice
  • - Africa:
  • - Americas:
  • - North
  • - Central
  • - South
  • - Asia:
  • - Far East:
  • - Middle East:
  • - Middle East:
  • - Mesopotamia: Akitu [87]
  • - Mesopotamia: Zagmuk [88]
  • - Europe:
  • - Polynesia:
  • - Christmas:"'
  • - Luke 2:8.
  • - “Most of the customs now associated with Christmas were not originally Christmas customs but rather were pre-Christian and non-Christian customs taken up by the Christian church. Saturnalia, a Roman feast celebrated in mid-December, provided the model for many of the merrymaking customs of Christmas. From this celebration, for example, were derived the elaborate feasting, the giving of gifts, and the burning of candles.”—The Encyclopedia Americana, 1959 edition, Vol. 6, p. 622.
  • - Saturn = the Greco-Roman Ba'al.

Origin of Nations, Japheth:

  • - The descendants of Japheth are usually associated with European and Asiatic locations.
  • - 1. Gomer:
  • - Ashkenaz. - South-East of Black Sea (48°49'55.22"N 47°42'0.78"E)
  • - Riphath. - Paphlagonians (41°38'3.28"N 32°20'14.84"E)
  • - Togarmah.
  • - 2. Magog:
  • - 3. Madai: (Medes; Iran) - South of Caspian Sea (33°46'48.64"N 47°59'7.73"E)
  • - 4. Javan:
  • - Elishah. - Near Greece (37°53'0.20"N 21°15'53.59"E)
  • - Tarshish. - Pre-Spanish in South-West Europe (37° 3'17.66"N 6°23'44.50") (37°21'52.11"N 4°34'31.50"W)
  • - References to Tarshish: 1 Kings 9:22-28; 10:22; 2 Chronicles 9:21; (circa 1000 B.C.E.); 1 Kings 22:48 (936-911 B.C.E.); Jonah 1:3; 4:1 (circa 844 B.C.E.) Isaiah 23:1 (circa c. 778 B.C.E.); Jeremiah 10:9 (circa 647 B.C.E); Ezekiel 27:12, 25; 38:13 (Circa 613 B.C.E.); Psalms 48:7 (time: ?).
  • - [89]
  • - Kittim. - Cyprus (34°55'0.01"N 33°37'45.00"E)
  • - Rodanim. - Island of Rhodes and Aegean Islands (36°10'0.00"N 28° 0'0.00"E)
  • - 5. Tubal. Tibareni, in Asia Minor (36°53'46.33"N 30°41'43.38"E)
  • - 6. Meshech. - Tibareni, in Asia Minor (36°53'46.33"N 30°41'43.38"E)
  • - 7. Tiras. - Tyrrhenians, of the AegeanIslands and Coastlands (40°56'37.76"N 12°20'3.29"E). - Possibly associated with Tros. - [90]

Origin of Nations, Shem:

The descendants of Shem are usually associated with Middle-eastern a few locations in Asia minor.

  • - 1. Elam:
  • - 2. Asshur: -
  • - 3. Arpachshad:
  • - Shelah:
  • - Eber (Son of Shelah):
  • - Peleg (Son of Eber): >> Lot (Moabites, Ammonites), Abraham.
  • - (Through Sarah)
  • - Isaac:
  • - Israel (son of Isaac). - (Israelites)
  • - (Through Leah)
  • - Reuben.
  • - Simeon.
  • - Levi.
  • - Judah.
  • - Issachar.
  • - Zebulun.
  • - (Dinah was daughter of Leah)
  • - (Through Rachel)
  • - Joseph.
  • - Benjamin.
  • - (Through Bil′hah, Rachel’s maidservant)
  • - Dan.
  • - Naph′ta·li.
  • - (Through Zil′pah, Le′ah’s maidservant)
  • - Gad
  • - Asher.
  • - Esau (Son of Isaac). - (Edom: Edomites). - [91] >> Herodian dynasty?
  • - Eliphaz: (Son of Esau).
  • - Sheik Teman.
  • - Sheik Omar.
  • - Sheik Zepho.
  • - Gatam.
  • - Sheik Kenaz.
  • - Timna.
  • - Amalek.
  • - Reuel: (Son of Esau).
  • - Nahath: (Son of Reuel)
  • - Zerah: (Son of Reuel).
  • - Shammah: (Son of Reuel).
  • - Mizzah: (Son of Reuel).
  • - Jeush: (Son of Esau).
  • - Jalam: (Son of Esau).
  • - Korah: (Son of Esau).
  • - (Through Hagar)
  • - Ishmael:
  • - Nebaioth (son of Ishmael).
  • - Kedar (son of Ishmael).
  • - Adbeel (son of Ishmael).
  • - Mibsam (son of Ishmael).
  • - Mishma (son of Ishmael).
  • - Dumah (son of Ishmael).
  • - Massa (son of Ishmael).
  • - Hadad (son of Ishmael).
  • - Tema (son of Ishmael).
  • - Jetur (son of Ishmael).
  • - Naphish (son of Ishmael).
  • - Kedemah (son of Ishmael).
  • - (Through his wife Keturah)
  • - Zimran.
  • - Jokshan.
  • - Medan - Medanites.
  • - Midian - Midianites.
  • - Ishbak. (Jasbuqu?)
  • - Shuah. - Shuhites. (Mesopatamia area: Euphrates between two of its tributaries, Balikh and Khabur?)
  • - Joktan (Son of Eber):
  • - Almodad (Son of Joktan).
  • - Sheleph (Son of Joktan).
  • - Hazarmaveth (Son of Joktan).
  • - Jerah (Son of Joktan).
  • - Hadoram (Son of Joktan).
  • - Uzal (Son of Joktan).
  • - Diklah (Son of Joktan).
  • - Obal (Son of Joktan).
  • - Abimael (Son of Joktan).
  • - Sheba (Son of Joktan). - (15°28'12.05"N 45°19'22.29"E)
  • - Ophir (Son of Joktan).
  • - Havilah (Son of Joktan).
  • - Jobab (Son of Joktan).
  • - 4. Lud:
  • - 5. Aram:
  • - Uz:.
  • - Hul:.
  • - Gether:.
  • - Mash: (The same “Mash” in Assyrian annuals?).

Origin of Nations, Ham:

  • - The descendants Ham are associated with locations in Africa and the Middle-East.
  • - 1. - Cush: (19°36'2.90"N 30°24'35.12"E)
  • - Seba:
  • - Havilah:
  • - Sabtah:
  • - Raamah:
  • - Dedan (Son of Raamah). (Arabia)
  • - Sheba (Son of Raamah). ()
  • - Sabteca:
  • - Nimrod: (32°32'59.98"N 44°39'0.00"E)
  • - 2. - Mizraim:
  • - Ludim. (Probably the Lydians)
  • - Anamim.
  • - Lehabim.
  • - Naphtuhim.
  • - Pathrusim.
  • - Casluhim (Philistines)
  • - Caphtorim.
  • - 3. - Put: (Probably the Libyians)
  • - 4. - Canaan:
  • - Sidon (son of Canaan).* ( 33°33'45.34"N 35°22'7.42"E)
  • - Heth (son of Canaan).
  • - Jebusite (son of Canaan).
  • - Amorite (son of Canaan).
  • - Girgashite (son of Canaan).
  • - Hivite (son of Canaan).
  • - Arkite (son of Canaan).
  • - Sinite (son of Canaan)
  • - Arvadite (son of Canaan).
  • - Zemarite (son of Canaan).
  • - Hamathite (son of Canaan).
  • - * Footnote: However, the devote learned Bible believers already knew for a certainty the Phoenicians were Canaanites.
  • - “And Ca´naan became father to Si´don (Phoenicians) his firstborn and Heth…” – Genesis 10:15, (NWT; brackets mine). A comment made on National geographic special, dealing with gene-project and historical study on the Phoenicians was: “Today's Lebanese, the Phoenicians, and the Canaanites before them are all the same people." – Dr. Spencer Wells. --

Nations Of Interest To Me:

  • - The Abimael. (Son of Jokstan)
  • - The Ammonites.
  • - The Assyrians.
  • - The Arabs. (Ishmaelites, Joktan and others...) [92]
  • - The Amurru [93]
  • - The Babylonians. (Nebo-Sarsekim)
  • - The Canaanites.
  • - Those of Diklah. (Son of Jokstan)
  • - The Edomites.
  • - The Egyptians.
  • - The Greeks.
  • - Those of Havilah (Son of Jokstan)
  • - The Ishmaelites. (See: Kedar, Kedarites, Qedarire)
  • - The Kedar. [94]
  • - Those of Jobab. (Son of Jokstan)
  • - The Medes.
  • - The Moabites.
  • - The Midianites.
  • - The Nubians.
  • - Those of Obal.
  • - The Ophir. (See: Arabs; Son of Jokstan)
  • - The Persians.
  • - The Phoenicians.
  • - The Sabeans. (See: Arabs; Sheba was a son Joktan)
  • - The Samaritans.
  • - The Syrians.

Assyrian History:

  • - ...
  • - Shalmaneser III. - (...)
  • - Shamshi-Adad V.
  • - Semiramis (Shammu-ramat).
  • - Adad-nirari III. - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adad-nirari_III)
  • - Shalmaneser IV.
  • - Ashur-dan III.
  • - Ashur-nirari V.
  • - Tiglath-Pileser III.
  • - Shalmaneser V.
  • - Sargon II.
  • - Sennacherib.
  • - Disclaimer this section is still under renovation.

Egyptian History:

  • - (http://www.drhawass.com/) (the Secretary General (additionally the representative) of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities Leader and expert in the fields of Egyptology, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Honorary Doctorate, The American University in Cairo)
  • - (http://www.eais.org.eg/) ...
  • - Genesis 12:16 reveals allot insights into how the early Egyptians, which possessed: sheep, cattle, asses, menservants, maidservants, she-asses, camels.
  • - Understanding: Genesis 41:14.
  • - The Egyptian custom and etiquette of being clean shaven (usage of razors). - Genesis 41:14. (Compare with the book: "Everyday Life in Ancient Egypt, by Lionel Casson")
  • - Sources: - Famine Stela: Location Sehel (24.05, 32.866667) [97]
  • - Understanding: Genesis 43:32 ; 46:34:
  • - Dear...
  • - I am not aware of any particular stigma which the Ancient Egyptians attached to shepherds and animal husbandry played a significant role in the Egyptian economy. Sheep were closely associated with gods particularly the ram and Amun but were on occasion sacrificed although the sacrifice of goats was apparently more common. There were certain religious taboos regarding the eating of mutton and the wearing of woolen garments on account of the sacred associations of the sheep.
  • - Yours sincerely
  • - Derek Welsby,
  • - Duty curator.
  • - '[Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan.]


  • - Yam-Suf: Reasons why it can be identified with the Red Sea.
  • - 1. The amount of water was sufficient enough to cover Pharaoh’s military forces and was corpses onto shore.Exodus 14:28-30.
  • - 2. Both the Greek text of Septuagint and the Greek Christian scriptures (Acts 7:26; Hebrew 11:9) uses the term "erythra thalassa" – Compare with the historian Herodotus (5th B.C.E) usage of the same word and the book: A Greek-English Lexicon, by H. G. Liddell and R. Scott, revised.
  • - Time Periods:
  • - "Neolithic Period".
  • - "Early Dynastic Period".
  • - "Old Kingdom".
  • - "First Intermediate Period".
  • - "Middle Kingdom".
  • - "Second Intermediate Period".
  • - "New Kingdom".
  • - "Late Period".
  • - "Graeco-Roman Period". (Macedonian Dynasty).
  • - "Zoser's ruler by followed by "Strong centralized government."
  • - "Rapid succession of rulers; country in decline"


  • - Egyptian monarchs mentioned in the bible:
  • - The non-named:
  • - The Pharaoh who tried to take Sarah; Abraham’s wife; and half-sister. - (Genesis 12:15-20)
  • - The Pharaoh promoting Joseph’s rise to authority. - (Genesis 41:39-46). (Possibly identified with Pharaoh named Netjerikhet/Djoser aka Zoser; based on the famine stele).
  • - The Pharaoh (or pharaohs) within the period of great oppression of the Israelites prior to Moses’ return from the land Midian.
  • - The Pharaoh of the Exodus.
  • - The Pharaoh; father of Bithiah, wife of Mered of the tribe of Judah - (1 Chronicles 4:18)
  • - The Pharaoh who gave asylum to Hadad of Edom in David’s time - (1 Kings 11:18-22)
  • - The father of Solomon’s Egyptian wife - (1 Kings 3:1). ["Siamun may be the pharaoh who gave his daughter in marriage to Solomon"]
  • - The Pharaoh who struck down Gaza during the days of Jeremiah the prophet - (Jeremiah 47:1).
  • - The named:
  • - In Hebrew: שישק Shishaq is commonly identified with Shoshonq I.
  • - Pharaoh Tirhakah, sometimes identified with Pharaoh Taharqa.
  • - Pharaoh So; attempts have been to identified him with Pharaoh Shabaka.
  • - Pharaoh Psamtik I; not mentioned in the Bible. However according an Assyrian inscription was a contemporary to Judean King Manasseh. - [98]
  • - Pharaoh Hophra identified with Pharaoh Apries.
  • - Pharaoh Necho identified with Pharaoh Necho II.
  • - Characters in the bible (1728 B.C.E.-1513 B.C.E.):
  • - Jacob. (There exists a scarab with the inscription of [Y‘qb-HR] probably be reconstructed as in its Semitic form) This is not an attempt to identify him as being the Bible patriarch Jacob. It does on the other hand show an asiatics living in Egypt using this name living in the delta.
  • - Joseph (some identify Imhotep as the deified Hebrew Joseph)
  • - Potiphera (* - In the Cairo Museum there is a stele, a funeral pillar, procured in 1935, that has on it the name “Putiphar.”—Annales du service des antiquités de l’Égypte, Cairo, 1939, Vol. XXXIX, pp. 273-276. - Insight on the scriptures) This is not an attempt to identify him as the Biblical Potiphera.
  • - Moses.
  • - Aaron.
  • - Miraim.
  • - Jannes and Jambres. (Mentioned in the: 2 Timothy 3:8, 9. Non-Christian sources, such as Numenius, Pliny the Elder, Lucius Apuleius, a Qumran writing, the Targum of Jonathan, and several apocryphal writings all mention one or both of these men.
  • - Pharaoh of the Exodus.
  • - Circa 2269 B.C.E. Mizraim’s descendants migration into and populate the land of Egypt.
  • - 1737 B.C.E. Joseph (imhotep?) appointed as the Prime Minister of Egypt by Pharaoh (Djoser?).
  • - Problem: E.C. 2650-2600 B.C.E. (863 years difference; a discrepancy) Of interest: "Within the burial chamber, only minor bone fragments were found, and it is not clear whether they actually came from Djoser's mummy. In fact, recent radiocarbon dating shows them to be many centuries younger than Djoser." According another website: part of Djoser's mummy is in the collection of Qasr el-Aini in Cairo.
  • - 1728 B.C.E. Jacob with his whole family enter Egypt. [Question: Is "Hyksos" a specific people or somewhat of a generic term.]
  • - After 1600 B.C.E. Egypt attains prominence as first world power dominating the Israelites.
  • - 1513 B.C.E. Israelites leave Egypt; deliverance at the Red Sea Egypt’s power shaken. Army lead by Pharaoh (Dudimose?)
  • - Dudimose 1690 B.C.E. (177 years difference). Compared with Ramses II 1279–1213 B.C.E. (300 year difference) Tutimaos/Dudimose (Josephus, mentions when referenceing Manetho in, Against Apion 1:14) [Middle Kingdom Dynasty 13th "Rapid succession of rulers; country in decline"] Numbers 13:22: “When they went up into the Negeb, they then came to Hebron. Now Ahiman, Sheshai and Talmai, those born of Anak, were there. Incidentally, Hebron had been built seven years before Zoan of Egypt.”
  • - 993 B.C.E. Pharaoh Shishak invades Judah and takes treasures from temple.
  • - In both Israel and Egypt, archaeological inscriptions have confirmed that Shishak indeed conquered Israel.
  • - An inscription records that his son donated about some 200 tons of gold and silver to the temples of Egypt. The inscription does not reveal the source of this wealth.
  • - “Much of it was the gold which Shishak carried away from Solomon’s Temple and palace in Jerusalem.” - Treasures From Bible Times, by the archaeologist Alan Millard.
  • - Yohanan Aharoni (expert on King Solomon)... example given by Aharoni is the evidence of solid city walls built with large stones “cut into oblong, rectangular blocks, fitted together with precision.” In contrast, in countries neighboring Israel, parts of the city walls “were made of brick and wood.”
  • - Furthermore, cities rebuilt at about the time of Solomon give evidence of careful planning, with neat lines of houses and carefully laid-out streets. Aharoni analyzes the ruins of “four towns in Judah built according to the same fundamental plan . . . Beer-sheba, Tell Beit Mirsim, Beth-shemesh, and Mizpah.” How this contrasts with another great center of civilization—the earlier Mesopotamian city of Ur! Respecting it, Sir Leonard Woolley wrote: “There had been no attempt at town-planning . . . The unpaved streets, many of them blind alleys . . . formed a maze in which it would have been easy to lose one’s way.”
  • - Aharoni also comments on the improvement in household utensils about the time of Solomon’s reign. “The change in material culture . . . is discernible not only in luxury items but also especially in ceramics . . . The quality of the pottery and its firing improved beyond all recognition . . . There suddenly appeared a rich repertoire of various types of vessels.”
  • - The most glorious feature of Solomon’s reign was the magnificent temple, the palace, and the government buildings in Jerusalem. A vast quantity of gold was used to decorate these structures. (1 Kings 7:47-51; 10:14-22) Five years after Solomon’s death, Pharaoh Shishak of Egypt came and stripped Jerusalem of its treasure.—1 Kings 14:25, 26.
  • - In both Egypt and Palestine, archaeological inscriptions confirm that Shishak indeed conquered Israel. In fact, many historians acknowledge that Shishak’s plunder of Jerusalem revived a weak Egyptian economy and enabled Shishak to finance the massive enlargement of an Egyptian temple on which he recorded his conquest, as seen on this page. Shishak died soon afterward, and another inscription records that his son donated about 200 tons of gold and silver to the temples of Egypt. The inscription does not reveal the source of this wealth, but archaeologist Alan Millard, in his book Treasures From Bible Times, suggests that “much of it was the gold which Shishak carried away from Solomon’s Temple and palace in Jerusalem.”
  • - No wonder that even an atheistic source acknowledges the reality of Solomon’s glorious reign! Bol’shaia Sovetskaia Entsiklopediia (Great Soviet Encyclopedia), under its entry “Solomon,” calls him “ruler of the Israelite-Judean kingdom,” adding that he ruled during “the kingdom’s zenith.”

Abraham:

  • - Places associated with Abraham's family:
  • - Reu: names of towns in the Middle-Euphrates valley? - Genesis... <more to come>
  • - Peleg: Paliga on the Euphrates just above the mouth of the Habur? - Genesis... <more to come>
  • - Serug (Assyrian Sarugi)? - Genesis... <more to come>
  • - The city of Nahor from where Rebekah from from. - Genesis 24:10 (compare with: Genesis 11:22).
  • - Compare with the Nakhur in the Mari tablets, discovered in 1935 and dated to the eighteenth century B.C.E. The Mari references and Assyrian records of the seventh century B.C.E., where Nahor occurs as Til-Nakhiri ("the Mound of Nahor"), located in the Balikh Valley below Haran. - Genesis...<more to come...>
  • - Terah (Til Turakhi, the "Mound of Terah," in Assyrian times). - Genesis... <more to come...>
  • - Abraham:
  • - Abram, was a chaldean, an Iraqi. - (Genesis 11:28, 31; 15:7; Nehemiah 9:7; Acts 7:2-4)
  • - The name of Abram (Abi-ramu) supports the existence of the name occurs in Mesopotamia.
  • - More on Sheshonk I; lists the “Field of Abram" - See: Genesis 23:1-20. <more to come> (insert picture)
  • - Babylon. - (32°32.11″N, 44°25.15″E)
  • - The city of Ur/Uruk. - (31°19′20.N 45°38.10″E)
  • - "Oasis of Abraham," nearby Al-Asad, Iraq (33°47′08.19″N 42°26′28.32″E) - An oasis nearby the Al-Asad Airbase which local bedouin tradition says is the oasis in which Abraham visted when he had traveled to Haran. - Genesis... -(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al_Asad_Airbase)
  • - The Kurkh Monolith. - Genesis...
  • - In the region of Paran - (30° 3'59.78"N 34° 0'52.91"E) - Genesis...
  • - Haran. Located on a trade route between such cities as Damascus, Nineveh, and Carchemish. - Genesis...
  • - In addition to speaking Hebrew, Abram likely spoken Akkadian and possibly Sumerian. Evidence seems to indicate there was no major dissimilarity between Aramaic and Hebrew at this time. Abraham's grandson Jacob and grandnephew Laban use two different terms in naming the heap of stone. Jacob called it "Galeed" while Laban used the Aramean term: "Jegar-Sahadutha." - (Genesis 31:45)


  • - Wikipedia reads: "It is generally recognised by scholars that there is nothing in the Genesis stories that can be related to the history of Canaan of the early 2nd millennium:"
  • - Who are these scholars? Critics obviously - who are critical hence the name.


  • - Wikipedia reads: 'none of the kings mentioned are known,"
  • - Well we certainly we have some strong candidates:
  • - "Amraphel" (אַמְרָפֶל) king of Shinar (a reference to Mesopotamia) - ('Ammurapi) "Hammurabi." - - [99]
  • - "Arioch" (אַרְיוך) king of Ellasar (אלסך) - Eri-aku (...) king of Larsa or Hurrian king Ariukki?
  • - "Chedorlaomer" (כרְלָעֹמֶר or kedarlaɣmer) king of Elam ("Chodollogomor" in the LXX) could be a compound name Lagamar (laɣmar) is an Elamite deity (notice the ע in Hebrew originally had two sounds the ʕ = ay (from the throat) and the ɣ = gh (from the throat). The LXX transliterates in favor of the latter kedar+laɣmer) [100]
  • - "Tidal" (תִדְעָל) "king of goyim (nations)" - Tudhaliya? - [101]
  • - So what anyway? Speaking of the archeology record, isn't too only little known from that period anyway?


  • - Wikipedia reads: "Abimelech could not have been a Philistine (they did not arrive until centuries later)
  • - Really? This seems to prove otherwise.
  • - Little is known about the early history and origins of the Philistines peoples. Certainly not enough to this comment.
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abimelech) Abimiliki of the Amarna tablets?


  • - Wikipedia reads: "Ur would not become known as "Ur of the Chaldeans" until the early 1st millennium,"
  • - If this is the case, This would be expected as the writer Moses' would be using a vocabulary familiar to him and his audience. This explains passages like... (Genesis 2:14 "Assyria"; Genesis 3:24 "flaming blade of a sword" - NWT)


  • - Wikipedia reads: "and Laban could not have been an Aramean,"
  • - According to the Bible, Laban wasn't a descendant of Aram. Laban just happen to speak Aramaic. And whether the Arameans were or were not an "identifiable political entity" who cares? How many groups throughout history were small almost invisible and rose to power. It doesn't prove the Aramean people didn't exist exist.


  • - Wikipedia reads: ...the Arameans did not become an identifiable political entity until the 12th century."
  • - And whether the Arameans were or were not an "identifiable political entity" who cares? How many groups throughout history were almost invisible until they rose to power. The main thing it doesn't disprove the Aramean people existed.


  • - Wikipedia reads: "He is not clearly and unambiguously attested in the Bible earlier than the Babylonian exile"
  • - An Egyptian inscription (the one found on the relief at the Karnak temple, depicting Pharaoh Shishak) (25°43′7″N 32°39′27″E) [102] describes "the field of Abram." Some will contend this still doesn't prove Abraham's existence. However, it does not have to. What it challenges is the idea that it wasn't until the time of Babylonian captivity did the story of Abraham (Abram) come into existence.

History Of Writing:

  • - Footnote: references to Holy bible are used in the proceedings.
  • - (Early references to writing In the bible)
  • - (Passages probably, alluding to writing: (Genesis 38:18, 25) time: circa 1750 B.C.E, “seal ring,” (Genesis 41:42), “signet ring,” time: 1737 B.C.E.)
  • - (Job 19:23, 24; 31:35) time period written circa 1613.
  • - (Dates mentioned are based on the the study of Biblical chronology, as presented in the book entitled: “All Scripture Is Inspired of God and Beneficial,” published by the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc.)

The Book Of Job:

  • - Leviathan (Hebrew: ... - Liwyathan′)
  • - "Its very sneezings flash forth light, And its eyes are like the beams of dawn. Out of its mouth there go lightning flashes, Even sparks of fire make their escape. Out of its nostrils smoke goes forth, Like a furnace set aflame even with rushes. Its soul itself sets coals ablaze, And even a flame goes forth out of its mouth." - Job 41:18-21 NWT.
  • - If this a crocodile is the description intended to be hyperbole?
  • - If really could breath fire what was it? Speculation here: was it caused from methane or another gas? and also included the usage of another mechanism to deliberately ignite: e.g., frication as with the quick grinding of teeth together, chemical: bioluminescene, etc., and electrical.
  • - (Job 3:8; 41; Psalm 74; 104:25, 26; Ezekiel 29:3-5; 32:2; Isaiah 27:1)
  • - An arrow can do damage to a crocodile.
  • - Used in parallelism with ...
  • - What aquatic serpentine-like creature has unbreakable armor and very sharp teeth?
  • - Candidates:
  • - Unidentified creature.
  • - Sarcosuchus imperator? - [103] does it fit the Hebrew verbal root "twisted, coiled"?

The Exodus:

  • - Possibly connected:
  • - El-Lahun [104]
  • - Pharaoh Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep III (ones of the Pharaohs of the oppression?)
  • - The Ipuwer papyrus. See: 12th dynasty period, ancient Egyptian history.] - [105]
  • - Merneptah Stele, which seems to refer to Israel after the Exodus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merneptah_Stele)

The Exodus, The Biblical Mount Sinai:

  • - Horeb (Hebrew meaning: 'Dry waste').
  • - Exodus 3:1-15, “And Moses became a shepherd of the flock of Jeth´ro, the priest of Mid´i•an, whose son-in-law he was. While he was driving the flock to the west side of the wilderness, he came at length to the mountain of the [true] God, to Ho´reb.”
  • - shepherd(ing) flock.
  • - “...west side of the wilderness.”
  • - Exodus 18:1 “Now Jeth′ro the priest of Mid′i·an, Moses’ father-in-law, got to hear about all that God had done for Moses and for Israel his people, how Jehovah had brought Israel out of Egypt.” - (New World Translation)
  • - Exodus 18:5-7
  • - “So Jeth′ro, Moses’ father-in-law, and his sons and his wife came to Moses into the wilderness where he was camping, at the mountain of the [true] God. 6 Then he sent word to Moses: “I, your father-in-law, Jeth′ro, am come to you, and also your wife and her two sons with her.” 7 At once Moses went on out to meet his father-in-law, and he proceeded to prostrate himself and to kiss him; and they each one began asking how the other was getting along. After that they went into the tent.” - (New World Translation)
  • - Exodus 18:27
  • - “After that Moses saw his father-in-law off, and he went his way to his land."
  • - Exodus 33:
  • - Numbers 10:29-31: “Then Moses said to Ho′bab the son of Reu′el the Mid′i·an·ite, the father-in-law of Moses: “We are pulling away for the place about which Jehovah said, ‘I shall give it to YOU.’ Do come with us, and we shall certainly do good to you, because Jehovah has spoken good concerning Israel.” 30 But he said to him: “I shall not go along, but I shall go to my own country and to my relatives.” 31 At this he said: “Please, do not leave us, because, for the reason that you well know where we may encamp in the wilderness, you must serve as eyes for us.”
  • - Deuteronomy.
  • - 1 Kings 19, I will quote in part, “Consequently he rose up and began to go for his soul and came to Be´er-she´ba, which belongs to Judah. Then he left his attendant behind there. And he himself went into the wilderness a day’s journey,...he rose up and ate and drank, and he kept going in the power of that nourishment for forty days and forty nights as far as the mountain of the [true] God, Ho´reb... There he finally entered into a cave...”
  • - In Be´er-she´ba, in Judah.
  • - Went into the wilderness a day’s journey.
  • - for forty days and nights as far as the: Mount Ho´reb.
  • - First Century Jewish Historian (Yosef Ben Matithyahu) Flavius Josephus said: "Moses went up to a mountain that lay between Egypt and Arabia, which was called Sinai..."
  • - Psalms 105:41.
  • - In the wilderness of Sinai.
  • - Galatians 4:25, “this Ha´gar means Si´nai, a mountain in Arabia,” Note that Arabia in this context, can refer to a broader place; extending outside the Arabian peninsula.
  • - Date of the Exodus; according to biblical chronology: 1513 B.C.E. A point of evidence providing a sound basis for this the Solomon's reign.
  • - "Chronological statements harmonize with and substantiate this viewpoint. Solomon began the building of the temple in his fourth year of kingship (1034 B.C.E.), and this is stated at 1 Kings 6:1 to be “the four hundred and eightieth year” from the time of the Exodus (1513 B.C.E.)." - Insight on the scriptures, volume one.
  • - "The 400-year period of affliction thus ran from 1913 B.C.E. until 1513 B.C.E." - Insight on the scriptures, volume one.

The Exodus, "The Land Of Milk And Honey":

  • - 3,000-year-old apiary in the Iron Age city of Tel Rehov in the Jordan Valley. [106] Tel Rehov in Israel's Beth Shean Valley. (Exodus 3:8)
  • - Hebrew phrases:
  • - No′pheth: flowing honey, or comb honey.
  • - Devash′: may refer bee honey and also fruit syrup.

After The Exodus, "The Ark Of The Covenant:"

  • - Gold does not tarish or corroad.

After The Exodus, The Mosiac Law:

  • - Genesis 21:4 "eighth day" (See: Vitamin K and prothrombin)
  • - Gleaning...
  • - Jubilees...

Things Of My Own Personal Interest:

  • - Etemenanki tower. - ( 32°32'10.67"N 44°25'14.94"E) - [109]
  • - "Lot's cave." - (31° 2'48.48"N 35°30'9.62"E)
  • - Cave of Machpelah. - (31°31'29.08"N 35° 6'38.61"E) - [110], [111]
  • - "Jacob's Well." - (32° 12′ 43″ N, 35° 16′ 40″ E) - [112]
  • - Step pyramid of Saqqara.- ( 29°52'16.06"N 31°12'59.79"E) - [113]
  • - Famine Stele.(Sehel Island, Egypt) [see: 3rd Dynasty, ancient Egyptian history.]
  • - El-Lahun (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El-Lahun#cite_note-1)
  • - Papyrus: Brooklyn 35.1446.
  • - Midianite pottery. - [114]
  • - 'Shasu'. - [115]
  • - "Shutu". - [116]
  • - Jebel Musa. - (28°33'28.04"N 33°58'26.58"E) - [117]
  • - The Ipuwer papyrus. See: 12th dynasty period, ancient Egyptian history.] - [118]
  • - Mount Nebo. - [119]
  • - The Merneptah stele. See: 19th dynasty period, ancient Egyptian history.] - [120]
  • - The Balaam inscription. (Middle Jordan Valley) see: Biblical Archaeology Review (September/October 1985) - [121]
  • - Rujm el-Hiri. -
  • - Shechem temple - (32°12′11″N 35°18′40″E).
  • - Rabbah dolmen. - [122]
  • - Armarna letters. (Egypt) - [123]
  • - Amman Citadel Inscription.
  • - Goliath Potsherd
  • - Find at the Khirbat an-Nahas excavation. -
  • - Ekron dedicatory inscription.
  • - Midianite pottery...
  • - Tel Dan Stele. - [124]
  • - Stepped Stone Structure. -
  • - Bubastis portal. [Shishaq Relief]
  • - Gezer calendar. -
  • - Siloam inscription.
  • - Taylor Prism.
  • - Mesha stele.
  • - Jezebe bullae
  • - King Ahab's palace.
  • - King Ahab's seal.
  • - Ostraca of Samaria.
  • - Lachish relief.
  • - Kurkh Monolith.
  • - Stele of Zakkur.
  • - Melqart Stele.
  • - Seal of Jehucal.
  • - Bullae, servant of King Hezekiah.
  • - The Siloam inscription.
  • - LMLK seals.
  • - Sennacherib Prism.
  • - Ketef Hinnom scrolls.
  • - Babylonian Chronicles.
  • - "Jehoiachin Rations Tablets" - [125]
  • - Nebo-Sarsekim (Nebo-Sarsechim) Tablet. - [126]
  • - The Cyrus Cylinder.
  • - Susa remains. -
  • - Nabonidus Cylinder. -
  • - Necho II. -
  • - Second Temple Inscription. -
  • - Second Temple Stone. -
  • - Second Temple era seal - (http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/151057#.Tvk8gjBJok4)
  • - Elephantine papyri. -
  • - Dead sea scrolls. - ( 31°44'29.35"N 35°27'34.57"E)
  • - Judaea Capta coinage.
  • - Caiaphas (Qafa) family ossuaries. - [127]
  • - Mount of Olive ossuaries (e.g., "Shimon bar Yonah")
  • - [128]
  • - Erastus Inscription.
  • - The Bible in the British Museum: “In his address in 1870 to the newly formed Society of Biblical Archaeology Dr Samuel Birch was able to identify [in cuneiform texts the names of] the Hebrew kings Omri, Ahab, Jehu, Azariah . . . , Menahem, Pekah, Hoshea, Hezekiah and Manasseh, the Assyrian kings Tiglath-Pileser . . . [III], Sargon, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal, . . . and the Syrians Benhadad, Hazael and Rezin.” (I am yet to research this)
  • - The book The Bible and Radiocarbon Dating compares the Bible’s history of Israel and Judah with ancient cuneiform texts. The result? “Altogether, 15 or 16 kings of Judah and Israel appear, in foreign sources, in complete agreement with their names and times in [the Bible book of] Kings. Not a single king is out of place, nor do foreign sources name one unknown to us in Kings.”
  • - Looking into: Manasseh's relationship with Assyrian kings Esarhaddon, Ashurbanipal, and Egyptian pharaoh Psammetichus I.
  • - Sites
  • - Discoveries associated with Google earth: [[129]]

Persons Of Interest:

  • - "Y-chromosomal Adam"
  • - "Mitochondrial Eve"
  • - Pharaoh Netjerikhet/Djoser. [see: 3rd Dynasty period, ancient Egyptian history.]
  • - Imhotep. [see: 3rd Dynasty, ancient Egyptian history.]
  • - Pharaoh Sobekhotep III. [13th dynasty period, ancient Egyptian history]
  • - Pharaoh Dudimose. [13th dynasty kingdom period, ancient Egyptian history]
  • - Rashi (Shlomo Itzchaki of Troyes) - A possible descendant from the tribe of Benjamin? - [133]
  • - Judah Lowe the Elder of Prague - [134]
  • - Joseph Dayan.
  • - Kohen. (Descent from antiquity: DFA)
  • - Samaritans peoples (which include):
  • - The Tsedakah lineage, claiming descent from the tribe of Manasseh - (Son of Joseph).
  • - The Joshua-Marhiv lineage, claiming descent from the tribe of Ephraim - (Son of Joseph).
  • - The Danfi lineage, claiming descent from the tribe of Ephraim - (Son of Joseph).
  • - The priestly Kohen lineage from the tribe of Levi. See: Kohen (Descent from antiquity: DFA) - (Sons of Levii)
  • - The Kohen are associated with Haplotype: J.


  • - Last common male ancestor (Y-Chromosome): Noah. Japheth, Shem, and Ham share the same biological father.
  • - Last common female ancestor (mithrocondical DNA): Probably Eve? This due to Mrs. Japheth, Mrs. Shem, and Mrs. Ham apparently did not share the same mother.

Kinnor Harp:

  • - The Kinnor is an ancient instrument mentioned in the Bible.
  • - The Kinnor is often translated harp or lyre into English. - (Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinnor, the King James, The New World translation)
  • - There is some weight to the theory it was bound together with bitumen. - (See "Noah's ark", and "Moses").
  • - Evidence is it had a sound box, sound board, sound holes, two arms, a crossbar, a bridge, and strings probably made from gut and or vegetable fibers. - (Sources: kinnor, http://www.rakkav.com/biblemusic/pages/instruments.htm)
  • - The Bible shows the even in antiquity the value placed on tonewood. - (e.g., Algum and Juniper)
  • - The Kinnor is similar to the Greek Kithara. "In about half of the 42 occurrences of kinnor in the Bible, the translators of the Septuagint rendered it by the Greek kithara." - (Insight on the scriptures, under harp).
  • - Greek: Kithara > Latin: Cithara > Andalusian Arabic: Qitara > Spanish: Guitarra, French: Guitare and the German: Gitarre > English: Guitar.
  • - Algum Wood:
  • Mentioned in Bible: 2 Chronicles 2:8; 9:10, 11; 1 Kings 10.
  • A source, Flavius Josephus, time period: first century: (Jewish Antiquities, VIII, 177 [vii, 1])
  • "It is traditionally suggested to be the red sandalwood (Pterocarpus santalinus) now found in India and Ceylon, although some favor the white sandalwood (Santalum album)." _ Insight on the scriptures, volume one, under ALGUM.
  • White sandalwood: Sanskrit: valgu, valgum. (See Sanskrit)
  • Usage: Timbers, steps, and musical instruments (see: tonewood).

King Solomon:

  • - Walls: One example given by Aharoni is the evidence of solid city walls built with large stones “cut into oblong, rectangular blocks, fitted together with precision.” In contrast, in countries neighboring Israel, parts of the city walls “were made of brick and wood.” Furthermore, cities rebuilt at about the time of Solomon give evidence of careful planning, with neat lines of houses and carefully laid-out streets. - (1 Kings 9:15).
  • - Road-planning: Aharoni analyzes the ruins of “four towns in Judah built according to the same fundamental plan . . . Beer-sheba, Tell Beit Mirsim, Beth-shemesh, and Mizpah.” How this contrasts with another great center of civilization—the earlier Mesopotamian city of Ur! Respecting it, Sir Leonard Woolley wrote: “There had been no attempt at town-planning . . . The unpaved streets, many of them blind alleys . . . formed a maze in which it would have been easy to lose one’s way.”
  • - Quality of household items: Aharoni also comments on the improvement in household utensils about the time of Solomon’s reign. “The change in material culture . . . is discernible not only in luxury items but also especially in ceramics . . . The quality of the pottery and its firing improved beyond all recognition . . . There suddenly appeared a rich repertoire of various types of vessels.”
  • - Word origins; The Hebrew names (Plural: tuk·ki·yim′; singular: tuki) is to be connected with the Old Tamil name for the peacock, (tokei). - (1 Kings 10:22; 2 Chronicles 9:21).
  • - The Hebrew word qohph (Q-H-P) may be related to the Sanskrit word kapi for ape or monkey.
  • - Trade with Sheba: [135]

Dayan Claim Of Descent:

  • - Adam.
  • - Seth.
  • - Enosh.
  • - Cainan.
  • - Mahalaleel.
  • - Jared.
  • - Enoch.
  • - Methuselah.
  • - Lamech.
  • - Noah.
  • - Shem.
  • - Arpachshad.
  • - Cainan.
  • - Shelah.
  • - Eber.
  • - Peleg.
  • - Reu.
  • - Serug.
  • - Nahor.
  • - Terah.
  • - Abram:Abraham. [Married Sarai:Sarah his half-sister, likely a daughter of Terah]
  • - Isaac.
  • - Jacob: Israel.
  • - Judah.
  • - Perez.
  • - Hezron.
  • - Ram.
  • - Amminadab.
  • - Nahshon.
  • - Salmon.
  • - Boaz (by Ra´hab).
  • - Obed (by Ruth).
  • - Jesse.
  • - David.
  • - Solomon (by Bathsheba). * - Nathan (by Bath-sheba) (Mary's line) (Zechariah 12:10-14)
  • - Rehoboam. - [136]
  • - Abijah.
  • - Asa.
  • - Jehoshaphat.
  • - Jehoram. - [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jehoram_of_Judah]
  • - Ahaziah.
  • - Jehoash.
  • - Amaziah.
  • - Uzziah. - [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uzziah_of_Judah#Uzziah_Tablet]
  • - Jotham. - [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jotham_of_Judah#Archeological_Findings]
  • - Ahaz. - [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahaz#Archeological_Findings]
  • - Hezekiah. - [137]
  • - Manasseh. - [138], [139]]
  • - Amon.
  • - Josiah.
  • - Jeconiah. - [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jehoiachin%27s_Rations_Tablets]
  • - Shealtiel.
  • - Zerubbabel. * this is the line the Dayan clan trace their lineage by means of oral tradition.
  • - Meshulam. (Meshullam)
  • - Khaninah.
  • - Berakhiyah.
  • - Khasdayah.
  • - Yeshayah. (Isaiah)
  • - Ovadiah.
  • - Shekhaniah.
  • - Shemayahu.
  • - Khizkiyah.
  • - Yokhanan.
  • - Shefat. (Sephat)
  • - Khanan.
  • - Natan Detzuzita.
  • - Khokhna.
  • - Kahana.
  • - Rekhami.
  • - Natan.
  • - Kahana.
  • - Khuna.
  • - Merima.
  • - Khanina.
  • - Khuna.
  • - Kufnai.
  • - Bustenai.
  • - Khasdai.
  • - Zakkai.
  • - Shlomo. (Solomon)
  • - Nekhemiah. (Nehemiah)
  • - Yitskhak. (Isaac)
  • - Yehudah. (Judah)
  • - David.
  • - Yehudah. (Judah)
  • - Zakkai.
  • - Yoshiyahu.
  • - Shlomo. (Solomon)
  • - Yishai.
  • - Khaim.
  • - David.
  • - Zekhariyah. (Zechariah)
  • - Yosef.
  • - Saadiah.
  • - Moshe (Moses)
  • - Shlomo.
  • - Yehudah.
  • - Ovadiah. (Obadiah)
  • - Zedakiah.
  • - Saadiah.
  • - Moshe (Moses)
  • - Ovadiah.(Obadiah)
  • - Zedakiah.
  • - Ovadiah. (Obadiah)
  • - Moshe. (Moses)
  • - Saadiah.
  • - Moshe. (Moses)
  • - Mordekhai.
  • - Dayan. (which became the suriname)
  • - Natan
  • - Yosef. (Joseph)
  • - Mordekhai.
  • - Yosef. (Joseph)
  • - Mordekhai.
  • - Elazar Khaim.
  • - Yeshaya.
  • - Avraham (Abraham)
  • - Moshe (Moses)

Christ, Jesus:

  • - The recorded testimony of: Matthew (eyewitness, disciples and companion), Mark, Luke (historian), John (eyewitness, disciples and companion), Paul (a contemporary), James (eyewitness and relative) Peter (eyewitness, disciples and companion).
  • - Writers:
  • - Mattithyahu Lewi ben (Alpheus).
  • - Yehohanan Marcum.
  • - Loukan.
  • - Yehohanan ben Zebedee.
  • - Shaul Ha-Tarsi.
  • - Ya‛aqov ben Yosef.
  • - Shimon "Kephas" bar Yonah.
  • - Yosef Ben Matityahu/Falvius Josephus. - (37 – c. 100 AD)
  • - Publius Cornelius Tactitus. - (AD 56 – AD 117)
  • - Lucian of Samosata. - (A.D. 125 – after A.D. 180) [impaled]
  • - The Tetradrachma coin. - See: Matthew 17:24-27.

References To The Cross:

  • - A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Original Greek Words with their Precise Meanings for English Readers (under the word stau•ros´).
  • - A Greek-English Lexicon, by Liddell and Scott (under the word xy´lon).
  • - An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words, by W. E. Vine. (London, 1962), W. E. Vine, p. 256 and 1981, Vol. 1, p. 256.
  • - Die Geschichte Jesu, (The History of Jesus), Vol. 2, Tübingen and Leipzig, 1904, pp. 386-394,
  • - Die kirche der Heimat, (The Church of the Homeland), issue of August 2, 1951.
  • - Das Kreuz und die Kreuzigung, (The Cross and Crucifixion,) by Hermann Fulda.
  • - Dictionnaire Encyclopédique Universel (Encyclopedic Universal Dictionary).
  • - Dual Heritage—The Bible and the British Museum.
  • - History of the Christian Church - (New York, 1897), J. F. Hurst, Vol. I, p. 366.
  • - Gibbon’s History of Christianity, Eckler’s edition, 1891.
  • - La Nación, (newspaper) writer José Alberto Furque
  • - Letters from Rome, Dean Burgon.
  • - Strange Survivals.
  • - Symbols Around Us, Sven Tito Achen, Danish historian.
  • - The Ancient Church, by clergyman W. D. Killen says (1859 edition, page 316).
  • - The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 4, p. 191
  • - The Catholic Encyclopedia, edition of 1908, Vol. 4, page 517; the footnote on pages 312, 313.
  • - The Catholic Digest magazine, May, 1948, page 108.
  • - The Chambers’s Encyclopaedia, (1969 edition).
  • - The Companion Bible (published by the Oxford University Press, London, 1885), Appendix No. 162, on page 186 in the “Appendixes”.
  • - Cyclopædia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature.
  • - Dictionary of Subjects & Symbols in Art, J. Hall .
  • - The Ecclesiastical Review, of September, 1920, No. 3, of Baltimore, Maryland, page 275.
  • - The Encyclopædia Britannica (1946 edition), Vol. 6, p. 753. and Vol. 1, page 666)
  • - The Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition, Volume 7, p. 506.
  • - The Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics.
  • - The Encyclopedia Americana.
  • - The Greek Septuagint version.
  • - Great Religions of the World.
  • - The Imperial Bible-Dictionary.
  • - The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, (under stau•ros´)
  • - The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1979)
  • - The Latin dictionary by Lewis and Short, (under crux).
  • - The New Encyclopædia Britannica.
  • - The New Catholic Encyclopedia, (1967), Vol. IV, p. 486.
  • - The New Schaff & Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge.
  • - The Non-Christian Cross, by J. D. Parsons (London, 1896) pp. 133-141.
  • - A discussion on the origin of the cross introduction into worship.
  • - Amulets and Talismans, Sir E. A. Wallis Budge.
  • - A Short History of Sex-Worship (London, 1940), H. Cutner, pp. 16, 17;
  • - Curious Myths of the Middle Ages.
  • - Daily News, Ted Noffs, a Methodist minister in Sydney, Australia comments.
  • - Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine, by Cardinal Newman.
  • - Essays on the Worship of Priapus, by Richard Payne Knight.
  • - History of the Christian Church, J. F. Hurst, Vol. I, p. 366.
  • - History of the Conquest of Mexico, by William H. Prescott.
  • - Funeral Tent of an Egyptian Queen, by Villiers Stuart.
  • - Masculine Cross and Ancient Sex Worship, by Sha Rocco.
  • - M’Clintock and Strong’s Cyclopœdia, Vol. 4, page 503.
  • - New Light on the Most Ancient East, by archaeologist V. Childe (1957, p. 185).
  • - Presenze giudaiche e cristiane a Pompei (Jewish and Christian Presences in Pompeii)
  • - Sex and Sex Worship by O. A. Wall states on page 359.
  • - The Ancient Church by clergyman W. D. Killen says (1859 edition, page 316).
  • - The book Indian Antiquities.
  • - The Cross in Ritual, Architecture, and Art (London, 1900), G. S. Tyack, p. 2.
  • - The Mythology of All Races.
  • - The Rigvedic Culture of the Pre-Historic Indus.
  • - The Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology and Legend
  • - The Worship of the Dead (London, 1904), Colonel J. Garnier, p. 226.
  • - Two Babylons, by Alexander Hislop. (page 245, footnote).
  • - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CROSS_Sacral_Stavros_from_the_Temple_Repositories_of_Knossos_1600_BCE_Heraclion_Museum_Greece.JPG
  • - ::The book Great Religions of the World says: “Cortés and his followers recoiled from human sacrifices of the Aztecs and what seemed like satanic parodies of Christianity: . . . venerating crosslike symbols of wind and rain gods.”
  • - Check out the Native American/First Nation peoples' traditional "medicine wheel." The representing "four winds."
  • - I agree regarding the book entitled the Two Babylons, but I am menetioning a wide range of historic content & information. As for some the sources being older, it only ephasizing the point it has long known by scholars. It in no cancels the information. The reality is also the list is far from exhaustive. Plus, not all others are that old. And even the fact modern encyclopedias are repeating the same information shows much of that information has remained the same, and been information has still very consistent.
  • - “On the eve of the Passover Yeshu [Jesus] was hanged." _ Babylonian, Talmud.--Anaccuratesource (talk) 02:58, 18 August 2009 (UTC)
  • - Compare: Galatians 3:13; and Deuteronomy 21:22, 23.
  • - Compare: John 3:13-15; and Numbers 21:4-9.
  • - Stau·ros: in both the classical Greek and Koine carries no thought of a “cross” made of two timbers.
  • - Xylon: also occurs in the Greek Septuagint at Ezra 6:11, where it speaks of a single beam or timber on which a lawbreaker was to be impaled.
  • De cruce libri tres, Antwerp, 1629, p. 19, one such (non-cross) instrument of torture is illustrated by Justus Lipsius - 1547-1606.
  • by Varus (Jos. Ant. XVII 10. 10), by Quadratus (Jewish Wars II 12. 6), by the Procurator Felix (Jewish Wars II 15. 2), by Titus (Jewish Wars VII. 1). Quote a reference source: "Anything other than a simple hanging is ruled out by the wholesale manner in which this execution was often carried out: 2000 at once by Varus"

--Anaccuratesource 22:10, 13 September 2010 (PDT)

The Bible, It's Preservation And Biblical Texts:

  • - The Aleppo Codex. - [140].
  • - The Nash Papyrus. - [141]
  • - The Dead Sea Scrolls - [142]. - Genesis-Malachi; minus Esther.
  • - "And the wolf will actually reside for a while with the male lamb, and with the kid the leopard itself will lie down, and the calf and the maned young lion (DSS "will feed toether") and the well-fed animal all together; and a mere little boy will be leader over them." - Isaiah 11:26, NWT.
  • - The Samaritan Torah: [143]
  • - Abisha Scroll. - []
  • - Some manuscripts. - [144]
  • - Samaritan scholar, Ben Tsedaka: [145]
  • - The Septuagint: - [146]
  • - Papyrus Rylands 458: - [147]
  • - The Sinaiticus, Codex: [148]
  • - Rylands Papyri Collection: [150]
  • - Masoretic codexes:
  • - Cairo Geniza 400 C.E. - (Some in Hebrew; some in Aramiac)
  • - Codex Hilleli, a lost manuscript of 600 CE, only a few sentences are preserved by Rabbinic literature.
  • - "Song of the sea" manuscript – circa 700 C.E.
  • - Codex Orientales 4445, dated between 820 CE and 850CE; the manuscript contains Genesis-Deuteronomy 1:33 (less Numbers 7:47–73 and Numbers 9:12–10:18).
  • - Petersburg Codex of the Prophets - 916 C.E. (Later Prophets)
  • - Aleppo Codex - 930 C.E. [Large part of Hebrew Scriptures (Ben Asher text)
  • - Cairo Karaite Codex (Codex Cairensis) - 895 C.E. (Earlier and later Prophets)
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxyrhynchus_Papyri#Old_Testament)

The Bible, Textual Criticism:

  • - Current Problems
  • - 1. Most Bible translations use a default text for translation; usually being the Masoretic text/Septuagint text.
  • - 2. Usually not enough attention is given to the Dead Sea scrolls and the Samaritan Torah.
  • - 3. Suzanne Haïk-Vantoura's thesis on understanding the ta'amim, if correct would have a huge impact on textual criticism and should seriously considered.
  • - 4. Recent discoveries and insights into our understanding of Hebrew and Bible. (e.g., the ancient Semitic snake spell found in Egypt and our understanding of the Hebrew text found at Isaiah 3:17. See; QDQD)
  • - 1. The Master text should be the closest thing possible to original autographs.
  • - 2. Properly use the tools at our disposal to detect when a textual mutation crept into newer manuscripts.
  • - 3. Examine and consider both the musical and poetic functions which would have present in the original text.
  • - 4. Use an up-to-date understanding to Hebrew to clarify the meaning of the text.
  • - The yet to be discovered Biblical inscriptions and manuscripts and insights: Shechem? The Qumran caves? The locations on the copper scroll found at Qumran?
  • - Many factors play in textual criticism:
  • - The age of manuscript. - (which is older? e.g., DSS vs LXX).
  • - Possible source material of manuscript. - (which reflects what is older? e.g., DSS vs LXX).
  • - Frequency. - (How many manuscripts read that way? e.g., 4 vs. 3 ancient manuscripts).
  • - Possible reasons for textual variation (School of traditions, possible religious bias; Samaritans, Sopherim, Masoretes, Hellenistic influence, Catholic and Orthodox trinitarian dogma; language using in rendering).
  • - Poetic meter/musical value in the original language.
  • - Genesis-Malachi
  • - Dead Sea scrolls:
  • - Psalms: 39.
  • - Deuteronomy: 33.
  • - Genesis: 24.
  • - Isaiah: 22.
  • - Exodus: 18.
  • - Leviticus: 17.
  • - Numbers: 11.
  • - Minor Prophets 10.
  • - Daniel: 8.
  • - Jeremiah: 6.
  • - Ezekiel: 6.
  • - Job: 6.
  • - 1 & 2 Samuel: 4.
  • - Psalms 138:1 DSS reads, “I shall laud Jehovah with all my heart. In front of Jehovah God I shall make melody to you.” - Based on NWT rendering.
  • - Disclaimer this list was made in haste and might subject to error:
  • - Genesis (before the exile)
  • - Exodus (before the exile)
  • - Leviticus (before the exile)
  • - Numbers (before the exile) - (Oldest Hebrew text: Ketef hinnom inscription; Other old non-Hebraic manuscripts: Septugaint, langauge: Greek. Other manuscripts of interest: The Samaritan Torah)
  • - Deuteronomy (before the exile)
  • - Joshua (before the exile)
  • - Judges (before the exile)
  • - Ruth (before the exile)
  • - 1 Samuel (before the exile)
  • - 2 Samuel (before the exile)
  • - 1 Kings (after the exile)
  • - 2 Kings (after the exile)
  • - 1 Chronicles (after the exile)
  • - 2 Chronicles (after the exile)
  • - Ezra (after the exile)
  • - Nehemiah (after the exile)
  • - Esther (after the exile)
  • - Job (before the exile)
  • - Psalms (written after the exile: 137) - (c. 460 B.C.E. completed)
  • - Proverbs (before the exile)
  • - Ecclesiastes: (before the exile)
  • - The Song of Solomon (before the exile)
  • - Isaiah (before the exile)
  • - Jeremiah (before-after the exile, a passage in the book in Aramiac)
  • - Lamentations
  • - Ezekiel (after the exile, part of the book in Aramiac)
  • - Daniel (after the exile, part of the book in Aramiac)
  • - Hosea (Before the exile; to Samaritans)
  • - Joel (before the exile)
  • - Amos (before the exile)
  • - Obadiah (after the exile)
  • - Jonah (before the exile)
  • - Micah (before the exile)
  • - Nahum (before the exile)
  • - Habakkuk (before the exile)
  • - Zephaniah (before the exile)
  • - Haggai (after the exile)
  • - Zechariah (after the exile)
  • - Malachi (after the exile)
  • - (Jacob) Ben Chayyim's Second Rabbinic Bible.
  • - Meir ha-Levi Letteris (ta'amim)
  • - Matthew-Revelation
  • - Matthew:
  • - Ancient Greek Papyri (estimated dates come from Wikipedia):
  • - P64, 67: 200.
  • - P77: 200.
  • - P103: 200.
  • - P1: 250. - (Oxyrhynchus Papyri )
  • - P45: 250. - (Chester Beatty; Austrian National Library)
  • - P53: 250.
  • - P70: 250.
  • - P101: 250.
  • - About The Controversial Hebrew texts: ... <more to come>
  • - 1 John 5:7, 8 the spurious wording "in heaven, the Father, the Word and the holy spirit; and these three are one." is not contended in the earliest manuscripts occur in they introduced by later Greek manusripts and the Clementine recension of the Latin Vulgate. Excluded by: The Sinaiticus Codex, Alexandrinus Codex, Vatican manusscript 1209, Philoxenian-Harclean Syriac Version, the Coptic text. "These verses do not appear in any version of the text prior to the ninth century. " - Wikipedia. [152] [153]
  • - Sahidic Coptic text.
  • - Is the Tanakh better understood in Hebrew? Is Shakespeare better in English, Quran in Arabic anf Cervantes in Spanish, etc.,?
  • - About the Apocrypha:
  • - Tobit.
  • - Judith.
  • - Additions to the Book of Esther.
  • - Wisdom (of Solomon)
  • - Ecclesiasticus.
  • - Baruch (Including the Epistle of Jeremias).
  • - The Song of the Three Holy Children.
  • - Susanna and the Elders.
  • - The Destruction of Bel and the Dragon.
  • - First Maccabees.
  • - Second Maccabees.
  • - Gnostic literature:
  • - The so-called Gosepl of Thomas.
  • - The so-called Gospel of the Lord.
  • - The so-called Holy Book of the Great Invisible Spirit.
  • - The so-called Gospel of Mary Magdalene.
  • - The so-called Gospel of Thomas.
  • - The so-called Gospel of Truth.
  • - The so-called Gospel of Philip.
  • - The so-called Gospel of Judas.

The Bible, The Writers:

  • - Tanakh:
  • - Moses: 1513-1473 B.C.E. – Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, (probably) Job, Psalm 90 & possibly Psalm 91.
  • - Joshua… –
  • - Samuel… –
  • - Gad…–
  • - Nathan…– …

  • - David… – …
  • - Sons of Koran. – …
  • - Asaph. – …
  • - Heman. – …
  • - Ethan. – …
  • - Solomon. –
  • - Agur. –
  • - Lemuel. –
  • - Jonah. –
  • - Joel. –
  • - Amos. –
  • - Hosea. –
  • - Isaiah. –
  • - Micah. –
  • - Zephaniah. –
  • - Nahum. –
  • - Habakkuk. –

  • - Obadiah. – circa 607 B.C.E.
  • - Ezekiel. –
  • - Jeremiah. –
  • - Daniel. –
  • - Haggai. –
  • - Zechariah. –
  • - Mordecai. –
  • - Ezra. –
  • - Unidentified Psalmist who composed 137th Psalm. – 537–c. 460 B.C.E.
  • - Nehemiah. –
  • - Malachi. – 443 B.C.E. -

Jehovah's Witnesses, Literature and Media on Creation:

  • - DVD: The Wonders of Creation Reveal God's Glory, made and produced by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. (2009)
  • - Brochure: The Origin of Life - Five questions worth asking, published by the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. (2010)
  • - Brochure: Was Life Created, published by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. - (2010)

Book List:

  • - This a list of book I heard some referenced to.
  • - Disclaimer: --
  • - The list:

Death:

  • - Sheol (she’o′lah): Hebrew verb sha·’al', meaning “ask; request.” A Compendious Hebrew Lexicon, Samuel Pike states “the common receptacle or region of the dead; so called from the insatiability of the grave, which is as it were always asking or craving more.” — Genesis 37:35; Proverbs 30:15, 16 (The passage in Proverbs is a beautiful scripture highlighting this point).
  • - Condition of the death: Genesis 3:19; Ecclesiastes 9:5, 10; Psalms 146:4.
  • - The English expression: "pushing daisies" does not mean English speakers necessary believe the some spirit of the deceased is literally pushing daisies upward from the ground.
  • - "As the last enemy, death is to be brought to nothing." - 1 Corinthians 15:26, NWT.

Things I love more information on:

  • - A temple: "A temple at Amman (1400-1250 B.C.) excavated and reported upon by J.B. Hennessy, shows possibility of animal and human sacrifice by fire." - Wikipedia, under molech (moloch). - Location: Amman, Jordan.
  • - A dolmen: "1918, Gustav Dalman discovered in the neighborhood of Amman Jordan (Amman is built on the ancient city of Rabbah of Ammon) a noteworthy dolmen which matched the approximate dimensions of Og's bed as described in the Bible." -Wikipedia, under Og - Location: Amman, Jordan. ([[156]])
  • - Yet to be deciphered languages.
  • - Adad-nirari III.

Finds:

  • - Leather shoe in Armenia. - [157]
  • - Location of Zoar.
  • - Finding at Marib. (Dr. Bill Glanzman)...
  • - Foundations of "Antonia tower" (Ben-Dov)...
  • - Pool in Kibbutz Tzuba.
  • - Large Stone Structure in 2005. (Eilat Mazar and Amihai Mazar)...
  • - Archaeological Discovery In Jordan Valley: Enormous 'Foot-Shaped' Enclosures. [158]
  • - '10th century wall' in Jerusalem. Ancient city walls around the City of David (Eilat Mazar )
  • - Finding at Nahal Tut. (Amir Gorzalczany and Gerald Finkielsztejn)...
  • - Finding of the Temple Mount Antiquities Salvage Operation in 2006. (10,000 year old flint tools, First Temple period bulla, iron arrowhead, Scores of coins). (Gabriel Barkay and Zachi Zweig)
  • - 'Nehemiah's wall' (Eilat Mazar)...
  • - Pool of Siloam.
  • - Khirbat en-Nahas/copper mines in Jordan (Edomites). (Thomas Levy )...
  • - Elah ostracon.
  • - Ancient Canaanite wall, Jerusalem. (Eli Shukron)...
  • - Finding at Khirbet Qeiyafa (Elah Fortress)...
  • - Ancient synagogue found in Israel. (Dina Avshalom-Gorni)...
  • - The road on the Madaba map. (Dr. Ofer Sion)...
  • - First century house in Nazareth. (Yardenna Alexandre)...
  • - Ancient South Arabian inscription confirms trade relations between “towns of Judah.” Mentioned in the January-February, 2010 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review (BAR), there is an article entitled “Solomon and Sheba, Inc.”
  • - The offspring of the Israelites that never left Israel since the Babylonian exile.
  • - [159] (city of Hilla)
  • - The Samaritans.
  • - The copper scroll.
  • - Yet to be discovered biblical manuscripts.
  • - The ancient graveyard, at Beth Sarim, Israel. (Contains a stone carved replica of the menorah/the temple lampstand).
  • - The treasure from the temple of Jerusalem. - (Book: God's Treasure)
  • - Caesaria, Israel. (See: marine archaeology)
  • - Rome, Italy.

Inuit and First Nations people - "indigenous people to the Americas"

  • - Questions:


  • - Un-deciphered:


  • - Some of the plant-based food sources for the Anishinaabe people:


  • - Some things of interest:
  • - The Creator: The Great Spirit (causing of our being). – (Genesis 1:1; 2:4; Exodus 3:14)
  • - Ancient spirit-beings. – (Genesis 1:26; Job 1:6; 38:7; 1 Peter 3:19, 20; 2 Peter 2:4, 5; Jude 6, 7)
  • - The earth; Mother-earth (Adamah). – (Genesis 2:7)
  • - The first man and woman. – (Genesis 2:7)
  • - Food a gift from the Creator. – Tree, fruits, seeds, grass. – (Genesis 1:29; 9:3, 4).
  • - Sense of stewardship. – (Genesis 1:29; 9:3, 4)
  • - Living off the land. – (Genesis 1:29)
  • - Family. – (Genesis)
  • - Time of harmony. – (Genesis 1-2)
  • - The tree of life. – (Genesis)
  • - The trickster. – (Genesis 3)
  • - Serpent. – (Genesis 3)
  • - Music: Flute, drum, rattle. – (Genesis 4:21)
  • - A time of fighting. – (Genesis 6:11)
  • - Shape-shifting spirits. – (Genesis; Jude)
  • - Giants. – (Wiindigoog) – (Genesis 6:1-4; Numbers 13:33)
  • - Flood. – (Nanabozo) living creatures spared by wooden structure so life was preserved. (creatures as Bagwajiwininiwag) - (Genesis 6-8)
  • - Raven. – (Genesis 8:7)
  • - A Language change. – (Genesis 11:1)
  • - Usage of flint. – (Exodus 4:25)
  • - Incense; associated with prayer. – (Exodus 25:6, compared with Genesis 8:21; 37:25) (compare with: "smudging:" sage, "cedar", tobacco, etc.,)
  • - Eagle. – (symbol of wisdom) – (Job 39:29)
  • - Wisdom.
  • - Animals used as teach lessons. – (Genesis)
  • - Stories to teach lessons. – (Genesis-Revelation)
  • - Thanks-giving. – (Genesis 4:3; 8:20)
  • - Injustice. – (Ecclesiastes 8:9)

Disrespect

To Anaccuratesource:

I would ask you to please refrain from reposting the previously removed edits. This would be kindly appreciated. We want to keep this profession article; showing mutual respect to differing views within creationism.

The article has expressed and currently is expressing blatant favoritism to young-earth creationism. Old-earth vs. young earth doesn’t necessary even have anything to do “the days of creation.” It’s a question of whether the earth existed or not before the 6 creative days. We regard this accusation of us trying to “attempt to merge with evolution" seriously and consider it malicious slander! This promotes dissention!

First and foremost this site to be a beacon for creationism – a place for creationists to shine the light of truth. And if we expect to receive respect should also show to each other too? Creationists have differing views and beliefs however what’s our common ground? Our belief is in the Creator. We should though oppose evolution which is the crutch of the Atheist belief system they use to deny the creator. The doctrine of evolution shifts undue attention to the creation not the Creator. It’s insulting and slanderous to insinuate we Old-earth creationists are trying to compromise with evolution. It does not help in promoting in an united front!

And for record I am a Christian and I am 100% against the doctrine of evolution. I believe in the Bible as the inspired word of God. I don’t regard as a book of fables I regard it as the truth. Like anyone we want just want to be fairly represented. And therefore we don’t want people lying about our beliefs. So we would ask you to please respect that and take that into consideration. – Thank-you.--Anaccuratesource 19:14, 12 January 2012 (PST)

Number one: do you know who I am? For your information, I am an administrator.

Number two: stop right now with your continual reposts of the above message on my Talk page, or I shall certainly block you.

Number three: we display what you call a "blatant bias" toward young-earth creationism for a reason: we believe that view to be correct, as true and correct as is the sum of two plus two.

If you have a problem with that, then address yourself to Mr. Ashcraft.

The edits will go out right now. You will leave them strictly alone. And if I ever catch you trying to dilute the message of this encyclopedia again, I will block you and I will address myself to Mr. Ashcraft.

Consider yourself warned.--TemlakosTalk 19:21, 12 January 2012 (PST)

I do not like your attitude Temlakos. I see no evidence of any Christian love nor respect for other positions within the Creationist spectrum. That is ridiculous and unfair to large swaths of honest Christians and you know it. --Tsommer (Tony) 20:38, 12 January 2012 (PST)

Recommendation

I would recommend not editing existing text but only adding text to a page. Don't bother editing that page again I would say, it will just cause conflict. Other than that I shouldn't add any further, because I am not a admin, so in other words what they say goes.--Tsommer (Tony) 17:03, 14 January 2012 (PST)

The Flood and other matters

I'm curious to know what you believe about the flood of Noah's time. Some of your points above suggest that you accept it pretty much as biblical creationists (YECs) accept it, yet the flood doesn't really fit within an old-Earth paradigm.

Incidentally, if I'm not suggesting anything contrary to CreationWiki's rules, it would probably be best to not clutter your talk page with your own notes, but either put them on your user page, or create a sub-page for them (e.g. User:Anaccuratesource/notes).

Philip J. Rayment 06:17, 16 January 2012 (PST)

point of view

My user account is anaccuratecource on creationwiki. And I received an ultimatum from the user/administrator Temlakos regarding the expression of my displeasure against an unfair accusation against my belief. Sir, I want to assure you I mean no disrespect. And I don’t want to cause any trouble. I was only asking that the article please avoid falsely accusing us of attempting to merge our beliefs with evolution. (The article for “the Days of creation” which reads: “This view is derived from an attempt to reconcile the Bible with the theory of evolution.”) This isn’t true sir. I just wanted to clear the confusion. Sir, I am sure that if someone accused you of this, you would welcome the opportunity at least to explain your position or point of view, Wouldn’t you? I mean no harm. I am just asking that we please be given a fair opportunity to explain our position or the removal of the accusation, please. I do not want to be removed; please. I am a devote Bible believer and I don’t believe in evolution at all. And I have been on Creationwiki for about three years now and am passionate and take it very seriously. I’m writing in hopes you could please consider this sir. – Thank-you for your time.--Anaccuratesource 20:37, 14 January 2012 (PST) I post some information on my discussion page briefly outlining the situation under the section entitled "Creation". I hope that it better explains my stand and that this matter can be peacefully resolved. --Anaccuratesource 20:43, 14 January 2012 (PST)

You appear to have a unique view from that representing most Old Earth Creationists (seemingly a combination of Gap theory and Day age creationism). Nevertheless, the statement in question (This view is derived from an attempt to reconcile the Bible with the theory of evolution) is clearly true of most OECs. The OEC position generally accepts modern science assertions regarding the age of the Earth and evolution, and renders a Biblical interpretation under the assumption that the former teachings are true. There are of course differences among OECs as to the extent to which natural processes played a part in the creation of components, but the statement is true for the vast majority, and it is the majority CPOV that we want to represent.

In the Day of creation talk page you describe the age estimates of the Earth and cosmos as "scientific findings". These dates are not facts, but instead an interpretation of matter based on a philosophy of materialistic naturalism. These naturalists assume the cosmos formed through purely natural processes, and interpret all observations and measurements in support of their view. The important thing to ask yourself is "can the origin of a cosmos that was formed by the word of God be interpreted by scientists determine to explain it through philsophical naturalism"? I assert that it can not...

The creationwiki holds to young earth creation as its principal view (see CreationWiki:About), and the statement you appear most concerned about will stand on the days of creation articles. However, it is certainly possible and I would encourage you to create an article perhaps titled evidence against 24-hour day creation. We request that article content be supported by citations and encourage users to use the footnote referencing system. You may also place an editorial reservation on the article for 30 days to give you time to finish the work (see Creationwiki:template). Let me know if I can help further.--Ashcraft - (talk) 12:11, 16 January 2012 (PST)