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Contents

Creation:


  • - Previous to the "days" of creation/creative days:


  • - Jehovah God is the source of all dynamic energy. The formula M = E/c² (mass equals energy divided by the speed of light squared) - Psalms 19:1, 2; 90:2; Isaiah 40:26; Jeremiah 32:17.


  • - His son Christ Jesus is the "firstborn." - Colossians 1:15; Revelation 3:14.


  • - The Angelic family in heaven. "Sons of God" - Job 38:7.







  • - Days of Creation: (Chart below is based on the book — How Did It Get Here? By Evolution or by Creation?)



  • - Day 1:
  • - “And God said: "Let there be light" (אור)” (light became visible) - (Genesis 1:3a, NWT)




  • - Day 2:
  • - “Then God said: "Let there be an expanse ” (meaning the sky/atmosphere) - (Genesis 1:6a, NWT)




  • - Day 3:
  • - “Then God said: ... Let the dry land appear” (large areas of dry land) - (Genesis 1:9, NWT)




  • - Day 3:
  • - “Then God said: "Let the earth cause grass to sprout” (land plants) - (Genesis 1:11a, NWT)




  • - Day 4:
  • - "Then God said: “Let there be luminaries (Hebrew: ma•or) in the expanse of the heavens to make a division between the day and the night, and they will serve as signs for seasons and for days and years." - ("sun, moon and stars discernible in the expanse, and seasons beginning") - (Genesis 1:14a, NWT)
  • - (It should be noted: at this point the earth and light had already existed (Genesis 1:1; think of the many stars, nebulas and galaxies in our Universe). However that light was not always visible on earth).




  • - Day 5:
  • - "Then God said: “Let the waters swarm with living creatures, and let flying creatures fly above the earth across the expanse of the heavens.” - (Genesis 1:20a, NWT)




  • - Day 6:
  • - "Then God said: “Let the earth bring forth living creatures according to their kinds, domestic animals and creeping animals and wild animals of the earth according to their kinds.” - (Genesis 1:24, NWT)




  • - Day 6:
  • - “Male and female he created them” (humans) - (Genesis 1:26-30, NWT)




  • - Creation day commentary: "Genesis was written by a Hebrew, in Hebrew, mainly with a Hebraic audience in mind. Therefore it with contains a Hebraic perspective. It takes the approach of a person on earth. It describes events as they would have been seen by human observers had they been present themselves." We see that in Genesis 1:1, 2 are classified separate from the creative days. - Was Life Created? 2010 Printing, published by The Watchtower Bible and Tract society.




  • - Science and the Genesis Account:



  • - "The Genesis account opens with the simple, powerful statement: “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” (Genesis 1:1) A number of Bible scholars agree that this statement describes an action separate from the creative days recounted from verse 3 onward. The implication is profound. According to the Bible’s opening words, the universe, including our planet, Earth, were in existence for an indefinite time before the creative days began.




  • - "'Geologists estimate that the earth is 4 billion years old, and astronomers calculate that the universe may be as much as 15 billion years old. Do these findings—or their potential future refinements—contradict Genesis 1:1? No because the Bible does not specify the actual age of “the heavens and the earth.”"




  • - The universe and the earth have existed here for billions of years before man was here. It’s humanity which is 6,000 years old which is quite young in comparison.




  • - "Light from the Andromeda nebula can be seen on a clear night in the northern hemisphere. It takes about 2,000,000 years for that light to reach the earth, indicating that the universe must be at least millions of years old. End products of radioactive decay in rocks in the earth testify that some rock formations have been undisturbed for billions of years. - Reasoning from the scriptures, published by, The Watchtower Bible and Tract society


  • - Summary: Genesis 1:3-31 is not discussing the original creation of matter or of the heavenly bodies. It describes the preparation of the already existing earth for human habitation..."However, the Hebrew word translated “day” [יום] has a variety of meanings, including ‘a long time; the time covering an extraordinary event.’ (Old Testament Word Studies, Grand Rapids, Mich.; 1978, W. Wilson, p. 109) The term used allows for the thought that each “day” [יום] could have been thousands of years in length."
  • - "In the first century C.E., some 4,000 years downstream in history, the Bible referred (to Apostle Paul divine inspired indication) to the seventh rest “day” as still continuing. (Hebrews 4:4-6) So the seventh “day” was a period spanning thousands of years, and we can logically conclude the same about the first six “days.”




  • - Creationwiki's bold accusations vs. the truth



Now creationwiki makes a very bold accusation: that "...in an attempt to merge the Bible with the theory of evolution, many old-earth creationists argue for non-literal interpretations of the word "Day" in Genesis 1, and instead hold to these descriptions as representing vast periods of time..." However, we see otherwise in the light of the knowledge of Bible truth and common sense. Is not the understanding the earth resulted from a 6 non-24 hour creative day process that is an attempt to merge the Bible with a human doctrine and or philosophy. Instead, it is "young earth."


• - Creationwiki claims: God created time and language, and described these events in terms that clearly define the length of time involved. • - This a case of semantics. Evidently there is a disagreement! The Hebrew word [יום] can be relatively vague.


• - Creationwiki claims: "An old earth creationist position known as Progressive creationism or day-age creationism, holds that the account in Genesis is true, but argue that the Creation "days" were not 24-hour periods. • - However, the Bible never stated when the (Hebrew: "Bereshith"; which in also the Hebrew name for the book of Genesis) "The beginning" was. Genesis 1:1, 2 "described things already accomplished, and they fall outside any time frame encompassing the creative days."


• - "It helps too when we understand that, just as Bible writers used the term “day” in more than one sense, so they also used the terms “heavens” and “earth” in more than one sense". - Jeremiah 4:25. - I took a course in classical (Biblical) Hebrew so I say this confidence I know what "yom" means.


• - Understanding Hebrew and the Hebraic perspective (in the case as a person stand on the surface of the earth) we understand day 1 (light) and day 2 (sun becomes discernible).


• - Consider, in some cultures the terms “left” and “right” are foreign they go by landmarks instead. The Genesis account likewise was written with the Hebraic perspective of a person was standing on earth watching.




An Explanation:




  • - 1. The earth was covered in dark gas.




  • - 2. The sun was the main source of light and it was during the first creative day the light become visible on earth.



  • - 3. Plants created: plants filter certain gases.



  • - 4. The luminaries became fully discernible.




  • - The expression: "And there came to be evening and there came to be morning," see Hebraic thought on light and darkness. - Psalms 90:6 (written down by Moses) and Proverbs 4:18.


Creationwiki: "It is generally held the Hebrew word Yom may represent vast periods of time." First, "generally held" is "weasel words!" Second, the scriptures use "yom" to refer more or less than a 24 hour solar day (check out: Genesis 2:4).


  • - Once again the seventh “day” was a period spanning thousands of years.
  • - All period of creation described as a “day”Genesis 2:4.
  • - The day/-s of harvest. – Genesis 30:14, Proverbs 25:13.
  • - "One day" an idiom. - Isaiah 17:14, compare with: 2 Kings 18:9-10 (3 years) and Zechariah 14:7-8.


I also find the phrase: "In an attempt to merge the Bible with the theory of evolution,"... to be very offensive! Please don't ascribe a motive that is not there! Why not just fairly represent this differing views? I resent being labeled as a "progressive creationist." I am not part of a political party as it were! I am a devout Bible believer. The Bible says God created Adam from the dust and formed Eve from the material from Adam's rib. So I do not believe God created some magic cell which spring out of some magic soup and morphed into ape-man-person then into Adam. I am not sure how others feel on this, however I feel that "progressive" in used to suggested those in favor of the day-age model of creation have an agenda to merge with evolution. This is totally false and I consider the term quite offensive!




Examples of "sea monsters" in modern times:




  • - Examples of "sea monsters" (or "great sea creatures") could include:





Examples of sea monsters in ancient times:




  • - Examples of sea monsters (or "great sea creatures") in ancient times:





The Universe "fine-tuned:"




  • - "Essential to the existence of the universe as a whole are the four fundamental forces that govern matter: gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces. All are marvelously fine-tuned." - The Awake! February 2009, published by Jehovah's Witnesses.




"The Living Planet:




  • - Life on earth could never exist were it not for a series of very fortunate “coincidences,” some of which were unknown or poorly understood until the 20th century. Those coincidences include the following:




  • - Natural cycles that replenish and cleanse the planet’s air and water supply. As you consider each of these topics, ask yourself, ‘Are earth’s features a product of blind chance or of purposeful design?’" - Was Life Created? 2010 printed by Jehovah's Witnesses.



Chronology:

The following chart is based by the reference material: Insight on the scriptures, volume 1 pages, 456-461.

Event Year AM Year B.C.E. (non-biblical) Span
Creation of Adam 0 4026 B.C.E. 0
To the start of the Flood 1656 2370 B.C.E. 1656
To the validation of the Abrahamic covenant 2083 1943 B.C.E. 427
To the Exodus from Egypt 2513 1513 B.C.E. 430
To the entry of Israel into Canaan 2553 1473 B.C.E. 40
To the close of the period of the Judges and the beginning of Saul's reign 2909 1117 B.C.E. 356
To the beginning of David's reign 2949 1077 B.C.E. 40
To the beginning of Solomon's reign 2989 1037 B.C.E. 40
To the start of temple construction During the 4th year of Solomon's reign 2992 1034 B.C.E. 3
To the division of the Kingdom 3029 997 B.C.E. 37
To the desolation of Judah and Israel being lead into captivity in Babylon 3419 607 B.C.E. 390
Return from exile (Ezra 1:2-4) 3489 537 B.C.E. 70
To the rebuilding of Jerusalem's walls 3571 455 B.C.E. 82
To the baptism of Jesus 4054 29 C.E. 483


  • - Date - Event - Reference


  • - 4026 B.C.E. "Adam’s creation." - (Genesis 2:7).
  • - a. 4026 B.C.E. "Edenic covenant made, first prophecy." - (Genesis 3).


  • - b. 3896 B.C.E. "Cain slays Abel." - (Genesis 4:8).
  • - 3896 B.C.E. "Birth of Seth." - (Genesis 5:3).
  • - 3404 B.C.E. "Birth of righteous Enoch." - (Genesis 5:18).
  • - 3339 B.C.E. "Birth of Methuselah." - (Genesis 5:21).
  • - 3152 B.C.E. "Birth of Lamech." - (Genesis 5:25).
  • - 3096 B.C.E. "Death of Adam." - (Genesis 5:5).
  • - 3039 B.C.E. "Transference of Enoch; ends his period of prophesying." - (Genesis 5:23, 24; Jude 14).


  • - 2970 B.C.E. "Birth of Noah." - (Genesis 5:28, 29).
  • - 2490 B.C.E. "God’s pronouncement as to mankind." - (Genesis 6:3).
  • - 2470 B.C.E. "Birth of Japheth." - (Genesis 5:32; 9:24; 10:21).
  • - 2468 B.C.E. "Birth of Shem." - (Genesis 7:11; 11:10).
  • - 2370 B.C.E. "Death of Methuselah floodwaters fall (in autumn)." - (Genesis 5:27; Genesis 7:6, 11).
  • - 2369 B.C.E. "Making of the covenant after the Flood." - (Genesis 8:13; 9:16).


  • - Post flood world:


  • - 2368 B.C.E. "Birth of Arpachshad." - (Genesis 11:10).
  • - a. 2269 B.C.E. "Building of the Tower of Babel." - (Genesis 11:4).
  • - a. 2269 B.C.E. Large scale migration out of Babel.
  • - 2020 B.C.E. "Death of Noah." - (Genesis 9:28, 29).
  • - 2018 B.C.E. "Birth of Abraham." - (Genesis 11:26, 32; 12:4).


  • - 1943 B.C.E. "Abraham crosses the Euphrates river on his way to Canaan; Abrahamic covenant validated; beginning of the 430-year period to Law."
  • - 1900 B.C.E.
  • - 1800 B.C.E.
  • - 1737 B.C.E. Joseph is made the Vizier (appointed Prime minister) of Egypt.
  • - 1700 B.C.E.
  • - c. 1628 B.C.E. (Approximate: 1628 B.C.E. - 1600 B.C.E. Minoan eruption of Thera). - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minoan_eruption#Relative_chronology)
  • - 1613 B.C.E. (before 1613 B.C.E) Job's trial.
  • - 1600 B.C.E. (after 1600 B.C.E.) "Egypt attains prominence as first world power" - Exodus 1:8.
  • - 1593 B.C.E. "Birth of Moses".
  • - 1513 B.C.E. "The Exodus".
  • - 1500 B.C.E.
  • - 1400 B.C.E.
  • - 1300 B.C.E.
  • - 1200 B.C.E.
  • - 1100 B.C.E.


  • - 1000 B.C.E.
  • - 900 B.C.E.
  • - 800 B.C.E.
  • - 700 B.C.E.
  • - 607 B.C.E.
  • - 600 B.C.E.
  • - 582 B.C.E. King Nebuchadnezzar dies.
  • - 500 B.C.E.
  • - 400 B.C.E. After 443 B.C.E. the book of Malachi was written.
  • - 300 B.C.E.
  • - 200 B.C.E.
  • - 100 B.C.E.


  • - circa 180 B.C.E. to 160 B.C.E the books of First and Second Maccabees are written.
  • - 175 B.C.E The beginning of Antiochus Epiphanes' reign.
  • - circa 134 B.C.E. death of Simon Maccabaeus
  • - circa early October, 2 B.C.E. Jesus was born.


  • - 70 C.E.
  • - 100 C.E.
  • - c. 100 C.E. The Apostle John died.
  • - 200 C.E.
  • - 300 C.E.
  • - 400 C.E.
  • - 500 C.E.
  • - 600 C.E.
  • - 700 C.E.
  • - 800 C.E.
  • - 900 C.E.
  • - 999 C.E.
  • - 1000 C.E.


  • - 1100 C.E.
  • - 1200 C.E.
  • - 1300 C.E.
  • - 1400 C.E.
  • - 1500 C.E.
  • - 1600 C.E.
  • - 1700 C.E.
  • - 1800 C.E.
  • - 1900 C.E.


  • - 2000 C.E.
  • - 2001 C.E.
  • - 2002 C.E.
  • - 2003 C.E.
  • - 2004 C.E.
  • - 2005 C.E.
  • - 2006 C.E.
  • - 2007 C.E.
  • - 2008 C.E.
  • - 2009 C.E.
  • - 2010 C.E.
  • - 2011 C.E.
  • - 2012 C.E.
  • - 2013 C.E.


  • - I like to group human (post-flood) history into the following phases:
  • - 1) - approx. 4500 years ago.
  • - 2) - 4000 years ago.
  • - 3) - 3000 years ago.
  • - 4) - 2000 - 1000 years ago.
  • - 5) - 1000-500 years ago.

Archaeology and chronology:

"For your servants have found pleasure in her stones, And to her dust they direct their favor." - Psalms 102:14, New World Translation.














  • - 1932 B.C.E.
  • - Ishmael is born forefather of the Ishmaelites. Ishmael's son Kedar (Qedar): is forefather to the Kedarites. - Genesis 25:13-15 * - (See: Silver bowl inscription from Tell el-Maskhutah, Egypt)









  • - 1711 B.C.E
  • - "The death of Jacob (Israel)." The name of Israel may appear as early 15 century B.C.E (approximately 400 years after the death of Jacob) in an Egyptian inscription and in the ancient Egyptian Merneptah Stele dated to circa 1205 B.C.E.





  • - 1513 B.C.E
  • - The Exodus out of Egypt.






  • - Circa 1473 B.C.E
  • - King Og is killed and was buried in. - (Deuteronomy 3:11)
  • - Some connect his burial with the site at Rujm el-Hiri (dolmen).
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Og)





















  • - Circa 1279–1213 B.C.E
  • - " a colossal statue erected at Luxor by Pharaoh Ramesses II, in the 13th century B.C.E., which lists Mu'ab among a series of nations conquered during a campaign." - Wikipedia, under Moab.
















  • - After 1107 B.C.E. but before 1077 B.C.E.
  • - Achish.
  • - Ekron dedicatory inscription (dated to the 7th century, but shows the name was in usage).
  • - King David. - (See: Mesha stele and the Tel dan stele)




  • - Circa 1050 B.C.E.
  • - (Carbon 14, "1000-975 B.C.E.") Khirbet Qeiyafa site - "Absence of pig bones"
  • - (Levitcus 11:7; Deuteronomy 14:8)




  • - 1037 B.C.E.
  • - King (Jedidiah) Solomon begins to reign.
  • - (Site of the coronation)


















  • - Circa 917 B.C.E "Jehoram of Israel succeeds Ahaziah as sole king" - (2 Kings 3:1)
  • - The Mesha stele: also known as: "the Moabite stone". Verifies the existence of King Mesha and tribe of Gad. - (2 Kings 3)
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesha_stele)




  • - Circa 917-845 B.C.E
  • - The Tel Dan Stele ("left most probably by Hazael of Aram-Damascus" - Wikpedia). ("house of David" - 1 Samuel 20:16; 1 Chronicles 17:24; Nehemiah 12:37; Psalms 122:5; Isaiah 7:2, 13; 22:22; Zechariah 12:7,8, 10, 12; 13:1; Jeremiah 21:12; Luke 1:69)
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tel_Dan_Stele)







  • - Circa 840-760 B.C.E (according to Wikipedia)
  • - The Deir 'Alla Inscription: also known as the Balaam inscription, which mention: "Balaam, the son of Beor") from the Middle Jordan Valley. - Numbers 21-24; Deuteronomy 23:3-6; Joshua 24:9, 10; Micah 6:5; Nehemiah 13:2; 2 Peter 2:15, 16; Jude 11; Revelation 2:14' - (See: Biblical Archaeology Review (September/October 1985) -(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deir_Alla_Inscription)







  • - Circa 737 B.C.E, wikipedia
  • - A stele of Tiglath-Pileser III which mentions Kedar (Qedar), "Idiba’ilu" Adbeel,






  • - 745 B.C.E.
  • - "Hezekiah becomes King of Judah"






  • - 732 B.C.E. "Sennacherib (of Assyria) invades Judah"







  • - Circa 732 B.C.E.
  • - LMLK seals.







  • - 716 B.C.E "King Manasseh succeeds Hezekiah as king of Judah" - (2 Kings 21:1)
  • - (Looking into: Manasseh's relationship with Assyrian kings Esarhaddon, Ashurbanipal, and Egyptian pharaoh Psammetichus I.)







  • - Circa 700 B.C.E.
  • - The Etemenanki tower is restored and dedicated to Marduk.




  • - 647 B.C.E - "Jeremiah was commissioned as prophet"
  • - Bulla discovered and document the names of people from books written by the prophet Jeremiah:




  • - Circa 647 B.C.E
  • - Bulla: "Gedalyahu, the son of Immer the priest" (possibly a brother to Pashur, "son of Immer the priest," Jeremiah 20:1)




  • - Circa 647 B.C.E
  • - Bulla: Baruch, the "son of Neriah." -(Jeremiah’s secretary) - Jeremiah 32:12; 36:4, 10.




  • - Circa 647 B.C.E
  • - Bulla, discovered in Israel: Gemariah, the "son of Shaphan." - Jeremiah 36:10.




  • - Circa 647 B.C.E
  • - Bulla, discovered in Israel: Jerahmeel, the "son of the king." - Jeremiah 36:26.




  • - Circa 647 B.C.E
  • - Bulla, discovered in Israel: Jucal, the "son of Shelemiah." - Jeremiah 38:1.







  • - Circa 647 B.C.E
  • - Bulla, discovered in Israel: Seraiah, the "the son of Neriah." (Baruch’s brother). - Jeremiah 51:59.













  • - Circa before 607 B.C.E
  • - The Ketef Hinnom scrolls. (circa before 607 B.C.E.). - (engraved with: Numbers 6:24-26)













  • - Circa 600 B.C.E
  • - Elephantine papyri Mentions: Sanballat believed by some to be the Sanballat mentioned in Nehemiah 2:10 and Johnan the high priest "Johanan the son of Eliashib." - Nehemiah 12:23
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elephantine_papyri)













  • - Circa 475 B.C.E.
  • - Susa remains.







  • - Circa 455 B.C.E.
  • - The Silver bowl inscription from Tell el-Maskhutah, Egypt mentions: "Gesem, king of Qedar." Possibly "Geshem the arab" mentioned at Nehemiah 2:19; 6:1, 2, 6.




  • - Circa, 250 B.C.E. - 100 C.E.
  • - Dead sea scrolls of Qumran. - ( 31°44'29.35"N 35°27'34.57"E)



















  • - Circa 19 B.C.E
  • - The Western Wall
















  • - Circa ...
  • - Temple Warning Inscription.







  • - 66 C.E. Christians flee outside Jerusalem to mountains.
























  • - Circa 601-700 C.E.
  • - "Lot's cave." 7th-century Byzantine church, the cave was found to contain "Early and Middle Bronze Age pottery" inside. - (31° 2'48.48"N 35°30'9.62"E)




  • - I'm interested in:


  • - A temple: "A temple at Amman (1400-1250 B.C.) excavated and reported upon by J.B. Hennessy, shows possibility of animal and human sacrifice by fire." - Wikipedia, under molech (moloch). - Location: Amman, Jordan.



  • - Shechem temple
  • - (32°12′11″N 35°18′40″E).












  • - Notes:
  • - Kathleen Kenyon was not a Bible believer!
  • - Israel Finkelstein is not a Bible believer!

"Points to note:"

  • - Arrival of humans:
  • - The Bible teaches the arrival of humans occurred at 4026 B.C.E (thus approximately 6,038 years ago) whereas information from Wikipedia, reflecting mainstream secular opinions, favors a range of "2.3 million - 200,000 years ago" model.


  • - Ice age:
  • - The Bible shows the flood, a possible cause of the so-called "ice-age" in 2370 B.C.E. (thus approximately 4,382 years ago) whereas information on Wikipedia reflecting certain secular opinions favor a date closer to 10,000 years for the ice age.


  • - Massive human migration
  • - The Bible teaches that a massive human migration occurred rapidly after flood at Babel sometime after 2269 B.C.E. (thus approximately 4,281 years ago). Whereas mainstream secular opinions are humans gradually migrated during and after the ice age.


  • - The dispersal of peoples occurs at Babel (near what modern-day Hillah, Babil, Iraq) approximately 1,550 miles north of Lake Yardi, Ethiopia.


  • - ((Armenia oldest shoe, wine... Turkey believed cradle of the Indo-European languages and earliest known sites where wheat was grown.
  • - "Cradle of civilization" in Mesopotamia.
  • - So-called "Oldest temple" in Turkey.
  • - http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Göbekli_Tepe)


  • - Biblical cave dwellers: Genesis 19:30; Judges 6:2; 1 Samuel 13:6


  • - We should remember where these estimates (guesses) originate in just that conjectural interpretations. The people behind such dates are basing information with a perceived model linked a believe in humans evolution.




  • - Would a logical person believe that a computer was a product of chance and not design? Now would a logical person now also believe the more complex human mind and human body as a whole are also products of chance (derived from the advance development of (magic) mold growing out of ocean or something, which also surprise surprise is another a product of "chance")? Hmmmmm.


  • - Evolution teaches: non-living matter transformed into a cell (living matter), which reproduced (according to information from an advanced code known as DNA derived by chance), and harmoniously developed an advanced set of organs, which work together with each other; usually to a corresponding gender co-relation (males and females); all by itself. Now does this sound logical?


  • - The Bible gets the titles, names and people right. For example: the 2004 movie called: "The Prince and me" follows a fictional story which takes place in Modern Denmark. The movie puts a king named Haraald on the throne instead of a queen named Margrethe II. The Bible however always used the correct names and terms.




  • - Genealogy was a big deal to ancient Israelites:


  • - Much of the information is taken from the Watchtower, July 1, 2012 page 26 and the Insight on the scriptures, Bible encyclopedia, under genealogy.


  • - 1.) To establish tribal relationships. - Numbers 36:7-9; Joshua 19:51.


  • - 2.) To establish family relationships. "The Law covenant prohibited marriage within certain degrees of consanguinity or affinity, which necessitated a knowledge of genealogical relationships." — Leviticus 18:6-18 and "Repurchasing a relative." - Leviticus 25:47-49 and as avenger of blood upon a manslayer. - Numbers 35:19. "The one qualified to act in brother-in-law marriage." - Deuteronomy 25:5, 6. Legal benefits and requirements of being the firstborn - Numbers 3:40-48.


  • - 3.) To trace the lineage of the promised Messiah. - (...)


  • - 4.) The religious offices of priest and Levite were hereditary. - Nehemiah 7:61-65.


  • - 5.) the Mosaic Law stipulated that "no illegitimate son" nor any "Ammonite" or "Moabite" may come into the congregation of Jehovah." - Deuteronomy 23:3-6.


  • - 6.) Emphasis placed on passing history...


  • - Jeremias, "pure ancestry had to be proved for a man to exercise any civic rights, and this fact confirms our conclusion that . . . even the simple Israelite knew his immediate ancestors and could point to which of the twelve tribes he belonged."




  • - Why does the Bible give paternal ages in Genesis 5, but not other accounts? (See: The Watchtower, October 1, 1980 page 31)



  • - 1. - Genesis 4:25 - Seth is replacement for Abel. - (Adam-Seth)
  • - 2. - Genesis 4:25 - Seth and Enosh, since Seth named him. - (Seth-Enosh)
  • - 3. - Jude 14 - Jude says Enoch was the seventh from Adam (Jude 14), so there are no missing generations between Adam and Enoch. - (Adam-Enoch)
  • - 4. - Genesis 5:29 - Lamech named Noah. - (Lamech to Noah)
  • - 5. - Genesis 7:4 - Methuselah died the same year the Flood began.


  • - Furthermore, 1 Chronicles 1:1-4 and Luke 3:37, 38 repeats the very same sequence in the genealogical record. Genealogy was very important to the Israelites! (see above)




  • - Pivotal dates:



  • - 539 B.C.E. - <...> - (Basis)
  • - 607 B.C.E. - 997 B.C.E. - (Rule of Judean kings) - (Basis)
  • - The end of Solomon's reign to "The exodus" - 997 B.C.E. - 1513 B.C.E. - (Basis)
  • - "The exodus" to the start of the covenant with Abraham - 1513 B.C.E. - 1943 B.C.E. (Basis: Exodus 12:40; Galatians 3:17)
  • - the start of the covenant with Abraham to the flood. - 1943 B.C.E. - 2370 B.C.E. (Basis: Genealogical records)
  • - (Jude 14)
  • - Judges 11:26 (300 years)




  • - The Bible does not internally view the books Genesis and Exodus as myths (or "allegory"). - John 17:17; 1 Timothy 4:7; 6:20; 2 Timothy 4:4; Titus 1:14; 2 Peter 1:16

Adam & Eve

  • - "Adam and Eve"


  • - Adam (אדם) (earthing man)
  • - Eve/Chawwah (חַוָּה‎) (feminine: living one)




  • - Possible parallels?


  • - Asia, East:






  • - India: Manu and Satarupa. - (Hindu literature). - (Adam & Eve?)






  • - Asia, Middle East:





  • - Babylonian (Modern day: Southern Iraq) Amuta - (Babylonian literature). - (Adam?)










  • - Sumerian origin to the account of the garden of Eden? or a Hebraic origin to the Sumerian story:



  • - Wikipedia states, under Eve (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eve): "Some, for instance Samuel Noah Kramer, hold that the origin of this motif is the Sumerian myth in which the goddess Ninhursag created a beautiful garden full of lush vegetation and fruit trees, called Edinu, in Dilmun, the Sumerian earthly Paradise, a place which the Sumerians believed to exist to the east of their own land, beyond the sea.
  • - >> Ninhursag charged Enki, her lover and husband, with controlling the wild animals and tending the garden, but Enki became curious about the garden and his assistant, Adapa, selected seven plants (8 in some version) and offered them to Enki, who ate them. (In other versions of the story [citation needed] he seduced in turn seven generations of the offspring of his divine marriage with Ninhursag). This enraged Ninhursag, and she caused Enki to fall ill. Enki felt pain in his rib, which is a pun in Sumerian, as the word "ti" means both "rib" and "life".
  • - >> The other gods persuaded Ninhursag to relent. Ninhursag then created a new goddess (7 or 8 to heal his 7 or 8 ailing organs including his rib) named Ninti, (a name made up of "Nin", or "lady", plus "ti", and which can be translated as both Lady of Living and Lady of the Rib), to cure Enki. Neither Ninhursag nor Ninti are exact parallels of Eve, since both differ from the character. However, given that the pun with rib is present only in Sumerian, linguistic criticism places the Sumerian account as the more ancient and therefore, a possible narrative influence on the Judeo-Christian story of creation"


  • - However in contrast: one can take the Sumerian myth of "Adapa" in "the Garden of Edinu" and see a Hebraic origin.
  • - As the phrases Adam and Eden are Hebrew. They are Semitic not Sumerian in origin!
  • - "Adhama:" Earthling man (אדם); ground (אדםה), root meaning "red." - (Genesis 1:26; 2:7) (See: "mother earth," Gaia, Prithvi Mata, etc below).
  • - Eden (עֵדֶן) ('Eden: Pleasure/delight, lush. See Hebrew root 'dn) - (Genesis 2:8, 9, 16; 1:27-31) - See (the subheading here: "Antediluvian places," under "Eden")
  • - Now Given that these specific puns with "Adam" and "Eden" are present only in Hebrew, arguably could not the linguistic criticism place the Hebraic account as the older origin/influence on the Sumerian story of creation?




  • - Europe:



  • - Greece: Epimetheus and Pandora. (Greek literature). "Ancient Greek mythology held that humanity was immortal during the Golden Age, until Prometheus brought them fire to help them live through cold. The gods punished humans allowing Pandora to release the evil (death, sorrow, plague) into the world due to her curiosity." - Wikipedia
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epimetheus_(mythology))
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandora). - (Adam & Eve?)




  • - Polynesia:






  • - Interesting Occurrences:




  • - The Garden and garden places









  • - From The Dust



Genesis 2:7: "And Jehovah God went on to form the man out of dust from the ground and to blow into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living person" Genesis 2:7 (NWT)





  • - Africa:



  • - "In Yoruba African mythology, the god Obatala created the human race from clay" "which were supposedly brought to life by Olorun's breath." - Wikipedia.
  • - "In Egyptian mythology, the ram-headed god Khnum made people from clay in the waters of the Nile." - Wikipedia.




  • - Americas:




  • - "The Abenaki people believe that after Tabaldak created humans, the dust from his body created Glooscap and his twin brother, Malsumis." - Wikipedia.
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gluskabe)




  • - Asia:






  • - Europe:



  • - Greek mythology: Prometheus created humans from clay. - Wikipedia.





  • - Middle-East:



  • - "Babylonian Mythology creation epic Enuma Elish, (the god Enki and his) the goddess Ninhursag created humans from clay." - Wikipedia.




  • - Austro-Polynesia:






  • - The "divine" Mother Goddess



  • - Some of Athena's similarities with Eve:
  • - Athena: is born full grown out of Zeus' body.
  • - Eve: is born full grown out of Adam's body. - Genesis 2:22, 23


  • - Athena: associated with Hera, Born in the presence of Hera; Alcaeus, refers to Hera as panton genethla, or "mother of all."
  • - Eve: is called by Adam is "Chawwah" in Hebrew because she is the "the mother of all living" - Genesis 3:20 (Hera's "gift" of curiosity.)


  • - Athena: Sanchuniathon's account would make Athena the sister of Zeus and Hera, not Zeus' daughter.
  • - Eve: is wife and similar to a twin sister to Adam. - Genesis 2:23, 24


  • - Athena is closely associated with the serpent (Erichthonius and the head of gorgon).
  • - Eve has noteworthy encounter with a serpent. - Genesis 3:1-17.


  • - Athena is associated with Pandora. Pandora's birth was of a 'divine' origin, she opened a forbidden box which unleashed misery to the world.
  • - Eve: ate the forbidden fruit and offered it to Adam who willy accepted it. (Sin entered the world through Adam because of this) - Genesis 2:9; 3:1-19


  • - Athens: covered in an animal skin.
  • - Eve: after banished from the garden wore garments of skin. - Genesis 3:21


  • - Athena holds Nike (victory) in her right hand.
  • - Eve achieved a Satanic victory; independence from God.


  • - Wiininwaa - A woman entitled as "Norishment" who became immortal through manidoowiziwin (the process of taking on qualities of a Manitou); daughter of Nookomis and mother of Nanabozho. - Wikipedia.




  • - The Tree of Life:



  • - I am not saying there a necessary connection with and between everyone. I observed this interesting expression “tree of life” and ancient motif among many ancient peoples.









  • - Iroquois, (Haudenosaunee) First Nation peoples
  • - "In a myth passed down among the Iroquois, The World on the Turtle's Back, explains the origin of the land in which a tree of life is described. According to the myth, it is found in the heavens, where the first humans lived, until a pregnant woman fell and landed in an endless sea. Saved by a giant turtle from drowning, she formed the world on its back by planting bark taken from the tree." - Wikipedia (source not cited)


  • - Ojibwa, Anishinaabe First Nation people
  • - "Grandmother Cedar." - Wikipedia (source not cited)



  • - Japanese: (Shinto)
  • - <more to come>







  • - See:


  • - Germanic: Ash tree.
  • - Hinduism: Bayan tree.
  • - Slavic: Oak tree.
  • - Celtic: Hazel tree.
  • - Grecian: Concept of Mt. Olympus? Tree sawed by the Kallikantzaroi.




  • - See also:






  • - The serpent:






  • - Africa:







  • - Zulu: (An interesting) story about the chameleon and a lizard.


  • - Americas:



  • - First Nation: Mishi-ginebig - Serpent. "is a great horned snake, a powerful underground manidoo that was the guardian spirit brings that brings wisdom and healing." - Wikipedia.
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mishi-ginebig)












  • - Asia:












  • - Europe:










  • - Near/Middle East:















  • - funfact: “The name Eve (חַוָּה) bears resemblance to an Aramaic word for "snake" (O.Arb. חוה; J.Arm. חִוְיָא).” – Wikipedia.
  • - See:
  • - (http://cal1.cn.huc.edu/)






  • - Julian the Apostate, wrote: "when Zeus was setting all things in order there fell from him drops of sacred blood, and from them, as they say, arose the race of men." - Wikipedia.



  • - Unlike these versions of human origins science confirms all humans share a common ancestry.


  • - Adam and Eve were accepted as real historical figures by the early Bible believing Christians (2 Timothy 3:16, 17): Genesis 1-5; 1 Chronicles 1:1. Scriptures dating from the Christian era: Matthew 19:5; Luke 3:38; Mark 10:6; Acts 17:26, Romans 5:14; 1 Corinthians 15:22, 45; 2 Corinthians 11:2; 1 Timothy 2:14; 17 Jude 14.

Antediluvian Society, Places:

Although some critics view the Garden of Eden as a mythological place this is not what the Bible teaches.


The Garden of Eden has ten descriptive details about its location:




10 descriptive details to Garden of Eden's Location (See below)




  • - 1. A) The garden was within the larger region known as Eden. B) It had an entrance on its east side. - (Genesis 2:8; 3:24)
  • - 2. One river which issued into four rivers. - (Genesis 2:10a)
  • - 3. Located at the heads of the four rivers (indicating a northern location) - (Genesis 2:10b)
  • - 4. The Pishon river. - (Genesis 2:11)
  • - 5. The Land of Havilah. - ('where there is gold, the bdellium gum and the onyx stone.') - (Genesis 2:11, 12) Two people named Havilah are mentioned in the Bible. (Genesis 10:7, 29) The name seems to mean "sand."
  • - 6. The Gihon river. - (Genesis 2:13a)
  • - 7. The Land of Cush. - (Genesis 2:13b)
  • - 8. The Hiddekel (Tigris) river, goes east to Assyria. - (Genesis 2:14) - IDENTIFIED.
  • - 9. The land of Ashshur (Assyria). - (Genesis 2:14) - IDENTIFIED.
  • - 10. The Euphrates river. - (Genesis 2:14) - IDENTIFIED.




  • - Eden



  • - About Eden: "In the past, the favored derivation of the name "Eden" was from the Akkadian edinnu, itself derived from a Sumerian (a non-Semitic language) word meaning "plain" or "steppe", but it is now believed to be more closely related to an Aramaic (a Semitic) root meaning "fruitful, well-watered." - Wikipedia (content in brackets is mine).


  • - Rupert L. Chapman III, Middle East Department, The British Museum commented: "The derivation from Sumerian via Akkadian appears to be unlikely, while cognate terms occur in both Aramaic and Arabic," Aramaic and Arabic are Semitic languages.


  • - Based on 9th century B.C.E. Akkadian-Aramaic bilingual inscription discovered in 1979 at Tel Fekheriyeh (near the Syrian-Turkish border). In the source, the root appears in the Aramaic version meaning "to be fruit(ful), plentiful" or well watered.' An also a cognate word is said to have found in Ugaritic tablets in the Louvre. The Ugaritic texts are date to older than 13th and 12th century B.C.E. <more to information to come> - (See: Genesis 2:9-10; 13:10; 18:2; Psalms 36:9). These cognates convey the thoughts of "luxury, delight, bliss." It's interesting since the book of Genesis was actually originally written in the 16th century B.C.E. This means the usage of the word Eden predates the Aramaic and Ugaritic inscriptions by centuries. The Anchor Bible dictionary's comment on word history of Eden. <more to come>





  • - Examples of root 'dn in the Tanakh:



  • - "Pleasure" - (New World Translation) - ('dn-h). - Genesis 18:12
  • - "Dainties" (1984 edition) "food fit" (2013 edition) - (New World Translation) - (or delicacies) - (m-'dny). - Genesis 49:20
  • - "Ornaments" - (New World Translation) - ('dn-ym). - 2 Samuel 1:24
  • - "And to luxuriate" (1984 edition) "basked" (2013 edition) - (New World Translation) - (w-yth-'dn-nu). - Nehemiah 9:25
  • - "Pleasures" (1984 edition) "delights" (2013 edition) - (New World Translation) - ('dnyk). - Psalms 36:8
  • - "Pleasure" - (New World Translation) - (m-'dn-ym). - Proverbs 29:17
  • - "Pleasure-given" - (New World Translation) - ('dn-h). - Isaiah 47:8
  • - "Pleasant" (1984 edition) "delicacies" (2013 edition). - (New World Translation) - (l-m-'dn-ym). - Lamentations 4:5




  • - The Garden of Eden




  • - The Garden of Eden was located in Northern Mesopotamia: "Now there was a river issuing out of Eden to water the garden, and from there it began to be parted and it became, as it were, four heads. ((Therefore: located near at the source of the rivers in northern Mesopotamia)) The Hebrew term: "Rosh" or "Roshim" (Literally translates as head) indicates a northern Mesopotamia location. - Genesis 2:10. (See: The Anchor Bible (1964), which compares this scripture with Joshua 15:5 and Semitic Akkadian langauge cognate: Resu) - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurdistan)





  • - Edenic rivers:



  • - Pishon:





  • - Qezel Uzun river (Old Persian: Uizhun; Modern Persian: Qezel Uzun); David Rohl's identified the river (Uizhun). Hypothetical phonetic shift: Persian Uizhon, Hebrew: UYSHWN or PYSHWN. - (37°538.54"N 47°4614.26"E)
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sefīd-Rūd). Canditate.



The first one’s name is Pishon; it is the one encircling the entire land of Havilah (sand), where there is gold. And the gold of that land is good. There also are the bdellium gum (gum gugul) and the onyx stone. italics mine Genesis 2:11 (NWT, italics mine)




  • - Gihon:



  • - Gihon river discussion. - (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gihon)
  • - David Rohl's identifies as Gaihun-Aras, based on Reginald Arthur Walker prior identified. - (40° 1'6.24"N 48°27'12.60" E) and the Land of Cush: The Kassites and Mount Kusheh Dagh? Cossaea, was a Greek name for Elam. Herodotus and other ancient Greek writers sometimes referred to the region around Susa as "Cissia", a variant of the Kassite name. However, it is not clear if Kassites were actually living in that region so late. "Amu Darya was known in the medieval Islamic writers as Jayhun or Ceyhun in Turkish. This was a derivative of Jihon, or Zhihon as it is still known by the Persians." - Wikipedia, Gihon.







And the name of the second river is Gihon (Jihoun-Araxes); it is the one encircling the entire land of Cush (Kassites). italics in brackets are mine Genesis 2:12 (NWT, italics in brackets are mine)



  • - Hiddekel:
  • - Hebrew: (Hiddeqel) (חידקל). Akkadian: (Idiqlat) (ידקלת) Arabic: (Dijla) (דקל) and (Hudaqil) (חידקל).
  • - The Tigris river. - (38°16'19.42"N 43°49'9.97" E) - (Compare with: Daniel 10:4, 5; 11:5, 6)
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tigris#Etymology)
And the name of the third river is Hiddekel ('Tigris'); it is the one going to the east of Assyria. italics in brackets are mine Genesis 2:14 (NWT, italics in brackets are mine)


  • - Note: The writer of Genesis, Moses identified the Hiddeqel as the one going East of Asshur. This can support the belief: the river wasn't permanently destroyed during the Great Flood. Because basically in modern terms wouldn't it be like saying: the Tigris river which flows Eastwards in Northern Iraq?




  • - Perath:


  • - Hebrew: (Perat) (פרת). Akkadian: (Purattu) (פרתו). Arabic: (Al-Furat) (אל-פרת).
  • - The Euphrates. (Arabic: Firat; generally agreed to came from the Old Persian: Ufrātu "the good") Euphrates. - (39°31'4.01"N 43°30'25.57" E).
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euphrates)
And the fourth river is the Euphrates. Genesis 2:14b (NWT)




The term Paradise




  • - "The word "paradise" entered English from the French paradis, inherited from the Latin paradisus, from Greek parádeisos (παράδεισος), and ultimately from an Old Iranian root, attested in Avestan as pairi.daêza-. The literal meaning of this Eastern Old Iranian language word is "walled (enclosure)", from pairi- "around" + -diz "to create (a wall)". The word is not attested in other Old Iranian languages (these may however be hypothetically reconstructed, for example as Old Persian *paridayda-). By the 6th/5th century BCE, the Old Iranian word had been adopted as Akkadian pardesu and Elamite partetas, "domain". It subsequently came to indicate walled estates, especially the carefully tended royal parks and menageries. The term eventually appeared in Greek as parádeisos "park for animals" in the Anabasis of the early 4th century BCE Athenian gentleman-scholar Xenophon. Aramaic pardaysa similarly reflects "royal park". Hebrew פרדס (pardes) appears thrice in the Tanakh; in the Song of Solomon 4:13, Ecclesiastes 2:5 and Nehemiah 2:8. In those contexts it could be interpreted as an "orchard" or a "fruit garden". In the 3rd–1st centuries BCE Septuagint, Greek παράδεισος (parádeisos) was used to translate both Hebrew pardes and Hebrew gan, "garden": it is from this usage that the use of "paradise" to refer to the Garden of Eden derives. The same usage also appears in Arabic and in the Quran itself as فردوس (firdaws).The idea of a walled enclosure was not preserved in most Iranian usage, and generally came to refer to a plantation or other cultivated area, not necessarily walled. For example, the Old Iranian word survives in New Persian pālīz (or "jālīz"), which denotes a vegetable patch. However, the word park, as well as the similar complex of words that have the same indoeuropean root: garden, yard, girdle, orchard, court, etc., all refer simply to a deliberately enclosed area, but not necessarily an area enclosed by walls." - Wikipedia, under "paradise" - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradise)


  • - "Paradise" in the Bible: it is of interest that King Solomon used the word paradise (Hebrew: Pardes) in his desciption of his royal gardens. - Eccelesiastes 2:5; Song of Solomon 4:13; also see Nehemiah 2:8. * - Greek: parádeisos > Persian: Pairidaeza > Old Persian: Pairidiz... - (Akkadian: pardesu. Elamite: partetas "domain") "paradise" derives from the Persian word for "park," also implying a circumscribed, protected area. The Hebrew word "Pardes" meaning "Paradise" has a four letter root vs. usual Hebraic three.




  • - The term Paradise is linked with the Garden of Eden. The Septuagint (circa 280 B.C.E.) uses the word around 30 times, both for Eden, (Genesis 2:7 et.) and of the Eden restored (Ezekiel 28:13, 36:35) etc. The Septuagint calls the Garden of Eden: "Paradise" (paradeisos) after the ancient Persian pairidaeza meaning 'enclosed parkland'. - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradise) Also numerous Medieval translations of gospels render the term paradise as the Garden of Eden.






  • - Nod, the fugitive land






  • - Also see these places:





  • - The Garden of Dilmun, Sumerian, Mesopotamian mythology. - "Some scholars maintain that the Sumerians may have originated from the mountainous regions of southwestern Iran, since their epic poems refer several times to western part of Iran as their original homeland." - Wikipedia, which lists Samuel Noah Kramer, An Near Eastern expert as an example.
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Noah_Kramer)
















  • - Antediluvian society, plants of Eden:








  • - Genesis 1:14: "And God went on to say: “Let luminaries come to be in the expanse of the heavens to make a division between the day and the night; and they must serve as signs and for seasons and for days and years." - The astronomy, time Indicators and the calendar.


  • - Genesis 1:25: "...And God got to see that [it was] good."




  • - The Universe "fine-tuned:"



  • - "Essential to the existence of the universe as a whole are the four fundamental forces that govern matter: gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces. All are marvelously fine-tuned." - The Awake! February 2009, published by Jehovah's Witnesses.




  • - "The Living Planet:



  • - Life on earth could never exist were it not for a series of very fortunate “coincidences,” some of which were unknown or poorly understood until the 20th century. Those coincidences include the following:
  • - Earth’s location: in the Milky Way galaxy and the solar system, as well as the planet’s orbit, tilt, rotational speed, and unusual moon
  • - A magnetic field and an atmosphere that serve as a dual shield
  • - Natural cycles that replenish and cleanse the planet’s air and water supply. As you consider each of these topics, ask yourself, ‘Are earth’s features a product of blind chance or of purposeful design?’" - Was Life Created? 2010 printed by Jehovah's Witnesses.


  • - Jesus spoke of Adam and Eve as real people. - Matthew 19:3-6.

Antediluvian Society, Lifestyle And Technology:

  • - Agriculture. - Genesis 4:2, 3; 9:20 (compare with: Genesis 1:29).
  • - Architecture, Construction. - Genesis 4:17.
  • - Astronomy: - Genesis 1:4 (compare with: Genesis 7:11)
  • - Botany. - Genesis 2
  • - Criminal justice, exile. - Genesis 4:16
  • - Horticulture. - Genesis 2:9
  • - (Linguistics:) poetry Genesis 2:23, word coining. - Genesis 2:20.
  • - Livestock: Genesis 4:20.
  • - Fashion. - Genesis 3:7; 21.
  • - Marriage unions: (mono) - Genesis 2:23, (poly) - Genesis 4:19.
  • - Metal forging ("Copper and iron" especially and possibly other metal alloys): Tool making, knowledge of geography. - Genesis 4:22.
  • - Music: the production of musical instruments (specifically "the harp (kinnor) and the pipe") and song composition. - Genesis 4:21-23.
  • - Ship building. - Genesis 6:14.
  • - Songwriting. - Genesis 4:23-24.
  • - Sheep herding. - Genesis 4:2-4. (Wool?)
  • - Religious practices. - Genesis 2:16; 4:1-4.
  • - Time keeping. - Genesis 1:14; 7:11; 8:14
  • - Tent making and dwelling: implies the preparing of fabric, and textiles making, etc. - Genesis 4:20.
  • - Urban planning and construction. - Genesis 4:17.
  • - Usage of bitumen/tar (sealant). - Genesis 6:14
  • - Vendettas. - Genesis....
  • - Zoology. - Genesis 2:20.



  • - Paints a very different picture than "uniformitarianism."

Antidiluvian Society, The Nephilim:

"then the sons of the [true] God began to notice the daughters of men, that they were good-looking; and they went taking wives for themselves, namely, all whom they chose." Genesis 6:2 (NWT)




  • - Who the "sons of God"?



  • - The account used the expression: "the daughters of men" not "the daughters of Cain."


  • - "The Neph′i·lim proved to be in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of the [true] God continued to have relations with the daughters of men and they bore sons to them, they were the mighty ones who were of old, the men of fame." - Genesis 6:4. (NWT)


  • - Why would the mere mention of their marriage to the daughters of men as something special? Marriage, childbearing, had been taking place for more than 1,500 years. Comparison can be made with: (Job 1:6; 38:7. Psalm 83:9; Hebrews 13:2; 2 Peter 2:4; Jude 6, 7).


  • - The Terminology: beneh′ ’e•lim′ and beneh′ ha•’Elo•him′ meaning the "sons of God" vs. "sons of men" — Compare: Psalm 4:2; 57:4; Proverbs 8:22, 30, 31; Jeremiah 32:18, 19; Daniel 10:16.


  • - The timing, vocabulary, and subject are related to Genesis. Job is believed to written by the prophet Moses who could penned the inspired record of Job. - 1 Peter 3:19, 20; 2 Peter 2:4, 5. The phrase: "Sons of God" is evidently used to denote the angels. Of interest is that the Gib·bo·rim′ and hag·gib·bo·rim′ [mighty ones and the mighty ones] was rendered into Biblical Koine Greek as: Gi′gan·tes (giants).




  • - Angels (spirit creatures) do possess the ability to materialize. - (Genesis 18; 19; 32).


  • - Side note: The term Archangel with its prefix: “arch,” signifying “chief” or “principal,” implies that there is only one archangel, the chief angel. Further the belief of existence of more one archangel is not supported by the Bible itself; as the term never occurs in plural form.




  • - Did the Nephilim survive the flood? No! - (Genesis 6:12, 13, 17; 7:21; 9:11; 15-17; Matthew 24:39; 1 Peter 3:20).


  • - Jude 6 mentions that divine intervention occurred so that the demons are now "held" in "eternal bonds" or "chains." A parallel text (in 2 Peter) said they have been thrown into "Tartarus" into "pits of dense darkness" "to be reserved for judgement. (2 Peter 2:4) These wicked "spirits in prison" (1 Peter 3:19, 20) would be now greatly restricted. How so? They still create havoc today and according to the book of Job (written after the flood) Satan (a fallen angel himself) was still able to enter and interrupt a gathering in Heaven. (Job 1:6-12)This leaves us to the conclusion they were permanently restricted from materializing. Which seems logical to me since they were abusing a God-given ability. They are limited but they can still possess people and animals under certain circumstances.
  • - Does the phrase: "in those days, and also after that" mean after the flood? It makes sense to understand as the following:
  • - "A: in those days," (before the flood)
  • - "B: and also after that" (an intermediate period leading up and finally finishing at the Flood)
  • - The whole thing really rests on a negative report given by and evidently that was intended to terrorize (Numbers 14:11). Remember the language used in this report reflects that. Now just how trustworthy were these individuals? They after all embellished their report if we can even call it that. (Numbers 13:33b) the "like grasshoppers" phrase for example comes to mind. Otherwise, how do we know our teachers, our friends, our parents, our co-workers, etc., aren't Nephilims themselves?




  • - The Bible doesn't mention a second coming of the "sons of God" and mating with the "daughters of men."


  • - To those the claim: "Hebrew records have always maintained that the second wife of Noah was a girl called Na'amah and that the seed of the Nephilim continued after the flood through her incestuous offspring with Noah's accursed grandson Canaan." And that "Paul said that "the oracles of God" are with the Jews, and Jesus said that "the Pharisees sit in Moses seat", and reason so any bible believer should not ignore what little remnant of ancient wisdom." However although we should some respect for Jewish oral traditions, to what cost? It's sometimes helpful e.g., understanding certain historical matters, as what the First-Century layout of the temple was like and so forth. However, both the Apostle Paul and Christ Jesus warned true Christians about fabled Jewish traditions (Titus 1:14). Now the Apostle Paul said that "all scripture (referring to the Tanakh, the inspired Gospels and the inspired Epistles) is inspired of God" (2 Timothy 3:16-17) not all Jewish traditions, especially those passed on orally (which later formed the Talmud and other rabbinic literature). The Apostle Peter moreover said that there were 8 survivors not 9! (1 Peter 3:20; 2 Peter 2:5 Compare: Genesis 7:13). The Bible explains Canaan was cursed by Noah for a gross and perverted act disgracing his great-grandfather Noah.
  • - The Nephilim re-appearing (because the flood killed "all flesh" minus 8 souls) really rests on an untrustworthy report from unfaithful men designed to strike fear into minds and hearts of the men and women of Israel. I don't think this is a reliable enough to say dogmatically new Nephilim can into being. Genesis 10 documents the genealogy of mankind. There was no mention of fallen angels (the "sons of God") re-mating with women ever again. I feel for new Nephilim to have appeared we would have missed something in the Bible; something huge. Would that make the Great Flood of Noah's day somewhat pointless too? If Canaan's (K'naan) descendants were Nephilim. Where to Christ Jesus, David come into play they descend from Rahab a Canaanitess?




  • - Giants in mythology


  • - Kroni: "He is the primordial manifestation of evil, and manifests in various forms of evil, such as Ravana and Duryodhana.” - Indian mythology - Wikipedia. - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kroni)
  • - Hiranyaksha: "A Datiya, He was slain by Lord Vishnu after he (Hiranyaksha) took the Earth to the bottom of what has been described as the “Cosmic Ocean.” His name in Sanskrit literally means "Golden eye"." - Indian mythology - Wikipedia. - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiranyaksha)
  • - Oni: "Depictions of oni vary widely but usually portray them as hideous, gigantic, creatures with sharp claws, wild hair, and two long horns growing from their heads. They are humanoid for the most part, but occasionally, they are shown with unnatural features such as odd numbers of eyes or extra fingers and toes. Their skin may be any number of colors, but red and blue are particularly common." - Japanese folklore. - Wikipedia. - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oni_(folklore))




  • - "Demigods" in mythology



Hebrew: a Canaanite language?

  • - The Canaanites were like an island in a sea of speakers of Semitic languages.


  • - To put this into perspective: The Canaanites population where areas dotting what is now Israel, the West bank, and Lebanon:
  • - The modern state of Isreal is "slightly larger than New Jersey." - CIA - The World Factbook. (note: the modern state of Israel includes the Negev region)
  • - The West bank is "slightly smaller than Delaware." - CIA - The World Factbook.
  • - And modern Lebanon is "0.7 times the size of Connecticut." - CIA - The World Factbook.

  • - Their neighbors spoke:





  • - Old Hebrew (the Edomites, Ammonites, Moabites, Israelites, and possibly other peoples like the Ishmaelites? Medanites? Shuhites? Descandants of Jokshan son's Sheba and Dedan?)




  • - The Canaanites had the Ocean to them on the West.






  • - See: the book Early Northwest Semitic Serpent Spells in pyramid texts by R. Steiner dated "2400 to 3000 B.C.E" according to National Geographic (it should noted these date are inaccurate according to the Bible chronology). The passages, which were inscribed on the subterranean walls of the pyramid of King Unas at Saqqara, Egypt.
  • - See:
  • - (www.pyramidtextsonline.com)
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unas)

Ancient Hebrew Writing

  • - If today's scholars, accepted Moses as recording the bible books: Job, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and most of Deuteronomy, and additionally the 90th Psalm in the framework of the biblical chronology, in the ancient Hebrew script; it would mean a revision to the information presented by the mainstream theory regarding the origin of the alphabet. Framework: The writing would have completed at 1473 B.C.E., and some of books started at very least as early as 1513 B.C.E.





  • - In addition, there are lost papyrus and parchment documents: It should also be noted that during this period most documents were recorded papyrus which last long in humid climate of the Levant.




  • - Early Hebrew Inscriptions:





The Flood, The Overview:

  • - The Genesis account is not a vague description. Reflect on the account how it answers the 5 W's.


Christ Jesus mentioned the Flood of Noah's day. - (Matthew 24:37-39) And early Bible Believing Christian believed the Flood of Noah's day was a real event too. Genesis 5:28-10; 1 Chronicles 1:4; Ezekiel 14:14,20; Isaiah 54:9; Matthew 24:37, 38; Luke 3:36; 17:17; Hebrews 11:7; 1 Peter 3:20; 2 Peter 2:5.




  • - Who:
  • - Noah and his wife; Japheth and his wife; Shem and his wife and Ham and his wife. - Genesis 7:13; 1 Peter 3:20; 2 Peter 2:5



  • - What was use to build the ark?


  • - Tar and or bitumen:


  • - Wood: "gopher-wood" (King James Version), "resinous wood" (New World Translation, 2013) (traditionally associated with cypress wood). - Genesis 6:14-16.






  • - Where the story unfolds?










  • - Q. How were all the animals gathered?
  • - A. Divine intervention. The scriptures say "they kept going to Noah" (New World Translation). - Genesis 7:15.




  • - Q. Number of animals?
  • - A. 1) one male and one female representative of each kind "unclean" animals. 2) Three females and fours male representatives of each kind clean animals of "clean" animals. - (See: The Watchtower, 3/15, 2007 page 31. Question from readers)




  • - Q. With saline levels (how did fresh water fish survive)?
  • - A. We do not totally know all the abilities of antediluvian fish (natural selection afterwards) and the possibility of miraculous intervention.




  • - Q. How could the ark with stand waves and debris and etc?'
  • - A. With an intelligent design and divine intervention.


  • - The ark's design follow ratios:
  • - Length (300 cubits)- width (50 cubits): 6:1
  • - Length (300 cubits) - height (30 cubits): 10:1.
  • - It's interesting to note that the width (50 cubits) to the height (30 cubits) 5:3 is 1.666 (virtually the same as Phi: 1.618)
  • - In addition the ark was sealed with pitch. This made it a watertight vessal.








  • - Q. Could the ark hold the weight on all the animals and stay afloat?




  • - Q. How could Noah care for all the animals while aboard the ark? - (feeding them? What about carnivores?)
  • - A. There were eight people in the ark. <more to come>




  • - Q. How did plants survived?
  • - A. "Maybe Noah had retained many plant seeds and during the flood many species could have survived in floating." - Mr. Robert Tiso.
  • - How they actually under water... <more to come>




  • - Q. Repopulating the earth?
  • - A. <more to come>



  • - When: 2370 B.C.E.



  • - Why: Wickedness and violence in the earth. - Genesis 6:11



  • - How: Genesis 1:7 - The source/s of the flood water:
  • - Then God proceeded to make the expanse and to make a division between the waters that should be beneath the expanse and the waters that should be above the expanse. And it came to be so. - (Genesis 1:7)
  • - "...all the springs of the vast watery deep were broken open and the floodgates of the heavens were opened." - (Genesis 7:11b)
  • - "And the springs of the watery deep and the floodgates of the heavens became stopped up, and so the downpour from the heavens was restrained." - (Genesis 8:2) NWT.




  • - The Enormity of the Flood:



  • - "And the waters overwhelmed the earth so greatly that all the tall mountains that were under the whole heavens came to be covered" - (Genesis 7:19) NWT.
  • -"Evidently they are right here on earth. Today there is about 1.4 billion cu km (326 million cu mi) of water on the earth. It covers more than 70 percent of the globe’s surface. The average depth of the oceans is 4 km (2.5 mi); average elevation of the land is only 0.8 km (0.5 mi) above sea level. If the earth’s surface was smoothed out, it would all be covered with water to a depth of 2,400 m (8,000 ft)" - Quote from the Bible Encyclopedia: Insight on the Scriptures, Flood of Noah's Day.
  • - See:
  • - (http://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1200000758?q=70+percent&p=par)


  • - Where did the water go? Still here. "Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface" "On Earth, 96.5% of the planet's water is found in oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, a small fraction in other large water bodies, and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air), and precipitation." - Wikipedia.
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water)



  • - Also Compare:


  • - The fact: that an ark was even need and the enormous size of the vessel.
  • - The fact: all animals and humans that were outside the ark perished as documented in Genesis 6:19; 7:3, 11, 19-23.
  • - The fact: birds were aboard the ark.
  • - The fact: local floods don't last months.
  • - The fact: many flood legends reflect the Bible's account that was a world-wide flood.



  • - The fact: Flood lasted over a year:


  • - Over a month (40 days and nights) down pour.
  • - Five months later: the ark landed.
  • - Two and half months later: the "“the tops of the mountains appeared” - Genesis 8:5, NWT.
  • - Three months later: most of the earth had drained - Genesis 8:13
  • - About two months later: when the 8 survivors finally went outside of the ark. Genesis 8:14-18.
  • - And the Greek term: "kataklysmos."



  • - How could Noah dispose of animal waste?
  • - "According to one researcher: between the basement and the first floor of the ark there was a double fund for ballasts and excrement." (information provided by Mr. Roberto Tiso)




  • - The ark rests on: - Genesis 8:4
  • - Abib/Nisan 16: (Mid-late March— early April).






  • - How would Noah his family and the animals descend from Mount Ararat?
  • - "Walking with their legs... no problem as many Armenians pilgrims climbed in the past centuries to visit the ark so also Noè, family and animals came down easily since as soon as after the deluger there was no snow or ice yet." - (information provided by Mr. Roberto Tiso)


  • - 2369 B.C.E. Making of the covenant after the Flood. - Genesis 8:13; 9:16


  • - Over eight centuries after the flood (approximately 857 years) and over seven centuries (approximately some 756 years) after the building of the tower of Babel the Genesis account was recorded into the "scroll of Moses."


  • - "Mount Nisir of the Gilgamesh epic, also Mount Durupinar 8 miles in south Ararat and Mount Cudi Dagi about 200 miles sout Ararat and in some Iranians mountains too."










  • - Effect on geology
  • - Psalms 104:6-8.






  • - Critics challenge the flood's reality citing that "King Clone is thought to be the oldest Creosote bush ring in the Mojave Desert. The ring is estimated to be 11,700 years old." - Wikipedia [3] However, the Bible acknowledges that some trees survived (Genesis 8:11). And even if this is the case that would still wouldn't disprove the Bible's account (it would only discredit young earth creationism).







  • - Circa 1253
  • - William of Rubruck's testimony.




  • - Circa 1876
  • - James Bryce.




  • - Circa 1916-1917
  • - Russian Expedition. (e.g., Batov Fedor Frolovich)









  • - Other:





  • - Replicas of Noah's Ark









  • - More:





Flood legends From Around the World:

  • - Thousands of flood legends exist all over the globe.


  • All over the world people speak of an event with striking similarities to the Bible's accurate record of the Great flood - a real event in our human history. We are still learning more about certain cultures and their mythology and belief systems. Some cultures we know little to nothing about. Still we quite a number of records of many flood legends to begin with.


  • - Critics may challenge that flood legends can offer corroborative evidence to the Bible's account. And some critics have asserted these numerous flood legends don't actually prove the Great flood happened. However, in fact they lend very well to the Bible's factual record of flood as an event that happened. And this is what we would kind of expect to find too. The flood was a huge event in our human history. And it's interesting how a surprisingly large number of these flood legends are actually central to peoples' cultural belief systems (legends and mythologies) and their cultural identity, the belief of their origins. Quite a number of these flood legends indicate that only a few survived this Flood and ended up becoming the ancestors to the present population.



  • - Philip Freud's book: Myths and Creation, describes some 500 stories about great deluge from 250 different tribes. - (Genesis 11:9).
  • - Funfact: "Chinese, Egyptian, Greek, Semitic, and Siberian legends depict the raven as a foreteller of storms or bad weather. Perhaps such legends had Noah and the Flood as their origin." "The raven signifies life and creation in the legends of Siberia and is the creator-god of the Aboriginals in North America." (1997 Awake! magazine) "In legends of Africa, Asia, and Europe, the raven portends death." (source...)




  • - Legends from around the world





  • - Africa:





  • - Chad:
  • - Moussaye tribe: <more to come>


  • - Zulu:
  • - (Oshunmare - divine rainbow serpent associated with creation and procreation, the creator of Beer. - Wikipedia.)



  • - Americas:





  • - North America:


  • - Frederick Waugh was an ethnologist who researched Anishinaabe (Ojibwa) customs in 1916. He mentions the legendary character “Nanabojo” in some of his notebooks. And Frances Densmore's "Chippewa Customs" in 1925 wrote about Nanbozho as well.
  • - The telling of legend of Nanabozho speaks of prophet messenger sent by the Gichi Manitu (Meaning God. Literally, the "Great Spirit") named Nanabozho (meaning: white rabbit), shape-shifting trickster spirits, wicked "serpent" people (the antagonists in the story), all during a period of quarreling and violence, Nanabozho was a divine messenger (like a prophet and preacher) who warned the people, people who scoffed Nanabozho, the Nanabozho constructs a wooden craft to survive the oncoming flood; Nanabozho puts the animals on it; preserving them in the process, a flooded earth, creatures sent to forge for dry earth.)
  • - (http://archives.cbc.ca/science_technology/unexplained/topics/1462-9703/)





  • - U.S.A. (Alaska)
  • - The Kolusches: <more to come>




  • - U.S.A. (Arizona)
  • - The Papago: <more to come>


  • - U.S.A. (Mississippi)
  • - The Choctaw: <more to come>



  • - U.S.A. (North Dakota)
  • - The Arikara: Nishanu sends, the Great sky chief and creator sent a flood to destroy a race of wicked giants. Sparing a few individuals by planting into the ground as corn.
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arikara)



  • - U.S.A. (Washington)
  • - The Yakima: <more to come>




  • - Mesoamerica:



  • - Mexico: Western
  • - Michoacan <more to come>






  • - Summary:


  • - 1) (Nahui-Ocelotl: "Jaguar Sun")
  • - 'An era the world was inhabited by Giants who were devoured by jaguars.' - Wikipedia. (Giant destroyed)


  • - 2) (Nahui-Ehécatl: "Wind Sun")
  • - Earth's inhabitants were transformed into monkeys. This world was destroyed by hurricanes - Wikipedia. (World destroyed by hurricanes)


  • - 3) (Nahui-Quiahuitl: "Rain Sun")
  • - Earth's inhabitants were destroyed by rain of fire. Only birds survived (or inhabitants survived by becoming birds). - Wikipedia. (World destroyed by "rain" of fire.)


  • - 4) (Nahui-Atl: "Water Sun")
  • - This world was flooded by Goddess Chalchiuhtlicue. " A couple escaped but were transformed into dogs." - Wikipedia. (World destroyed by a flood)


  • - 5) (Nahui-Ollin: Earthquake Sun)
  • - "We are the inhabitants of this world. This world will be destroyed by earthquakes (or one large earthquake)." - Wikipedia.



  • - Guyana:
  • - Arawak <more to come>





  • - Central America:




  • - Central America: - Caribs.





  • - South America










  • - Peru:
  • - Indians of Huarochirí <more to come>
  • - See:


  • - Peru:
  • - Uru Indians <more to come>
  • - See:


  • - South America:
  • - Quechua <more to come>
  • - See:


  • - South America:
  • - The Ona & Yahgan of Tierra del Fuego. <more to come>
  • - See:



  • - Chile:
  • - Araucanians <more to come>
  • - See:




  • - Asia:












  • - Thailand:
  • - Lisu and Hmong tribes. <More to come>
  • - See:




  • - Austr-Polyensia:



  • - Malaysia
  • - Temuan people.

(http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temuan#Flood_Legend)




  • - Europe:





  • - See: the "ages of man," by the Greek poet Hesiod's Works and Days (circa 700 B.C.E.).
  • - Golden: (Antediluvian Eden-like conditions) "these humans were said to live among the gods, and freely mingled with them. Peace and harmony prevailed during this age. Humans did not have to work to feed themselves, for the earth provided food in abundance." - Wikipedia.
  • - Silver (Antediluvian conditions - post Eden) "During this Age men refused to worship the gods " - Wikipedia.
  • - Bronze: (Antediluvian conditions - post Eden) "their arms and tools forged of bronze," "The men of this Age were undone by their own violent ways and left no named spirits; instead, they dwell in the "dank house of Hades". This Age came to an end with the flood of Deucalion."
  • - Heroic: "These humans were created from the bones of the earth (stones) through the actions of Deucalion and Pyrrha."
  • - Iron: "Hesiod finds himself in the Iron Age."









  • - Near/Middle East:





  • - Epic of Gilgamesh vs. the Bible's account of Noah: "Although the Bible does not specify the exact length of time Noah spent building the ark, the account allows for construction that took 50 or 60 years. Genesis 5:32; 7:6 These factors stand in stark contrast with the well-known story found in the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh. The (one version of the) epic describes a massive, ungainly (non sea worthy) cube (which would have repeatedly flipped over) some 200 feet [60 m] on each side that was built in only seven days. Unlike that Babylonian legend, the Bible’s Deluge account engenders confidence in its accuracy." - The Awake February 08, 1997, page 27. (brackets mine)




  • - Flavius Josephus' references:






  • - Apocalyptic Pseudepigrapha literature:



The Flood, The List of Mount and Places:

  • - Malaya Mountains: (8°27'19.22"N 76°57'18.58" E) - (Malaya Mountains) - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaya_Mountains)
  • - Mount Konokti: (38°58'28.35"N 122°45'58.57" W)
  • - Mount Niitakayama: (23°28'12.00"N 120°57'26.16" E)
  • - Mount Parama Kamboja: probably (38°14'17.72"N 72°22'49.16" E)


  • - Africa:


  • - Atlas mountains: (31°59'55.13"N 1°59'59.13" W) - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlas_mountains)
  • - Egypt: Legend of Osiris (Mythological Egyptian deity of the dead), Hathor (Mythological Egyptian deity protector of tombs of the dead)


  • - Americas:


  • - North: Keddie Peak, in the Sacramento Valley.
  • - Central:
  • - South:

  • - Asia:

  • - Mount Ararat: probably (39°43'1.62"N 44°17'28.72" E) - (Judaism and Christianity)
  • - Mount Gerizim: (32°12'4.48"N 35°16'24.94" E) - (Samaritanism: influenced from the Biblical account) - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerizim)
  • - Mount Judi: (جود&#1610) 37°22'28.16"N 42°28'16.04" E (Islam: influenced from the Biblical account) - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Judi)

- [4]



  • - Australia/Polynesia:


  • - Australia: Mount Broome: (17°21'0.12"S 125°23'0.02" E) - (aboriginals of Australia)
  • - Australia: Mount Dromedary - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Gulaga)
  • - Fiji: Mount Mbengha.
  • - Hawaii: (19°49'59.63"N 155°28'3.81" W)


  • - Europe:


The Flood, Celebrations Possibly Connected To:

  • - Americas:
  • - Europe:
  • - Middle-East:
  • - Mesopatamia: Marcheshwan.
  • - Iran: Mordad.
  • - Israel: Heshvan (Bul): The month follows the month of the nation of ancient Israel’s secular New Year. Corresponds to October—November.

After The Flood, Babel and the Post-Flood world:

  • - Anthropology:
  • - Archeology:
  • - Ancient agricultural studies and the domestication of dogs.
  • - Linguistics (language):
  • - Linguistic theory: Indo-European and Semitic languages.
  • - Linguistic fossils: Proto-Elamite and Sumerian and Chinese (Xi'an and Henan).
  • - Possible Proto-Languages leaving Babel:
  • - Proto-Indo-European. - See: The Kurgan hypothesis. - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurgan_hypothesis)
  • - Proto-Semitic.
  • - Proto-Dené–Caucasian, it's status is still debated. - (Includes a lot of language isolates)
  • - Proto-Austronesian.
  • - Nilo-Saharan.
  • - Genetics:
  • - Out of Africa or Out of Babel?
  • - Conclusion: Correlation between genetics and linguistics:
  • - Questions:
  • - How many haplogroups left Babel?
  • - How many languages left Babel?
  • - Language families, spread, migration and development. Compared with: genetic analysis of genetic families spread, migration and development. What are algorithms can we find? Linguistic (Linguistic fossils, Linguistic theories, understanding language diversity, genetics, comparing models)
  • - Anthropology indicates: archeological studies, linguistics, biological studies (genetics), cultural and religious are pointing in the same hot spots as found in the Biblical record.
  • - How tall could the tower of Babel have been? Hypothetical discussion from scientific angle minusing the impracticality, just how big could they have made the tower with: 1) baked brick in pyramid style 2) the know how 3) limitless supply 4) the man power . - (http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=NwdSyACPkmQ) (start 0:00 till 10:56)
"Now Noah started off as a farmer and proceeded to plant a vineyard. And he began drinking of the wine and became intoxicated, and so he uncovered himself in the midst of his tent" 21,&version=NWT Genesis 9:20, 21, (NWT)
And it came about that in their journeying eastward they eventually discovered a valley plain in the land of Shi′nar, and they took up dwelling there. Genesis 11:2 (NWT)
  • - Could mean they migrated eastward through from what is now Iran into Iraq? The "land of Nimrod" in Nimrod’s kingdom located in the plain of Shinar. - Micah 5:6.
10. And the beginning of his kingdom came to be Ba′bel and E′rech and Ac′cad and Cal′neh, in the land of Shi′nar. 11. Out of that land he went forth into As·syr′i·a and set himself to building Nin′e·veh and Re·ho′both-Ir and Ca′lah 12. and Re′sen between Nin′e·veh and Ca′lah: this is the great city." Genesis 10:10-12, (NWT)
  • - Babel: (Babylon) [Bab (gate) + El/il/ilu (God)]
  • - Erech: (30°57'45.68"N 46°6'11.32" E).
  • - Accad: (33°5'60.00"N 44°5'60.00" E).
  • - Calneh: (36°5'57.00"N 43°19'39.00" E)?.
  • - Land of Shinar: (Shinar: Sanhar of the Amarna letters?)
  • - Shinar might be a corruption or a contraction of the Hebrew words: Shene + nahar(im) meaning two rivered or two river(s). Compare with the phrase in the 60th Psalm "Aram-naharaim" meaning Aram's rivers; naharaim/naharoth is the plural and nahar in singular. This could make sense since is spoken of as the plain of Shinar. However other alternative suggestions exist one suggests it might a contraction of Shene + 'arim meaning two cities or the Hebrew word for Sumer.
  • - Comparing the terms Aram-naharaim and Shinar: Genesis 4:10 (Northern Mesopotamia) Deuteronomy 23:4; Judges 3:8, Psalm 60. "In a narrower sense, however, Babylonia is excluded, only the region to the N being termed Mesopotamia. This northern region consists of a low undulating plateau having numerous enclosed basins. It is also a rocky area." - Insight on the scriptures, volume two, Mesopotamia, pages 384-385.
  • - Nineveh:
  • - Re·ho′both-Ir:
  • - Calah:
  • - Resen:

  • - Cities: Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim, "near Lasha" (traditionally identified with Callirrhoe, on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea.)
  • - Traditional site of Lot's cave: [5]
  • - Latitude: 31° 2'48.29"N Longitude: 35°30'9.35"E
  • - Post-Flood World:

  • - Early post-flood technology, culture and "achievements"
  • - Reference to man-made fire: Genesis 8:20
  • - Reference to a (post-flood) Law code: Genesis 9:1-7.
  • - Reference to (post-flood) agriculture: Genesis 9:20.
  • - Vine culture: vineyard, wine making: Genesis 9:20.


  • - First reference to alcohol intoxication: Genesis 9:24.
  • - Archery: Genesis 21:20
  • - Birth-right: Genesis 14:18.
  • - Clothing: Genesis 24:53.
  • - Cooking: Genesis 14:18; 18; 25:29-33.
  • - Construction: City building. - Genesis 10:11.
  • - Domestic dogs: - Job 30:1
  • - Gold jewelry: - Genesis 13:2; 24:22, 30, 47.
  • - Government. - Genesis 10, 11.
  • - Warfare. - Evidence seems to indicate Nimrod empire would came through bloodshed. - Genesis 10:8, 22; 1 Chronicles 1:10.
  • - Kilning. - "...Let us make bricks and bake them with a burning process..." Genesis 11:3a. (The New World Translation) this was possibly a post-dilivian innovation.
  • - Hunting. - "He displayed himself a mighty hunter" footnote: Literally meaning, “mighty one in hunting.” Genesis 10:9. (New World Translation)
  • - Mortar. - "...So brick served as stone for them, but bitumen served as mortar for them." Genesis 11:3b. (The New World Translation) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bitumen#Ancient_times)
  • - Mythology. - Logically myth making was in motion very early on: 1. Noah's descendants were not united; divide in belief. 2. Oral tradition was shpaed by opinion would also shape people varying belief systems. 3. Nimrod's rebellion reveals how much division in the belief system had already occurred. 4. The motivate for building the tower. 5. Ignorance, people would have lacked accurate knowledge and understanding of pure worship, quickly try to fill the gap with their superstitious beliefs.
  • - Camel: Genesis 12:16.
  • - Cattles: Genesis 12:16. - (See: Did Abraham Really Own Camels? June 15, 2011, The Watchtower.)
  • - (http://www.biblearchaeology.org/post/2014/02/17/The-Date-of-Camel-Domestication-in-the-Ancient-Near-East.aspx#Article)
  • - Sheep raising (post-flood): Genesis 12:16.
  • - Asses: Genesis 12:16; 13:5; 15:9.
  • - Footwear: Genesis 14:23.
  • - Scales: Genesis 23:15, 16.
  • - Footnote: references to Holy bible are used in the proceedings.
  • - Headdress/headcover: Genesis 38:65
  • - Honey: Genesis 43:11
  • - Horses: Genesis 49:17, Job 39:19-25.
  • - Butter: Genesis 18:6.
  • - Baking pastry (post-flood): Genesis 14:18; 18:6.
  • - Cheese: Job 10:10.
  • - Rope making. Job 41:1
  • - Writing (Early references to writing In the bible)
  • - (Passages probably, alluding to writing: Genesis 38:18, 25 time: circa 1750 B.C.E, “seal ring,” Genesis 41:42, “signet ring,” time: 1737 B.C.E.) Job 19:23, 24; 31:35 time period written circa 1613.
  • - (Dates mentioned are based on the the study of Biblical chronology, as presented in the book entitled: “All Scripture Is Inspired of God and Beneficial,” published by the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc.)
  • - Usage of flint:
  • - "From very early times knives, axheads, chisels, spearheads, arrowheads, and other tools and weapons have been fashioned out of this rock." - Insight on the scriptire volume one.
  • - Job 28:9 (merely mentions the rock).
  • - Deuteronomy 8:15 (merely mentions the rock).
  • - Exodus 4:25. "...took a flint and cut off her son’s foreskin..." - New World Translation.
  • - Joshua 4:19; 5:2, 3, 8, 9. e.g., - Joshua 5:2: "Literally, “daggers (swords) of rock.” Heb., cha·revohth′ tsu·rim'." - New World Translation reference edition, footnote.

  • - The language confusion was a major technological setback to ancient humankind. - Genesis 11:6.
  • - Tower of Babel
  • - King Nebuchadnezzar is reported said, “I raised the summit of the Tower of stages at Etemenanki so that its top rivalled the heavens.” One fragment relates the fall of such a ziggurat in these words: “The building of this temple offended the gods. In a night they threw down what had been built. They scattered them abroad, and made strange their speech. The progress they impeded. (paraphased from the All scriptures inspired). (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etemenanki)
  • - The same Nebuchadnezzar, but king Nebuchadnezzar was only restoring an older temple (called in ancient times E-temen-an-ki). Also a pattern exists in describing the tower as well. - Compare Genesis 11:4; Jeremiah 51:53. (See: the so-called "Tower of Babel" stele: http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/12831/)
  • - Also a text of Skarkalisharri, king of Agade (Accad) in time of the biblical patriarchal era, mentions him restoring a temple-tower at Babylon, implying that such a structure existed prior to his reign. (Bible and Spade, by S. L. Caiger, 1938, p. 29) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shar-Kali-Sharri)
  • - The Ziggurat located at Uruk (the Biblical: Erech) was built with clay, and bricks, as well as asphalt (bitumen).—Compare: Genesis 11:1-9. Clay bricks and bitumen.
  • - Usage of salt: Leviticus 2:13.
  • - Usage of scarecrows. - Jeremiah 10:5.

  • - Chinese characters:
  • - Disclaimer: I am not a Chinese scholar and some if not all associations may be coincidencial.
  • - Ban/prohibit/forbid/inhibit/interdict: () Forest (two trees) () + <...> .
  • - Covetous/greedy/ avarice: () Forest (two trees) () + woman ().
  • - Create: ()? speak + dirt + life + walk.
  • - Demon/Devil/fiend/evil spirit/Satan/daemon:" (惡魔).
  • - Blessing/good fortune/bliss ().
  • - Flood ().
  • - Forbidden: (被禁止) Forest (two trees) () + God.
  • - Garden ().
  • - Garden/park/landscape garden (園林) garden + forest (two trees).
  • - Nude: (裸體) clothing + tree + garden.
  • - Righteous/just/upright/moral () sheep () + hand ().
  • - Ship/boat/vessel () vessel + eight + mouth/people - (1 Peter 3:20)
  • - Tempter: (secret + man + garden + alive) = devil + two trees + over = tempter
  • - Tower: () grass () + mouth.

The Flood vs. An "Ice Age?"


  • - To be honest I am kind of sick of the cliche phrase: "hunter-gathers".
  • - There is perpetuated idea that some almost "20,000" years ago (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice_age) (varies depending on who you ask; secular opinion from my observation seems to roughly range anywhere 70,000-10,000 years) earth had an "ice age." (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice_age#Evidence_for_ice_ages) And there is those perpetuated "ice age" stereotypes as well e.g., that all these peoples were crude "hunter-gathers" forging for food in some cold tundra landscape (generally living in caves) draped in animal fur.


  • - Dates for the "ice age/-s" are based on ice levels? Really?!? This means the dates are conjecture! Think about it: snow drifts, wind blows, ice melts and water freezes. It is an absurd way to date things!
  • - In contrast, according to the Bible most peoples after flood (when the earth's climate ... had become drastically different and cooler, roughly some 4,400 years) (Genesis 2:5, 6) were anything from crude. Maybe some led a 'simple' life but they were not necessary any more crude.


  • - Modern archaeological finds challenges the idea these ancient peoples were crude "hunter-gathers." Mammoths died off much later then originally thought. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woolly_mammoth) And we should asking ourselves are the "experts" fairly accessing their finds? When they find something extremely old which is less elaborate are they the work of the "crude" "hunter-gather" just because?
  • - We should be asking ourselves were these people really just "hunter-gathers" forging around for food and stuff (longer-time frame) or were they migrating (faster-time frame).
  • - Past "ice ages" (or period) - Genesis 1:2?

After The Flood, Domestication And Cultivated Of Plants:

  • - The Bible explains that earliest places of human inhabitant include: Persia (Iran), Armenia and Turkey and plain of Shinar. Some plants that originate from this area and near areas of the middle-East and central Asia include: almonds, apples, apricots, barley, cherries, dates, einkorn wheat, emmer wheat figs, chickpeas, grapes, lentils, melons, pomegranates, olives, quinces and spelt.


  • - List:



  • - Apricots: "The apricot was known in Armenia during ancient times, and has been cultivated there for so long it is often thought to be native there. Its scientific name Prunus armeniaca (Armenian plum) derives from that assumption." - Wikipedia. - (40.119444, 44.723056)
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apricot)






  • - Cherries: "A cultivated cherry is recorded as having been brought to Rome by Lucius Licinius Lucullus from northeastern Anatolia, also known as the Pontus region, in 72 BC." - Wikipedia. (Trabzon, Pontus, Turkey) Cherries: (41° 0′ 0″ N, 39° 44′ 0″ E)
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherries)







  • - Figs: "Nine subfossil figs of a parthenocarpic type ... were found in the early Neolithic village Gilgal I (in the Jordan Valley, 13 km north of Jericho).
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Figs)
  • - Although the fig (Ficus) was the first mentioned in Genesis as being present in the Garden of Eden; the first mention of the what in all probability the domesticated fig (A type of Ficus Carica) was in Numbers 13:23 obtained while spies were sent to gather intel and to scope out the fertile area they named the valley of Eschol (evidently near the north of Hebron).





  • - Melons: "Melons are believed to have originated in the hot valleys of southwest Asia—specifically Iran (Persia) and India." - Wikipedia.
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melon)





  • - Peaches: "Although its botanical name Prunus persica suggests the peach is native to Persia, peaches actually originated in China, where they have been cultivated since the early days of Chinese culture." - Wikipedia. See:
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peaches)








  • - Rye: "Rye is one of a number of species that grow wild in central and eastern Turkey, and adjacent areas. Domesticated rye occurs in small quantities at a number of Neolithic sites in Turkey, such as PPNB Can Hasan III, but is otherwise virtually absent from the archaeological record until the Bronze Age of central Europe, c. 1800-1500 BC." - Wikipedia.
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rye)




  • - Tomatoes: "enetic evidence shows the progenitors of tomatoes were herbaceous green plants with small green fruit and a center of diversity in the highlands of Peru. One species, Solanum lycopersicum, was transported to Mexico, where it was grown and consumed by Mesoamerican civilizations. The exact date of domestication is not known." - Wikipedia.
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomatoes)


  • - Wheat: Turkey.
  • - Referencing: Genesis 30:14; 41:22, 23
  • - (Alluding and possibly alluding to the plant: Genesis 1:11, 12, 29; 14:18; 27:28)

  • - Wheat, Emmer:

"Archaeological analysis of wild emmer indicates that it was first cultivated in the southern Levant with finds at Iraq ed-Dubb in northern Jordan." And "DNA studies on emmer wheat have shown its place of domestication to be near Şanlıurfa (36°51'54.86"N 39° 1'27.03"E), in southeast Turkey." - Wikipedia. Şanlıurfa = Haran, Turkey.


  • - Wheat, Einkorn:

DNA finger printing suggests einkorn was domesticated near Karaca Dağ (37°40'12″N 39°49'48″E) in southeast Turkey" - Wikipedia. Karaca Dağ is about 70 miles away from Haran, Turkey.


  • - Yams: "Sweet potatoes are native to Central America... The sweet potato was also grown before western exploration in Polynesia. Sweet potato has been radiocarbon-dated in the Cook Islands to 1000 AD, and current thinking is that it was brought to central Polynesia around 700 AD, possibly by Polynesians who had traveled to South America and back, and spread across Polynesia to Hawaii and New Zealand from there." - Wikipedia.
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yams)

See Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact: [[6]]


  • - For those interested in Pre-Columbian I recommended look into topics as the domestication of the dog, Opo squash, and the Sweet potato and the development of paper in Mesoamerica.
  • - The opo squash was brought to the Americas from Asia and the Sweet Potato was bought from the Americas (Quechua/Aymara: ku'mara) to Polynesia (Easter island: "ku'mara") and proofs there was contact.

Animals domestication

After The Flood, Legends About Language Change:




  • - Africa:






  • - Americas:



  • - "In common with the mythology of many other civilizations and cultures which tell of a Great Flood, certain Native American tribes tell of a deluge which came over the Earth. After the water subsides, various explanations are given for the new diversity in speech." - Wikipedia.


  • - U.S.A. California The Maidu people.
  • - The Maidu people speak of during “during a funeral ceremony, [all the people] suddenly began speaking in different languages.” - Wikipedia.




  • - Mexico: Maya (South Mexico). Maya mythology, speaks of Votan, the first human, helped build a huge house reaching into the heavens, which turned out to be "the place where God gave every tribe its particular language." - Wikipedia.
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Votan)


  • - Peru/Bolivia: Inca legend... <more to come>
  • - (source: ("The Fables and Rites of the Yncas, by Cristóbal de Molina of Cuzco, quoted in South American Mythology")




  • - Asia, East:






  • - Asia, Middle-East:





  • - Europe:






  • - Austro-Polynesia






  • - Studies of the origin of language



After The Flood, Religion and Astrology:

  • - Astrology is a psuedoscience. Google defines it as: "the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial bodies interpreted as having an influence on human affairs and the natural world."
  • - Some of the ancients believe a different god was believed to rule over each section of the heavens. - Isaiah 47:12-15.
“Astrology is a disease, not a science. . . . It is a tree under the shadow of which all sorts of superstitions thrive.” — Moses Maimonides (1135-1204), Jewish scholar of the Middle Ages.
  • - The Bible is clear the stars are not to be worshiped or venerated. But celestial stars are part the Creator's works, of course not the creator himself. – Genesis 1,2; 15:5; Job 26:7, Psalms 8:1, 3, 4; 115:16 136:9,147:4, Isaiah 40, Jeremiah 31:35-37.
  • - "The first known uses of the pentagram are found in Mesopotamia…" "the five planets Jupiter, Mercury, Mars and Saturn, and Venus as the "Queen of Heaven" (Ishtar)." - Wikipedia. -(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylonian_astrology#Early_origins) - Job 38:32; Deuteronomy 17:2-7, 2 Kings 23:5.
  • - There is scattered evidence to suggest that the oldest known astrological references are copies of texts made in the ancient world. Two, from the Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa (compiled in Babylon around 1700 BCE) are reported to have been made during the reign of king Sargon of Akkad (2334–2279 BCE). - Wikipedia. - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrology#Ancient_world)

Comparing the zodiac in other cultures: <more to come>


The origin of the star of David:

The so-called "star of David" a hexagram and is present on Modern Israeli flag. The hexagram associated with worship of Saturn. - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hexagram), (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_of_david)

“And YOU will certainly carry Sakkuth YOUR king and Kaiwan, YOUR images, the star of YOUR god, whom YOU made for yourselves.” - Amos 5:26 (NWT).

Note the Hebrew poetic device of parallelism.

- A. "Carry Sakkuth (vowels fixed to express digust) your king (your Molech)" or LXX, "the tents (shrine) of Molech" (in harmony with the Greek text of Acts 7). Basically saying they were disgusting tent shrines of Molech.

- B. "Kaiwan, your images, the star of your god."

This name was purposely vocalized in the Hebrew Masoretic text to correspond to shiqquts;, meaning "disgusting thing." The phrase "Sakkuth (the digusting thing) YOUR king (MaLaKHA)" reads "the tent of Mo′loch (MaLaKH)" in Acts 7:43. "The tents" are portable shrines tents. Molech (or Moloch) is the same Grecian Cronus (Kronos) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molech#Classical_Greek_and_Roman_accounts]. Cronus Roman equivalent is Saturn. - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moloch)

"Kaiwan" is evidently the Akkadian star kaimanu or kaiwanu is meant, since this occurs in Akkadian inscriptions as the name of Saturn (a star-god). (Chiun – JPS Tanakh). "Kaiwan" appears as "Repa" or "Repha", one of the names of the Egyptian Saturn (Seb) in the LXX and Rephan in Acts 7:42, 43. - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biblical_names_of_stars)

Molech (the same as Saturn) was a pagan deity in the pagan Canaanite religion. Molech seems to the same of Malcam or Milcom of the Ammonites. The Molech was the deity that pagan sacrificed their children to. There is evidence to show that astrology was closely allied with the worship of Molech. Molech who was sometimes depicted with a bull’s head. The bull was worshiped by the Babylonians, Canaanites, Egyptians. The bull was one of the most important signs of the zodiac: Taurus. The sun-god was often represented by bulls. The horns signifying the sun rays, and the bull’s strong reproductive power, to symbolized the sun’s power as “giver of life.” The female, the cow, was given equal honor as a symbol of Ishtar or Astarte, as she was variously called.

(See: Leviticus 18:21; 20:2-5; Deuteronomy 12:31; 1 Kings 11:5-8, 33, 2 Kings 16:3; 2 Kings 23:10-13; 2 Samuel 12:30 and 1 Chronicles 20:2; 2 Chronicles 28:3; Psalms 106:37, 38; Jeremiah 7:31; 19:4, 5; 32:35) (Molech is referred to in parallel with Baal, suggesting, if not an identification, at least some connection between the two.)

Baal: for example, "Baal of Peor", "Baalzebub." "Beelzebub" also is designation applied to Satan the prince, or ruler, of the demons. Ezekiel 20:26; 23:4, 36-39. Amos 5:26, Acts 7:43. As well pagan Babylonian deity Bel (“Owner; Master”) – Isaiah 46:1, 2; see also: Jeremiah 50:2, 51:44.

This "star" of Molech was a hexagram. The symbol is associated with pentacles, used for pagan worship, calling spirits into human contact. Members of Wicca and New age movements, as well as people who are outright claim to worship Satan the Devil use the pentacles in the rituals adoration. Pentacles are used in the "calling (wicked) spirit into human contact."

It appears later thought some the view of the “star” changed from the symbol occult of summoning spirits, into a magic “star” which controls wicked spirits offering ‘protection.’ This practice of superstition is comparable to worshiping pagan Canaanite deity Baal for protection from wicked spirits.

The Jewish virtual library says (italics mine): "relatively new...symbol... (Israelite worship) permitted no images of Him; (it) was & still is opposed to the acceptance of any symbols." The Jewish Encyclopedia: "sign on amulets." – Deuteronomy 18:9-11, Psalms 58:4, Isaiah 65:11 Usage of these symbols of occult would hurt God. (Genesis 6:6)


About the "Navity" star:

Even according to gospels, written by faithful Christian Jews: a supernatural star appear to the (magi) astrologers, it did not lead them to infant Jesus. Instead this supernatural star lead them to Jerusalem, to murderous king Herod.

Notice these men were pagan easterners. They were likely a religious class of Iranian Zoroastrians astrological priests. These from the distant land of Persia. <...> A demonic star became a symbol of adornment in Christmas. - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jyoti%E1%B9%A3a)

Christmas in turn actually originates of two Roman festivals: Saturnalia and the Birthday of Mithra "dies natalis Solis Invicti." - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturnalia), (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mithra), (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitra), (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dies_Natalis_Solis_Invicti').

Mithra was a Persian deity (Iran) Mitra also appears in Hindusim (India). The Roman Mithra/Mithras, "God of light." Known as Mithras to the Romans.

After The Flood, Religion, "Holidays:

Easter: However one theorizes the origin of the word Easter. It is clear the rabbit and eggs are non-biblical origin.

The symbol of rabbit ("the easter bunny") has no biblical origin and is acknowledged as a fertility symbol. - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Easter_bunny#Origins)


It was his death not his resurrection Jesus told his disciples to commemorate.




  • - December 21-25:



  • - Africa:
  • - Americas:
  • - North:
  • - Central:
  • - South:
  • - Middle East:
  • - Polynesia:
  • - Christmas:"'
  • - Luke 2:8
  • - “Most of the customs now associated with Christmas were not originally Christmas customs but rather were pre-Christian and non-Christian customs taken up by the Christian church. Saturnalia, a Roman feast celebrated in mid-December, provided the model for many of the merrymaking customs of Christmas. From this celebration, for example, were derived the elaborate feasting, the giving of gifts, and the burning of candles.”—The Encyclopedia Americana, 1959 edition, Vol. 6, p. 622.
  • - Saturn = the Greco-Roman Ba'al.

Language confusion at Babel, Myths and Legends Possibly Associated With

  • - < This article is currently under construction, more to come soon, stay tuned >




  • - Africa:



  • - Peoples of Botswana. (sources)
  • - Lozi people of Zambia. (sources)




  • - North America:



  • - North:
  • - Tohono O’odham. - (sources)


  • - Mesoamerica:
  • - Aztecs. - Source: Diego Durán, (Spanish, Dominican friar) (1537–1588). Reports from a priest of Cholula. It should be noted Diego He was fluent in Nahuatl, the Aztec language.
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diego_Durán)





  • - Asia:



  • - (more to come)


  • - (Near/Middle East:)



  • - Mesopotamia: the Epic of the Gilgamesh (sources)
  • - See:
  • - (...)




  • - Europe:






  • - Oceania:



  • - Hao island, Tuamotu Archipelago Polynesia. - (sources:)




  • - Other sources:



  • - The work ofs Flavius Josephus (Jewish historian). Josephus references: Hebrew sources, oral tradition, and also mentions the unnamed Sibyl, and Hestiaeus)
  • - The book of Jubilees, a Pseudepigrapha work.
  • - The Talmud (Chullin 89a, Pesahim 94b, Erubin 53a, Avodah Zarah 53b and later midrash such as Genesis Rabba).
  • - The comments of Plato (Greek philosopher). - (sources needed)
  • - Eusebius reports ... Abydenus (Greek historian). - (sources needed)




  • - Notes:



  • - Something to remember is that the construction of a tower is just one element in the story.
  • - Work with on a case-by-case basis.
  • - One language prior to the language confusion.
  • - A Nimrod. - (Male, King, hunter, warrior)
  • - Construction of a tower.
  • - God angered (Divine cause) to Language confused.
  • - Migration occurs.


Early religion

  • - Common motifs:



Origin of Nations, Japheth:


  • - The descendants of Japheth are usually associated with European and Asiatic locations. The descendants of Japheth could have also been the first inhabitants of the Americas.





  • - 2. Magog:
  • - "Josephus identified the offspring of Magog as the Scythians, a name used in antiquity for peoples north of the Black Sea. According to him, the Greeks called Scythia Magogia (Ant., bk. I, 6). An alternate identification derived from an examination of the order in which tribal names are listed in Ezekiel 38, "would place Magog between Cappadocia and Media." - Wikipedia. - (Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book I, Chapter 6).
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magog_(Bible))
  • - (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scythia)











Origin of Nations, Shem:

The descendants of Shem are usually associated with Middle-eastern a few locations in Asia minor.




  • - 3. Arpachshad:
  • - Flavius Josephus identified with the Chaldeans.
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaldea)
  • - Shelah:
  • - Eber (Son of Shelah):
  • - Peleg (Son of Eber): >> Lot (Moabites, Ammonites), Abraham.


  • - (Through Sarah)
  • - Isaac (son of Abraham):


  • - Israel (son of Isaac). - (Israelites)


  • - (Through Leah)
  • - Reuben.
  • - Simeon.
  • - Levi.
  • - Judah.
  • - Issachar.
  • - Zebulun.
  • - (Dinah was daughter of Leah)


  • - (Through Rachel)
  • - Joseph.
  • - Benjamin.


  • - (Through Bil′hah, Rachel’s maidservant)
  • - Dan.
  • - Naph′ta·li.


  • - (Through Zil′pah, Le′ah’s maidservant)
  • - Gad
  • - Asher.



  • - Reuel: (Son of Esau).
  • - Nahath: (Son of Reuel)
  • - Zerah: (Son of Reuel).
  • - Shammah: (Son of Reuel).
  • - Mizzah: (Son of Reuel).


  • - Jeush: (Son of Esau).
  • - Jalam: (Son of Esau).
  • - Korah: (Son of Esau).




  • - Joktan (Son of Eber):
  • - Almodad (Son of Joktan).
  • - Sheleph (Son of Joktan).
  • - Hazarmaveth (Son of Joktan).
  • - Jerah (Son of Joktan).
  • - Hadoram (Son of Joktan).
  • - Uzal (Son of Joktan).
  • - Diklah (Son of Joktan).
  • - Obal (Son of Joktan).
  • - Abimael (Son of Joktan).
  • - Sheba (Son of Joktan). - (15°28'12.05"N 45°19'22.29"E)
  • - Ophir (Son of Joktan). - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ophir), (Afar people?) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afar_people)
  • - Havilah (Son of Joktan).
  • - Jobab (Son of Joktan).







Origin of Nations, Ham:

  • - The descendants Ham are associated with locations in Africa and the Middle-East.


  • - See:



  • - 1. - Cush: (19°36'2.90"N 30°24'35.12"E)


  • - Seba:


  • - Havilah:


  • - Sabtah:


  • - Raamah: southwest Arabian peninsula


  • - Dedan (Son of Raamah). (Arabia)


  • - Sheba (Son of Raamah).


  • - Sabteca:


  • - Nimrod: (32°32'59.98"N 44°39'0.00"E)


  • - 2. - Mizraim:


  • - Ludim. (Probably the Lydians)


  • - Anamim.


  • - Lehabim. - Possibly Libyians.


  • - Naphtuhim.


  • - Pathrusim.


  • - Casluhim (Philistines)




  • - Caphtorim. - Possibly: Pelusium area in Egypt, and Crete.







  • - Amorite (son of Canaan).


  • - Girgashite (son of Canaan).


  • - Hivite (son of Canaan).


  • - Arkite (son of Canaan).


  • - Sinite (son of Canaan)


  • - Arvadite (son of Canaan).


  • - Zemarite (son of Canaan).


  • - Hamathite (son of Canaan).


  • - * Footnote: However, the devote learned Bible believers already knew for a certainty the Phoenicians were Canaanites.
  • - “And Ca´naan became father to Si´don (Phoenicians) his firstborn and Heth…” – Genesis 10:15, (NWT; brackets mine). A comment made on National geographic special, dealing with gene-project and historical study on the Phoenicians was: “Today's Lebanese, the Phoenicians, and the Canaanites before them are all the same people." – Dr. Spencer Wells. --


2018 B.C.E. - 1843 B.C.E. - Abraham:

  • - Abraham:


  • - Abram was a Chaldean, or in modern terms: an Iraqi. - (Genesis 11:28, 31; 15:7; Nehemiah 9:7; Acts 7:2-4) The name of Abram (Abi-ramu) is a Semitic name and does occurs in ancient Mesopotamia records.
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylonia)


  • - Babel (Babylon).
  • - (32°32.11″N, 44°25.15″E)


  • - The city of Ur (Uruk).
  • - (31°19′20.N 45°38.10″E)


  • - "Ur, in modern-day Iraq, was excavated by Leonard Woolley between 1922 and 1934. Among the buildings he found were some 73 houses built of brick. The rooms of many of these houses were arranged around a paved central courtyard. The courtyard sloped gently toward its center, where a drain eliminated waste water. In the larger houses, guest rooms had their own lavatories. Other rooms on the ground floor included kitchens with fireplaces and slaves’ sleeping quarters. The family lived on the upper level, which was accessed by a staircase. The stairs led to a wooden balcony that ran around the courtyard and permitted access to the doors of the upper rooms. "A house . . . , with its paved court and neatly whitewashed walls, its own system of drainage, . . . of a dozen rooms or more, implies a standard of life of a really high order,” wrote Woolley. "And these are the houses . . . of the middle class, shopkeepers, petty merchants, scribes, and so on."" - Watchtower January 1, 2011 page 19.
  • - The Bible says "he went out of the land of the Chaldeans and took up residence in Haran" (NWT2014) Haran was not in the land of Chaldeans. - (Acts 7:4)


  • - Fun Fact "Oasis of Abraham," nearby Al-Asad, Iraq (33°47′08.19″N 42°26′28.32″E) - An oasis nearby the Al-Asad Airbase which local bedouin tradition says is the oasis in which Abraham visted when he had traveled to Haran. - Genesis...
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al_Asad_Airbase)




  • - Places associated with Abraham's family:



  • - The city of Nahor from where Rebekah from from. - Genesis 24:10 (compare with: Genesis 11:22).
  • - Compare with the Nakhur in the Mari tablets, discovered in 1935 and dated to the eighteenth century B.C.E. The Mari references and Assyrian records of the seventh century B.C.E., where Nahor occurs as Til-Nakhiri ("the Mound of Nahor"), located in the Balikh Valley below Haran. - Genesis...<more to come...>
  • - Terah. - (Til Turakhi, the "Mound of Terah," in Assyrian times). Notes: ... - Genesis



  • - Ishmael settled in the region of Paran - (30° 3'59.78"N 34° 0'52.91"E) - Genesis 21:21


  • - Egyptian Pharaoh Sheshonk I, lists the "Field of Abram" - See: Genesis 23:1-20.


  • - Haran was located on a trade route between such cities as Damascus, Nineveh, and Carchemish. - Genesis...


  • - What language did Abraham speak?
  • - In addition to speaking Hebrew, Abram could have likely spoke Akkadian (Semitic language) and possibly Sumerian. Evidence seems to indicate there was no major dissimilarity between Aramaic and Hebrew at this time. Abraham's grandson Jacob and grandnephew Laban use two different terms in naming the heap of stone. Jacob called it "Galeed" while Laban used the Aramean term: "Jegar-Sahadutha." - (Genesis 31:45)




  • - Critics vs. the Bible.



  • - Wikipedia reads: "It is generally recognized by scholars that there is nothing in the Genesis stories that can be related to the history of Canaan of the early 2nd millennium:"
  • - Who are these 'scholars?' Critics.



  • - Wikipedia reads: 'none of the kings mentioned are known,"
  • - Actually we have some really good candidates



  • - "Arioch" (אַרְיוך) king of Ellasar (אלסך)
  • - Possible candidates:
  • - Eri-aku (...) king of Larsa or Hurrian king Ariukki.


  • - "Chedorlaomer" (כרְלָעֹמֶר or kedarlaɣmer) king of Elam ("Chodollogomor" in the LXX) could be a compound name Lagamar (laɣmar) is an Elamite deity (notice the ע in Hebrew originally had two sounds the ʕ = ay (from the throat) and the ɣ = gh (from the throat). The LXX transliterates in favor of the latter kedar+laɣmer)
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lagamaru)



  • - Although not a lot is known from this time period this does not necessarily translate into did not exist.





  • - Wikipedia reads: "Abimelech could not have been a Philistine (they did not arrive until centuries later)
  • - Really? This seems to prove otherwise.
  • - Little is known about the early history and origins of the Philistines peoples. Certainly not enough to make this comment.
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abimelech) Abimiliki of the Amarna tablets?





  • - Wikipedia reads: "Ur would not become known as "Ur of the Chaldeans" until the early 1st millennium,"
  • - That could be expected as the writer Moses' would be using a vocabulary familiar to him and his audience. This explains passages like... (Genesis 2:14 "Assyria"; Genesis 3:24 "flaming blade of a sword" - NWT)





  • - Wikipedia reads: "and Laban could not have been an Aramean,"
  • - According to the Bible, Laban wasn't a descendant of Aram. Laban just happened to speak Aramaic.





  • - Wikipedia reads: ...the Arameans did not become an identifiable political entity until the 12th century."
  • - Whether the Arameans were or were not an "identifiable political entity" does disprove the account. How many groups throughout history were almost invisible until they rose to power? The main thing it doesn't disprove the Aramean people existed.





  • - Wikipedia reads: "He is not clearly and unambiguously attested in the Bible earlier than the Babylonian exile"
  • - An Egyptian inscription (the one found on the relief at the Karnak temple, depicting Pharaoh Shishak) (25°43′7″N 32°39′27″E) describes "the field of Abram." Some will contend this still doesn't prove Abraham's existence. However, what does challenge is: the idea that it wasn't until the time of Babylonian captivity did the story of Abraham (Abram) come into existence. That assertion rest solely on fallacious belief the Torah was written after the Babylonian exile.
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Karnak_Tempel_19.jpg)





  • - The Israelites descend from Abraham's grandson Jacob (who was later given the name Israel). Some critics though dismiss this as "etiological myths" and usually favor the belief "Israelite culture did not overtake the region, but rather grew out of Canaanite culture." (quote taken from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jew#Origins) However, just consider the record on the name Israel; The Merneptah Stele (circa 13th Century B.C.E) and an even earlier Egyptian inscription (circa the 15th Century B.C.E.) seems to contain some of the earliest known extra-Biblical references to name of "Israel." These ancient inscriptions would thus seemly lend weigh well to Israel's sense of identity from even the earliest times of their existence; casting doubt of the voice of the critics.
  • - See:
  • - (http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/daily/ancient-cultures/ancient-israel/does-the-merneptah-stele-contain-the-first-mention-of-israel/)



  • - The Israelites were divided into tribal clans: Reuben, Simeon, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Ephraim (son of Joseph), Manasseh (son of Joseph), Benjamin, Dan, Asher, Gad, Naphtali, Levi (not counted a member of the 12) adding weight to the fact these were very much so real people. A matter of fact up until 70 C.E. (when the Romans destroyed Jerusalem and the official genealogical records) an Israelite could easily check and verify his linage.
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sextus_Julius_Africanus)
  • - Flavius Josephus' comments (In Against Apion, volume one, 7)
  • - (http://m.ccel.org/ccel/josephus/works/apion-1.htm)

1858 B.C.E. - 1711 B.C.E. The patriarch Jacob

b. 1613 B.C.E. - The Book Of Job:

  • - Before 1613 B.C.E. - circa 1473 B.C.E. (when the book might have been completed)


  • - Job: Hebrew: (אִיוֹב)




Job is described as a didactic poem.

  • - Job Chapter 1
  • - Job Chapter 3
  • - The creature Leviathan (Hebrew: Liwyathan′)
  • - "Its very sneezings flash forth light, And its eyes are like the beams of dawn. Out of its mouth there go lightning flashes, Even sparks of fire make their escape. Out of its nostrils smoke goes forth, Like a furnace set aflame even with rushes. Its soul itself sets coals ablaze, And even a flame goes forth out of its mouth." - Job 41:18-21 NWT.
  • - If this a crocodile is the description intended to be hyperbole?
  • - If really could breath fire what was it? Speculation here: was it caused from methane or another gas? and also included the usage of another mechanism to deliberately ignite: e.g., frication as with the quick grinding of teeth together, chemical: bioluminescene, etc., and electrical.
  • - (Job 3:8; 41; Psalm 74; 104:25, 26; Ezekiel 29:3-5; 32:2; Isaiah 27:1)
  • - An arrow can do damage to a crocodile.
  • - Used in parallelism with ...
  • - What aquatic serpentine-like creature has unbreakable armor and very sharp teeth?
  • - Leviathan is an enigmatic creature.
  • - Job Chapter 4
  • - Job Chapter 5
  • - Job Chapter 6
  • - Job Chapter 7
  • - Job Chapter 8
  • - Job Chapter 9
  • - Job Chapter 10
  • - Job Chapter 11
  • - Job Chapter 12
  • - Job Chapter 13
  • - Job Chapter 14
  • - Job Chapter 15
  • - Job Chapter 16
  • - Job Chapter 17
  • - Job Chapter 18
  • - Job Chapter 19
  • - Job Chapter 20
  • - Job Chapter 21
  • - Job Chapter 22
  • - Job Chapter 23
  • - Job Chapter 24
  • - Job Chapter 25
  • - Job Chapter 26
  • - Job Chapter 27
  • - Job Chapter 28
  • - Job Chapter 29
  • - Job Chapter 30
  • - Job Chapter 31
  • - Job Chapter 32
  • - Job Chapter 33
  • - Job Chapter 34
  • - Job Chapter 35
  • - Job Chapter 36
  • - Job Chapter 37
  • - Job Chapter 38
  • - Job Chapter 39
  • - Job Chapter 40
  • - Job Chapter 41
  • - Job Chapter 42


Israel in Egypt and the Exodus



  • - When did this take place?



  • - 1737 B.C.E. Joseph is appointed vizier (prime minister) over Egypt.
  • - 1730 B.C.E. The foretold famine occur in Egypt and the Middle East
  • - 1723 B.C.E. The end of foretold seven year famine period.
  • - 1593 B.C.E. Moses was born.
  • - 1553 B.C.E. Moses flees to Midian.
  • - 1514 B.C.E. Moses sees the burning bush.
  • - 1513 B.C.E. The ten plagues, Pharaoh's death and the Exodus.




  • - Where did it take place?


























  • - 13th dynasty. - "Egyptian slave list" (Papyrus: Brooklyn 35.1446.) Which is an ancient list containing the names of slaves many are Semitic in origin) slave list dated to the reign of Pharaoh Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep III. - (Problem is his reign is dated by scholars to circa 1755-1751, which is approximately 100 earlier than Joseph's death)


  • - Joseph became Prime Minster/Vizier of Egypt. - (1737 B.C.E.)



  • - Famine Notes: signs of famine might not be obvious at first glance.
  • - These usual indicators of famine would probably not be expected in this particular instance:
  • - Drop in population (settlements and monuments abandoned etc).
  • - A sudden lack of animal bones in an area with the same carbon dating.
  • - A large number of human remains in one area all displaying the symptoms of starvation. (such as pitting in the eye sockets.)


  • - These indicators of a famine may lend support:
  • - Palynology examination of the time period (the study of the type and quantity of ancient pollen in sediments contemporaneous with the period of time)
  • - Geological layers showing a large amount of soil without any plant remains.
  • - Signs of climate deterioration-ie fertile land becoming much dryer or vice-versa, causing a drop in food production.


  • - Jacob/Israel enters Egypt - (1728 B.C.E.)



  • - El-Lahun, an ancient Egyptian site. The site of El-Lahun is dated to believed to occupied during the 13th dynasty (circa "1802 B.C.E to around 1649 B.C.E." Wikipedia) and during the New Kingdom (Circa, "1550-1077 B.C.E")
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El-Lahun#Town_layout)




  • - Moses is born (1593 B.C.E.)


  • - 17th dynasty:
  • - <more to come>


  • - 18th dynasty: (start of the New Kingdom):
  • - The pharaoh of the Exodus begun his reign shortly before 1513 B.C.E.
  • - The pharaoh was involved in construction work.
  • - Connected to two Egyptians "Jannes and Jambres" (Ieneni and Puimre?)
  • - The pharaoh of the Exodus' contemporaries mummies might show signs of plague. (See: Thutmose II)
  • - The pharaoh is predeceased by his firstborn. (Amenmose)
  • - The pharaoh of the Exodus dies at during the spring of 1513 B.C.E.
  • - Possibly no mummy left. (Dr. Hawass' statement in 2007)


  • - Possibly named Thutmoses, based on Josephus' writings.


  • - Thutmose I (Pharaoh) - in my humble opinion is a candidate Pharaoh of the Exodus. ("Reign: were taken from the city of Memphis rather than from Thebes, would date his reign from 1526 B.C.E. to 1513 B.C.E" - Wikipedia.) which is based on "heliacal rising of Sothis." - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thutmose_I), (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thutmose_I#Dates_and_length_of_reign) (Disclaimer: I don't believe Josephus is the most reliable source of the Exodus). Josephus identified a Pharaoh named "Thutmosis" (Thutmose, Toth born) as the Pharaoh of the Exodus. The mummy once thought to be that of Thutmose I under closer examination in 2007, Dr. Zahi Hawass announced was not that of Pharaoh Thutmose I. - (http://archive.archaeology.org/online/features/hatshepsut/)
  • - Baker, D. D. The Encyclopaedia of the Pharaohs (Volume 1), London 2008. Pages 463-467.
  • - Reeves, N. and Wilkinson, R. H. The Complete Valley of the Kings, London 1996. Pages 91-96.
  • - Dodson, A. and Hilton, D. The Complete Royal families of Ancient Egypt, London 2004.











  • - Hazor. The Israelites make entry into land of Canaan at 1473 B.C.E. and a major conquest at 1467 B.C.E. (See: Hazor "burned" and "cultic objects that have been desecrated by the attackers.")



  • - Some critics like to highlight there is little evidence of early Israelite settlements. However, this is to be expected because from the Biblical record the Israelites were nomadic for long time.



  • - 'Egypt:'




  • - The claim: "Egypt has a continuous written history going back to about 3100 B.C.E." - Rationalwiki.org
  • - Biblical chronology points to 2269 B.C.E. at the earliest.




  • - Genesis 12:16 reveals allot insights into how the early Egyptians, which possessed: sheep, cattle, asses, menservants, maidservants, she-asses, camels.




  • - Understanding: Genesis 41:14.
  • - The Egyptian custom and etiquette of being clean shaven (usage of razors). - Genesis 41:14. (Compare with the book: "Everyday Life in Ancient Egypt, by Lionel Casson")


  • - Understanding: Genesis 43:32 ; 46:34:
  • - Dear...
  • - I am not aware of any particular stigma which the Ancient Egyptians attached to shepherds and animal husbandry played a significant role in the Egyptian economy. Sheep were closely associated with gods particularly the ram and Amun but were on occasion sacrificed although the sacrifice of goats was apparently more common. There were certain religious taboos regarding the eating of mutton and the wearing of woolen garments on account of the sacred associations of the sheep.
  • - Yours sincerely
  • - Derek Welsby,
  • - Duty curator.
  • - [Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan.]


  • - Yam-Suf: Reasons why it can be identified with the Red Sea.


  • - 1. The amount of water was sufficient enough to cover Pharaoh’s military forces and was corpses onto shore. – Exodus 14:28-30.


  • - 2. Both the Greek text of Septuagint and the Greek Christian scriptures (Acts 7:26; Hebrew 11:9) uses the term "erythra thalassa" – Compare with the historian Herodotus (5th B.C.E) usage of the same word and the book: A Greek-English Lexicon, by H. G. Liddell and R. Scott, revised.




  • - Time Periods (disclaimer: as divided as commonly divided by a modern scholars):


  • - "Neolithic Period".
  • - "Early Dynastic Period".
  • - "Old Kingdom".
  • - "First Intermediate Period".
  • - "Middle Kingdom".
  • - "Second Intermediate Period".
  • - "New Kingdom".
  • - "Late Period".
  • - "Graeco-Roman Period". (Macedonian Dynasty).
  • - "Zoser's ruler by followed by "Strong centralized government."
  • - "Rapid succession of rulers; country in decline"




  • - Egyptian monarchs mentioned in the bible:



  • - The non-named:





  • - The Pharaoh who tried to take Sarah; Abraham’s wife; and half-sister. - (Genesis 12:15-20)
  • - The Pharaoh promoting Joseph’s rise to authority. - (Genesis 41:39-46).
  • - The Pharaoh (or pharaohs) within the period of great oppression of the Israelites prior to Moses’ return from the land Midian.
  • - The Pharaoh of the Exodus. (in my humble opinion should be a pharaoh that reigned between somewhere the 13-19 dynasty in Egypt; and not have a mummy)
  • - The Pharaoh; father of Bithiah, wife of Mered of the tribe of Judah - (1 Chronicles 4:18)
  • - The Pharaoh who gave asylum to Hadad of Edom in David’s time - (1 Kings 11:18-22)
  • - The father of Solomon’s Egyptian wife - (1 Kings 3:1). ["Siamun may be the pharaoh who gave his daughter in marriage to Solomon"]
  • - The Pharaoh who struck down Gaza during the days of Jeremiah the prophet - (Jeremiah 47:1).




  • - The named:



  • - In Hebrew: שישק Shishaq is commonly identified with Shoshonq I.
  • - Pharaoh Tirhakah, sometimes identified with Pharaoh Taharqa.
  • - Pharaoh So; attempts have been to identified him with Pharaoh Shabaka.
  • - Pharaoh Psamtik I; not mentioned in the Bible. However according an Assyrian inscription was a contemporary to Judean King Manasseh. - [7]
  • - Pharaoh Hophra identified with Pharaoh Apries.
  • - Pharaoh Necho identified with Pharaoh Necho II.




  • - Characters in the bible (1728 B.C.E.-1513 B.C.E.):


  • - Jacob. (There exists a scarab with the inscription of [Y‘qb-HR] probably be reconstructed as in its Semitic form) This is not an attempt to identify him as being the Bible patriarch Jacob. It does on the other hand show an asiatics living in Egypt using this name living in the delta.
  • - Joseph
  • - Potiphera (* - In the Cairo Museum there is a stele, a funeral pillar, procured in 1935, that has on it the name “Putiphar.”—Annales du service des antiquités de l’Égypte, Cairo, 1939, Vol. XXXIX, pp. 273-276. - Insight on the scriptures) This is not an attempt to identify him as the Biblical Potiphera.
  • - Moses.
  • - Aaron.
  • - Miraim.
  • - Jannes and Jambres. (Mentioned in the: 2 Timothy 3:8, 9. Non-Christian sources, such as Numenius, Pliny the Elder, Lucius Apuleius, a Qumran writing, the Targum of Jonathan, and several apocryphal writings all mention one or both of these men.
  • - Pharaoh of the Exodus.


  • - Circa 2269 B.C.E. Mizraim’s descendants migration into and populate the land of Egypt.


  • - 1737 B.C.E. Joseph appointed as the Prime Minister of Egypt by Pharaoh.


  • - 1728 B.C.E. Jacob with his whole family enter Egypt. [Question: Is "Hyksos" a specific people or somewhat of a generic term.]


  • - After 1600 B.C.E. Egypt attains prominence as first world power dominating the Israelites.


  • - 1513 B.C.E. Israelites leave Egypt; deliverance at the Red Sea Egypt’s power shaken. Army lead by Pharaoh



  • - 993 B.C.E. Pharaoh Shishak invades Judah and takes treasures from temple.


  • - In both Israel and Egypt, archaeological inscriptions have confirmed that Shishak indeed conquered Israel.


  • - An inscription records that his son donated about some 200 tons of gold and silver to the temples of Egypt. The inscription does not reveal the source of this wealth.


  • - “Much of it was the gold which Shishak carried away from Solomon’s Temple and palace in Jerusalem.” - Treasures From Bible Times, by the archaeologist Alan Millard.


  • - Yohanan Aharoni (expert on King Solomon)... example given by Aharoni is the evidence of solid city walls built with large stones “cut into oblong, rectangular blocks, fitted together with precision.” In contrast, in countries neighboring Israel, parts of the city walls “were made of brick and wood.”


  • - Furthermore, cities rebuilt at about the time of Solomon give evidence of careful planning, with neat lines of houses and carefully laid-out streets. Aharoni analyzes the ruins of “four towns in Judah built according to the same fundamental plan . . . Beer-sheba, Tell Beit Mirsim, Beth-shemesh, and Mizpah.” How this contrasts with another great center of civilization—the earlier Mesopotamian city of Ur! Respecting it, Sir Leonard Woolley wrote: “There had been no attempt at town-planning . . . The unpaved streets, many of them blind alleys . . . formed a maze in which it would have been easy to lose one’s way.”


  • - Aharoni also comments on the improvement in household utensils about the time of Solomon’s reign. “The change in material culture . . . is discernible not only in luxury items but also especially in ceramics . . . The quality of the pottery and its firing improved beyond all recognition . . . There suddenly appeared a rich repertoire of various types of vessels.”


  • - The most glorious feature of Solomon’s reign was the magnificent temple, the palace, and the government buildings in Jerusalem. A vast quantity of gold was used to decorate these structures. (1 Kings 7:47-51; 10:14-22) Five years after Solomon’s death, Pharaoh Shishak of Egypt came and stripped Jerusalem of its treasure.—1 Kings 14:25, 26.


  • - In both Egypt and Palestine, archaeological inscriptions confirm that Shishak indeed conquered Israel. In fact, many historians acknowledge that Shishak’s plunder of Jerusalem revived a weak Egyptian economy and enabled Shishak to finance the massive enlargement of an Egyptian temple on which he recorded his conquest, as seen on this page. Shishak died soon afterward, and another inscription records that his son donated about 200 tons of gold and silver to the temples of Egypt. The inscription does not reveal the source of this wealth, but archaeologist Alan Millard, in his book Treasures From Bible Times, suggests that “much of it was the gold which Shishak carried away from Solomon’s Temple and palace in Jerusalem.”


  • - 'Even an atheistic source acknowledged the reality of Solomon’s glorious reign.' Bol’shaia Sovetskaia Entsiklopediia (Great Soviet Encyclopedia), under its entry “Solomon,” calls him “ruler of the Israelite-Judean kingdom,” adding that he ruled during “the kingdom’s zenith.”


  • - "The Field of Zoan" - Numbers 13:22; Psalm 78:12, 43.
  • - Goshen. - Genesis 45-47.
  • - On. - (Inu/Heliopolis) Genesis 41:45, 50.
  • - Pithom, storage city - (Pi-Atum?) - Exodus 1:11.
  • - Raamases - Exodus 1:11.
  • - Nile. - Genesis 41.


  • - (Pattern: Locations seem to all be in what is known as Lower Egypt/Northern Egypt)


  • - "Information to help narrow our search on the candidates for the Pharaoh of the Exodus"
  • - Male. - Exodus 5:22.
  • - Likely was resided at Memphis at the time.
  • - In association with two men named: Jannes and Jambres. (2 Timothy 3:8)
  • - His firstborn died before his expedition after the Israelites.
  • - Drown at the Red Sea.
  • - Died during the month of Nisan (Spring time).
  • - Egypt left totally devastated.




  • - Mummies: "Thank you for your e-mail. Although the mummies of these rulers have not been located, information concerning the burials and mummies etc. of Shoshonq I, Taharqo, Shabaqo, Psamtik I, Apries and Necho II (Nekau II) may be found in the following references:
  • - S. Ikhram and A. Dodson 1998. The Mummy in Ancient Egypt. Equipping the Dead for Eternity. London.
  • - K. Kitchen. 1986. The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (110-650BC). Warminster.
  • - D. Dunham. 1950. The royal cemeteries of Kush I. el-Kurru. Boston.
  • - D. Dunham. 1955. The royal cemeteries of Kush II. Nuri. Boston.
  • - A. Dodson and S. Ikhram. 2008. The tomb in Ancient Egypt. London.
  • - Apries is reputed to have been buried at Sais, however his tomb has not been located.
  • - I hope this is of assistance.

Sincerely Julie

  • - Dr Julie Anderson

Assistant Keeper (Curator) Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan The British Museum"




  • - Thutmose I: "His reign is generally dated from 1506 to 1493 BC, but a minority of scholars, who feel that astrological observations used to calculate the timeline of ancient Egyptian records and thus the reign of Thutmose I, were taken from the city of Memphis rather than from Thebes, would date his reign from 1526 BC to 1513 BC" - Wikipedia. - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thutmose_I#See_also), "his eldest son Amenmose died of unknown causes shortly before his own death in 1513." (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amenmose_(prince))







  • - Genesis 37:28 - Price of a slave. - [8]
  • - Genesis 37:36 - Asenath (Ns-Nt, New Kingdom ) - [9]
  • - Genesis 39:4 - "Over the house." - [10]
  • - Genesis 39:20 - Prison.
  • - Genesis 41:14 - Shaving. - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Head_shaving)
  • - Genesis 41:18-21 - Possible association to Hathor. - [11]
  • - Also see: The Famine Stela: Location Sehel (24.05, 32.866667) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Famine_Stela)
  • - Genesis 41:42 - Ring, fine linen, gold collar given to Joseph. - [12], [13]
  • - Genesis 50:2 - Jacob embalmed. - [14]
  • - Exodus 1:22 - The king simply referred to by the title Pharaoh.

- [15] "Seventy days" [16]

  • - Exodus 1:1 - Mitzrayim (It is theoretical signified: Two Egypts, upper and lower. However this is conjecture.)- [17], (http://www.ancient-hebrew.org/emagazine/011.html)
  • - Exodus 3:18 - Time off for worship (See: Louvre Leather Roll 1274). - [18]
  • - Exodus 5:11 - Mixing straw with the clay for bricks. - See: "Louvre leather scroll 1274" (during the 5th year of reign of Rameses II) and the tomb of Rekhmire (18th dynasty Egypt) - [19]





  • - Egyptian words:



  • - Aseneth - (Genesis 41:45, 50-52; 46:20) - (See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neith)
  • - Goshen? - (Genesis 45:10; 46:28, 29; 47:27; Exodus 8:22; 9:26)
  • - On: Egyptian: Iunu or Āwanu Hebrew: Ôn (אן) or Āwen (און) - (Genesis 41:45, 50)
  • - Pharaoh - (Genesis 12:15)
  • - Pithom (meaning: "House/Temple] of Atum" in Egyptian) - (Exodus 1:1)
  • - Potiphera - (Genesis 41:45, 50; 46:20)
  • - Raamses (meaning: ""Born of the Ra" in Egyptian ) - (Exodus 1:1)
  • - Reeds - (Hebrew: suf. Egyptain: Twf).
  • - Moses? - (Hebrew: mosheh "drawn out," Egyptian: mose "born").
  • - It is uncertain Moses may be an Egyptian name. Not yet fully determined whether the name Moses was Egyptian or Hebrew in origin, or if chosen on purpose, having meaning in both languages. Moses - Moshe seems to probably derived from a Hebrew verb (Masheh): "to draw." Mose also was name in Egyptian meaning: "born" usually used as a suffix. - E.g., Kamose (bull born) Ahmose (Iah Born) and Thutmose (Thoth borned). A name commonly appearing in the 18th Dynasty.





  • - Critics


Egyptian record keeping: Some critics have used an argument of silence. Look at what happened to the records of Queen Hatshepsut. We have to ask ourselves too, of what benefit would for Egyptians to have keep those records? (Exodus 1:10; 14:5) Fear and pride controlled much of ancient Egyptian record keeping.


  • - There are records that very well could be support the Israelites in Egypt and there Exodus out of Egypt. We don't know exactly what we have. The archaeological record is fragmentary and most of it is open to interpretation and debate. This user notes that each ruler was different. Although losses were occasionally mentioned they seem to exception not the norm. Case in point: The records of Pharaoh Queen Hatshepsut and Pharaoh Akhenaten.


Edom: Critics claim "Edom was not yet a nation." "The place the Hebrews stop at wasn't even built until 800 B.C.E." However, "a letter from an Egyptian scribe at a border fortress in the Wadi Tumilat during the reign of Merneptah reports movement of nomadic "shasu-tribes of Edom ('ydwma' or (Aduma')" to watering holes in Egyptian territory." - Wikipedia. - (Wikipedia dates his reign to 1213-1203 B.C.E.)


The Israelite were not Canaanites! The Bible and written historical records and as the Israelite's own oral tradition clearly state they were not descandants of the Canaanites. The Merneptah ("Israel") stele seems to lend weight to this. "Israel" is not given the determinaive glyphs for a city/place. Instead the stele give "Israel" the determinaive glyphs identifying Israel as then foreign (possibly implying a nodamic) people. It does add up if the Israelites were the supposed Canaanites city dwellers who overthrowed their local leadership.


Ancient Near Eastern countries were for noted their pride inspiring propaganda. They frequency boosted about their accomplishments and did virtually everything possible to hide embarrassment. The question arises: why would the Israelites (an ancient near east people) identify themselves a nation who as the descended from from slaves?


The Exodus out of Egypt was accepted as a real historical event by the early Bible believing Christians: The book of Exodus, 1 Samuel 2:27; Psalms 78:12; 80; 81; Nehemiah 9:9-21 and Acts 7:8-42; Romans 9:15-17; Hebrews 11:22-29.

"The Ten Plagues"



























  • - The were approximately 2-3 million people, approximately 600,000 adult males, and with assuming an approximate 600,000 females, plus young children of various ages (some would have to have been carried).

The Exodus, The Biblical Mount Sinai:



  • - Exodus 3:1-15, NWT, “And Moses became a shepherd of the flock of Jeth´ro, the priest of Mid´i•an, whose son-in-law he was. While he was driving the flock to the west side of the wilderness, he came at length to the mountain of the [true] God, to Ho´reb.”
  • - shepherd(ing) flock.
  • - “...west side of the wilderness.”


  • - Exodus 18:1 “Now Jeth′ro the priest of Mid′i·an, Moses’ father-in-law, got to hear about all that God had done for Moses and for Israel his people, how Jehovah had brought Israel out of Egypt.” - (New World Translation)


  • - Exodus 18:5-7


  • - “So Jeth′ro, Moses’ father-in-law, and his sons and his wife came to Moses into the wilderness where he was camping, at the mountain of the [true] God. 6 Then he sent word to Moses: “I, your father-in-law, Jeth′ro, am come to you, and also your wife and her two sons with her.” 7 At once Moses went on out to meet his father-in-law, and he proceeded to prostrate himself and to kiss him; and they each one began asking how the other was getting along. After that they went into the tent.”

- (New World Translation)



  • - Exodus 18:27
  • - “After that Moses saw his father-in-law off, and he went his way to his land."


  • - Exodus 33:


  • - Numbers 10:29-31: “Then Moses said to Ho′bab the son of Reu′el the Mid′i·an·ite, the father-in-law of Moses: “We are pulling away for the place about which Jehovah said, ‘I shall give it to YOU.’ Do come with us, and we shall certainly do good to you, because Jehovah has spoken good concerning Israel.” 30 But he said to him: “I shall not go along, but I shall go to my own country and to my relatives.” 31 At this he said: “Please, do not leave us, because, for the reason that you well know where we may encamp in the wilderness, you must serve as eyes for us.”


  • - Deuteronomy.


  • - 1 Kings 19, I will quote in part, “Consequently he rose up and began to go for his soul and came to Be´er-she´ba, which belongs to Judah. Then he left his attendant behind there. And he himself went into the wilderness a day’s journey,...he rose up and ate and drank, and he kept going in the power of that nourishment for forty days and forty nights as far as the mountain of the [true] God, Ho´reb... There he finally entered into a cave...”

  • - In Be´er-she´ba, in Judah.

  • - Went into the wilderness a day’s journey.

  • - for forty days and nights as far as the: Mount Ho´reb.

  • - First Century Jewish Historian (Yosef Ben Matithyahu) Flavius Josephus said: "Moses went up to a mountain that lay between Egypt and Arabia, which was called Sinai..."


  • - Psalms 105:41.

  • - In the wilderness of Sinai.


  • - Galatians 4:25, “this Ha´gar means Si´nai, a mountain in Arabia,” Note that Arabia in this context, can refer to a broader place; extending outside the Arabian peninsula.

  • - Date of the Exodus - According to biblical chronology: 1513 B.C.E. A point of evidence providing a sound basis for this the Solomon's reign.

  • - "Chronological statements harmonize with and substantiate this viewpoint. Solomon began the building of the temple in his fourth year of kingship (1034 B.C.E.), and this is stated at 1 Kings 6:1 to be “the four hundred and eightieth year” from the time of the Exodus (1513 B.C.E.)." - Insight on the scriptures, volume one.

  • - "The 400-year period of affliction thus ran from 1913 B.C.E. until 1513 B.C.E." - Insight on the scriptures, volume one.

  • - "But in June 1990, in the ruins of the ancient port city of Ashkelon, Israel, a team of archaeologists unearthed a 5-inch-long [12.5 cm] calf made of bronze, copper, and possibly lead and silver. The bronze was apparently burnished to shine like gold. Lawrence Stager, the director of the team, feels that the calf dates back to 1550 B.C.E., before the Israelites conquered Canaan" <source>

  • - Points to consider:
  • - It was across (Ease) from the Red Sea (gulf of Suez)
  • - It outside (or West) of Midian (the gulf of aqaba). - (Exodus 3:1-15, 18:1,5-7, 27; 33)
  • - It was a high mountain: (Exodus 19:16-24:4; 24:17; 32:1, 7-18, 19, Deuteronomy 9:17) and Flavius Josephus.
  • - It was a day's journey for the Israelites from Sinai to Kadesh Barnea. - (Deuteronomy 1:2) Note this description does not mention the means of transportation (logical it was on foot)
  • - It was a day's journey away from Beer-Sheba to Sinai for Elijah. - (1 Kings 19)
  • - 10-15 kilometer per day for Israelites walking during the Exodus.
  • - 32-48 Kilometers. If Elijah walked the whole way.

The Exodus, "The Land Of Milk And Honey":


  • - Hebrew phrases:
  • - No′pheth: flowing honey, or comb honey.
  • - Devash′: may refer bee honey and also fruit syrup.

After The Exodus, "The Ark Of The Covenant:"

  • - Historically speaking, many groups of people have attempted to legimatized themselves by means try to link themselves to the ark of the covenant.
  • - Gold does not tarish or corroad.

1513 B.C.E. - After The Exodus: The Mosiac Law:

  • - Introduction:

Before we discuss the Mosiac law a few things should be noted: there were no jails or prisons like there are today in the Levant in ancient times. The were forts, which were sparse and very expensive to build these were used to protect a few large cities and their water supplies in weak spots from oncoming invaders. Second the Mosaic law was just a temporary system, and in was some ways extreme in a way to emphasize sin and the need of a redeemer, and was exclusive to God's chosen people at the time who were contracted in this covenant. - (Jeremiah 31:31-34; Matthew 9:17; 19:8; Galatians 3:13; Colossians 2:14)


  • - Animal Treatment:
  • - (Deuteronomy 22:4, 10).


  • - Circumcision: "eighth day" (see: Vitamin K and prothrombin)
  • - (Genesis 21:4).


  • - Compensation:
  • - (Leviticus 6:1-7; Exodus 22:1-12).


  • - Health code: unclean period after touching dead bodies.
  • - Numbers 19:11-22; Leviticus 11:24, 25, 35-38
  • - “For instance, laws requiring the burying of human waste, the quarantining of the sick, and the washing of anyone who touched a dead body were many centuries ahead of the times.​—Leviticus 13:4-8; Numbers 19:11-13, 17-19; Deuteronomy 23:13, 14.”


  • - Evidence-based convictions: Cases needed more than one witness to have a conviction, two or three witnesses to establish a conviction (Deuteronomy 19:15) and judges were commanded to "thoroughly investigate" (Deuteronomy 19:18)


  • - Gleaning (a welfare provision): prevented poverty
  • - (Leviticus 19; Deuteronomy 23:24, 25; 24:21, 22).


  • - Jubilees: prevented poverty and balanced the economy
  • - (Leviticus 25).


  • - Morality: 1) the law did not allow men to sex with women they were not married too and this included captive women who were already married. 2) they could not marry/have sex with their: mothers, step-mothers, aunts, sisters, half-sisters, step-sisters, daughters, step-daughters, daughter-in-laws, daughters of daughter-in-laws, granddaughters, step-granddaughters, sister-in-laws (if the brother was still alive), the sisters of their wives while they were alive, etc (Leviticus 18). This system prevented women from being exploited and sexually abused.
  • - (Leviticus 18).


  • - Prostitution was illegal.
  • - Children, men and women were not to be exploited for sexual/molested purposes. No tolerance in the law for sex abuse and exploitation.
  • - (Deuteronomy 23:17, 18).


  • - Rich vs. Poor:
  • - (Exodus 23:6).


  • - Warfare: announced "terms of peace" beforehand, making guerrilla warfare forbidden (Deuteronomy 20:10-15) no army of child soldiers (Numbers 1:2, 3) no forced conscription (Deuteronomy 20:5-8) had to respect the environment and food supplies from trees (Deuteronomy 20:19, 20)


  • - Workers rights:
  • - (Deuteronomy 23:15, 16).

Exodus till the time period of Joshua


  • - King Og - (Deuteronomy 1:4; 3:1-13; 4:47; 20:7; 3:4; Numbers 21:33; Joshua 2:10; 9:10; 12:4; 13:12, 30, 31; Psalms 135:11; 136:20; 1 Kings 4:19; Nehemiah 9:22)
  • - An inscription mentioning a person named Og, saying that: "the mighty Og will avenge me."
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Og#Og_in_non-Biblical_inscriptions)
  • - A dolmen: "1918, Gustav Dalman discovered in the neighborhood of Amman Jordan (Amman is built on the ancient city of Rabbah of Ammon) a noteworthy dolmen which matched the approximate dimensions of Og's bed as described in the Bible." - Wikipedia, under Og - Location: Amman, Jordan.
  • - (http://www.doa.jo)





Canaanite religion

  • - The Canaanite religion:
  • - The Canaanite religion was a very dark and Satanic religion which included: rituals of human sacrifice, black magic, sex rites, bodily mortification.






  • - Dagon. - (Judges 16:23; 1 Samuel 5:1-8; 1 Chronicles 10:10)
  • - Check out:







  • - The Canaanites performed rituals of humans sacrifice. - (Leviticus 18:21; 20:2; Deuteronomy 12:31; 18:10; 2 Kings 16:3; 17:17; 21:6 (King Manasseh); 21:10; 2 Chronicles 33:6; Psalm 106:37; Isaiah 57:5; Ezekiel 16:20, 21; 20:26; 31; Jeremiah 7:31; 19:5; 32:35).


  • - Bible Writers who referenced it include:


  • - Ezra, the Scribe: ‘Ezra-Has•sofer (writing of the second book of Chronicles was completed at 460 B.C.E.). - 2 Chronicles 33:6
  • - Ezekiel, the prophet: Yehezqel-Han•navi ben Buzi-Hak•kohen (613 B.C.E. - 591 B.C.E.). - Ezekiel 16:20, 21; 20:26; 31
  • - Isaiah: Yesh‘ayahu-Han•navi ben 'Amos. - (778 B.C.E. - after 732 B.C.E.). - Isaiah 57:5
  • - Jeremiah: Yirmĭyahu-Han•navi ben Chilqiyah-Hak•kohen - (647 B.C.E-580 B.C.E.) - Jeremiah 7:31; 19:5; 32:35 (possibly: 2 Kings 16:3; 17:17; 21:6)
  • - Moses: Mōshéh ben ‘Amrām-Hal•lēwi - Leviticus 18:21; 20:2; Deuteronomy 12:31; 18:10 - (1512 B.C.E.)
  • - Unidentified Psalmist: the writer who recorded the 106th Psalm. - (the book of Psalms was completed circa 460 B.C.E). - Psalm 106:37


  • - Later Sources:




  • - Flavius Josephus: (37 C.E. – circa 100 C.E.) (regarding King Jotham, etc.,)






We have Biblical sources (spanning from: 1512 B.C.E. to 460 B.C.E.) and non-Biblical sources (spanning from the 2nd century B.C.E to the 3rd Century C.E.) testifying to the fact members of the Canaanite religion did indeed sacrifice children. We have archaeological sites; although in the past these sites were somewhat controversial, are now recognized by many as "tophet" sites (burial sites for the remains of ritually sacrificed children).


Wikipedia also makes mentions to: "A temple at Amman (1400–1250 BC) excavated and reported upon by J.B. Hennessy in 1966, shows possibility of animal and human sacrifice by fire." And as shocking child sacrifice is the ancient Near East was not place rituals of human sacrifices were performed.


The Bible repeatedly documents the reality of this practice. For one, the law code itself forbid anyone from engaging in this practice. Secondly, it not only documented the neighboring nations engaging in this practice; the Biblical account reported certain Israelites, even kings of line of David, as having engaged in this practice.


It is note-worthy because the Bible is a candor book. It is hard to imagine they would make up this about their own kings who were to provide the very lineage to the foretold Messiah.



King David:

  • - Birth: 1107 B.C.E.
  • - King of Judah: 1077 B.C.E
  • - King of Israel: 1070 B.C.E.
  • - Death: 1037 B.C.E.
  • - After 1107 B.C.E. - circa 1078 B.C.E.:
"David took the harp and played with his hand; and there was relief for Saul and it was well with him, and the bad spirit departed from upon him." 1 Samuel 16:23b (NWT)

  • - David's Kinnor:
  • - The Kinnor is an ancient instrument mentioned in the Bible. And the Kinnor is often translated "harp" or "lyre" into English. - See: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinnor)
  • - It has been suggested it was possibly bound together with bitumen. - (See: "Noah's ark", and "Moses").
  • - Evidence seems to show it had a sound box, sound board, sound holes, two arms, a crossbar, a bridge, and strings probably made from gut and or vegetable fibers. - Sources: (http://www.rakkav.com/biblemusic/pages/instruments.htm)
  • - The Bible shows the even in antiquity the value placed on tonewood. - (e.g., Algum and Juniper) - (...)
  • - The Kinnor was probably similar to the Greek Kithara. "In about half of the 42 occurrences of kinnor in the Bible, the translators of the Septuagint rendered it by the Greek kithara." - (Insight on the scriptures, under harp, published by Jehovah's Witnesses). Greek: Kithara > Latin: Cithara > Andalusian Arabic: Qitara > Spanish: Guitarra, French: Guitare, and the German: Gitarre > English: Guitar.
  • - 1 Samuel 16:23

"...here the champion, his name being Goliath the Philistine from Gath, was coming up from the battle lines of the Philistines, and he began speaking the same words as before, and David got to listen in." 1 Samuel 17:23b (NWT)


  • - How tall was Goliath?
  • - Older manuscript answer:
  • - The Septuagint (LXX), and the only hebrew Dead Sea Scroll containing the text, as well (Levite) historian Flavius Josephus state: "4 cubits and a span."
  • - Using the shorter cubit: 6.55 feet tall (comparable to Michael Jordan who is 6.6ft)
  • - Using a longer cubit: 7.7 feet tall (comparable to Yao Ming who is 7.6ft)
  • - An average between the two would be: 7.1 feet tall.
  • - Mainstream MSS answer:
  • - Most Masoretic text (MSS) read: 6 cubits and a span.
  • - Using shorter cubit 9.47 vs. longer cubit: 11.3ft. (average between the two: 10.3)
  • - Tallest American on record Robert Wadlow was 8.11 (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Wadlow)



  • - The Bible also mentions a member of the tribe of the Rephaim had six toes and six feet.
  • - Polydactyly is a deformity causing extra digits. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polydactyly) Interesting in the cemetery Deir el-Balah (near Gaza) a coffin is depicts the man has having six digits on each hand.

  • - Some critics claim that account of Goliath borrowed from Greek culture.
  • - However this assertion really should not be surprising. In fact the Philistines (descendants of Mizr(aim) son's Casluh(im) seemed to have came from Crete (in the Aegean sea area) to the land of Canaan and strong Aegean cultural and trade connections. - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philistines#Extrabiblical_inscriptions)

  • - Circa 1078 B.C.E.: 1 Samuel 13-14
  • - See: the Romance of the Last Crusade, by Major Vivian Gilbert. Records the event when British troops successfully copied the tactics of Saul and Jonathan. This testifies to the Bible's accuracy especially in regard to Biblical geography.








  • - The Bible records David as a real person. - (...)

1037 B.C.E. - 997 B.C.E. - King Solomon:

  • - Information on the period of Solomon's


  • - "Kings of Controversy - Was the Kingdom of David and Solomon a glorious empire—or just a little cow town? It depends on which archaeologist you ask." - Robert Draper, National Geographic.






"the king cast them in the clay mold, between Suc′coth and Zar′e·than." 1 Kings 7:46b (NWT)


  • - "The clay available in the Jordan Valley contributed toward the feasibility of such copper-casting operations in this area." "Insight on the Scriptures" published by Jehovah's Witnesses.


  • - "Archaeologists digging on the site of ancient Succoth have unearthed evidence of smelting activities there." - "All Scripture Is Inspired of God and Beneficial" published by Jehovah's Witnesses.
  • - See: The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Vol. 4, 1988, edited by G. W. Bromiley, page 648. - 1 Kings 7:46.



"...King Solomon levied to build the house of Jehovah and his own house and the Mound and the wall of Jerusalem and Hazor and Megiddo and Gezer." 1 Kings 9:15b (NWT)


  • - Walls: One example given by Aharoni is the evidence of solid city walls built with large stones “cut into oblong, rectangular blocks, fitted together with precision.” In contrast, in countries neighboring Israel, parts of the city walls “were made of brick and wood.” Furthermore, cities rebuilt at about the time of Solomon give evidence of careful planning, with neat lines of houses and carefully laid-out streets. - (1 Kings 9:15). - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yohanan_Aharoni)



Aharoni analyzes the ruins of “four towns in Judah built according to the same fundamental plan . . . Beer-sheba, Tell Beit Mirsim, Beth-shemesh, and Mizpah.” How this contrasts with another great center of civilization—the earlier Mesopotamian city of Ur! Respecting it, Sir Leonard Woolley wrote: “There had been no attempt at town-planning . . . The unpaved streets, many of them blind alleys . . . formed a maze in which it would have been easy to lose one’s way.”



"Finally she arrived at Jerusalem with a very impressive train, camels carrying balsam oil and very much gold and precious stones; and she came on in to Solomon..." "Then she gave the king a hundred and twenty talents of gold and a very great deal of balsam oil and precious stones. There never came anymore the like of that balsam oil for quantity such as the queen of Sheba gave to King Solomon." 1 Kings 10:2,10 (NWT)




  • - Foreign Trade: with Sheba: It has documented the there was trade with Sheba.


Also it has verified the Sheba had a source of gold in the high Gheralta plateau in what is modern-day northern Ethiopia. - (See: Psalms 72:14; Isaiah 60:6).


Sabaeans Gold mines in Ethiopia.



"And they proceeded to go to O′phir and take from there four hundred and twenty talents of gold and bring it in to King Solomon." 1 Kings 9:28 (NWT)


  • - Gold of Ophir for Beth-Horon - ז] הב אפר לבית חרן] discovered inscribed on a Hebrew ostracon the excavations at Tell Qasile.
  • - See:
  • - (http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0015_0_15122.html')
  • - Egyptologist Kenneth A. Kitchen writes: "Ophir itself is no myth. A Hebrew ostracon [or, earthenware fragment] of perhaps the eighth century [B.C.E.] is clearly inscribed with the brief note of account: ‘Gold of Ophir for Beth-Horon—30 shekels."



"the king proceeded to make out of the timbers of the algum trees supports for the house of Jehovah and for the house of the king, and also harps and stringed instruments for the singers." 1 Kings 10:11 (NWT)


  • - Algum Wood
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algum)
  • - Mentioned in Bible: 2 Chronicles 2:8; 9:10, 11; 1 Kings 10:11, 12.
  • - A source, Flavius Josephus, time period: first century: (Jewish Antiquities, VIII, 177 [vii, 1])
  • - "It is traditionally suggested to be the red sandalwood (Pterocarpus santalinus) now found in India and Ceylon, although some favor the white sandalwood (Santalum album)." - Insight on the scriptures, volume one, under ALGUM.
  • - White sandalwood: Sanskrit: valgu, valgum. (See Sanskrit)
  • - Usage: Timbers, steps, and musical instruments.
  • - See:
  • - Tonewood
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonewood).



"...ships of Tarshish would come carrying gold and silver, ivory, and apes and peacocks." 1 Kings 10:22b (NWT)


  • - Foreign Trade: Phoenicia and King Hirman



"Hiram is also mentioned in the writings of Menander of Ephesus, as preserved in Josephus’s Against Apion, where some additional information is given that is not found in the Bible. One such item is that Hiram lived 53 years, and reigned 34." - Wikipedia. Hiram worshipped Melqart and Astarte.


Tarshish:

Evidence indicates Tarshish was likely in what is now Modern-day southern Spain. 'The Phoenicians arrived in Andalusia for the first time in the 12th century B.C.E. and the first city founded here was Cádiz. Gadir, Europes oldest city. There are many other cities founded and others where the Phoenicians settled in, like Sexi (now Almuñécar, in Granada), Abdera (now Adra), and Malaka (now in the city of Málaga).


We can tell you that it can't be possible to say that the Tarshish named in the Holy Bible. Archeologists are studying now in the provinces of Huelva, Cádiz and Seville as Tartessos. We are all ready know that the kingdom of Tartessos was located in one of these three provinces, but we can't sure of the right site. Tartessos was not a Phoenician settlement, with a very rich territory (gold and other minerals) for the Phoenician.' - Portal de Museos de Andalucía.




  • - Foreign Trade: Word origins: The Hebrew names (Plural: tuk·ki·yim′; singular: tuki) is to be connected with the Old Tamil name for the peacock, (tokei).
  • - See: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Peafowl#Taxonomy_and_naming) - 1 Kings 10:22; 2 Chronicles 9:21. The Hebrew word qohph (Q-H-P) may be related to the Sanskrit word kapi for an ape or a monkey. Information on Phoenician ships.
  • - See:

(http://phoenicia.org/ships.html).


  • - "Josephus, citing Tyrian court records and Menander in Against Apion, gives a specific year during which Hiram I of Tyre sent materials to Solomon for the construction of the temple." - Wikipedia.
  • - கபி - (Kapi) Ape
  • - தோகை - (Tokei) Peacock
  • - Cinnamon was imported from South-East Asia (what is now Sri Lanka and possibly Southern India) and was used in preparation of Ketoret, the priestly incense of the temple. Cinnamon was also used as in perfumery and spice. Archaeologists had discovered cinnamon stored in Phoencian flasks, dating to 3,000 years ago (which brings us to the tenth century)
  • - See:
  • - (http://news.yahoo.com/evidence-3-000-old-cinnamon-trade-found-israel-115732419.html)


  • - Quality of household items: Aharoni also comments on the improvement in household utensils about the time of Solomon’s reign. In his book The Archaeology of the Land of Israel, Professor Yohanan Aharoni states: "The wealth that flowed into the royal court from all directions, and the flourishing commerce . . . brought about a rapid and noticeable revolution in every aspect of material culture. . . . The change in material culture . . . is discernible not only in luxury items but also especially in ceramics. . . . The quality of the pottery and its firing improved beyond all recognition." Jerry M. Landay wrote in book entitled The House of David: "Under Solomon, Israelite material culture advanced more in three decades than it had during the preceding two hundred years. We find in Solomonic strata the remains of monumental constructions, great cities with massive walls, the mushrooming of residential quarters with well-built clusters of the dwellings of the well-to-do, a quantum jump in the technical proficiency of the potter and his manufacturing processes. We find, too, the remains of artefacts representing goods made in far-off places, signs of vigorous international commerce and trade."











  • - The temple in Jerusalem






  • - "Golden age" and the age of Gold



  • - "The most glorious feature of Solomon’s reign was the magnificent temple, the palace, and the government buildings in Jerusalem. A vast quantity of gold was used to decorate these structures. - (1 Kings 7:47-51; 9;14, 28; 10:14-22) Five years after Solomon’s death, Pharaoh Shishak of Egypt came and stripped Jerusalem of its treasure. — 1 Kings 14:25, 26. In both Egypt and Palestine, archaeological inscriptions confirm that Shishak indeed conquered Israel. In fact, many historians acknowledge that Shishak’s plunder of Jerusalem revived a weak Egyptian economy and enabled Shishak to finance the massive enlargement of an Egyptian temple on which he recorded his conquest, as seen on this page. Shishak died soon afterward, and another inscription records that his son donated about 200 tons of gold and silver to the temples of Egypt. The inscription does not reveal the source of this wealth, but archaeologist Alan Millard, in his book Treasures From Bible Times, suggests that “much of it was the gold which Shishak carried away from Solomon’s Temple and palace in Jerusalem." - See: The Bubastis portal.
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bubastis_portal),




  • - Biblical Archaeology Review says:

  • - "King Thutmose III of Egypt (second millennium B.C.E.) presented approximately 13.5 tons of gold items to the temple of Amon-Ra at Karnak—and this was just part of the gift."
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thutmose_III)


  • - "Egyptian inscriptions record gifts totaling approximately 383 tons of gold and silver offered by King Osorkon I (early first millennium B.C.E.) to the gods." (Notation: Osorkon is the son of Shoshenq I)
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osorkon_I)


  • - Furthermore, the volume Classical Greece of the series Great Ages of Man reports: The mines of Pangaeum in Thrace yielded more than 37 tons of gold each year for King Philip II (359-336 B.C.E.).


  • - When Philip’s son Alexander the Great (336-323 B.C.E.) captured Susa, the capital of the Persian empire, treasures amounting to well over 1,000 tons of gold were found.—The New Encyclopædia Britannica.




  • - Biblical Archaeology Review notes that Amenophis III of Egypt "honored the great god Amun with a temple at Thebes that was ‘plated with gold throughout, its floor adorned with silver, [and] all its portals with electrum"—an alloy of gold and silver. Furthermore, Esar-haddon of Assyria (seventh century B.C.E.) plated the doors and coated the walls of the shrine of Ashur with gold. Regarding the temple of Sin at Harran, Nabonidus of Babylon (sixth century B.C.E.) recorded: “I clad its walls with gold and silver, and made them shine like the sun.” "Thus, the historical records suggest that the Biblical account of King Solomon’s wealth is not exaggerated."


  • - Song of Solomon - circa 1020 B.C.E. ("perhaps this was about 1020 B.C.E., some years after the temple had been completed" - All Scriptures are Beneficial book, published by Jehovah's Witnesses)







  • - Spikenard (נרדי) (identidied as: Nardostachys jatamansi) - (Song of Solomon 1:12; 4:13, 14), (Mark 14:3-9; John 12:3-8; Matthew 20:2).
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spikenard)














  • - Before 1000 B.C.E Ecclesiastes is written.
  • - * - The dome of the rock may be on top the site of the Ashtoreth temple ("high place"), according Tuvia Sagiv. - 1 Kings 11:5, 33 compared with

2 King 23:13. - (http://www.templemount.org/domebase.html)

  • - 998 B.C.E Solomon dies.
  • - Why haven't inscriptions with Solomon's name being mention been found yet? One reason could be most written records at time were commonly kept on papyrus. Papyrus documents do not last very long in humid climate of the Levent.

  • - Assyria:
  • - "The success of such expansion was, of course, due primarily to God’s backing and hence not dependent on Assyrian weakness." - Insight on the scriptures.
  • - See: Ashurnasirpal I (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashur-nasir-pal_I)

  • - Flavius Josephus speaks dealings between King Solomon and the King Hiram (Josephus’s Against Apion). (Josephus uses Menander of Ephesus as source material). - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menander_of_Ephesus)
  • - The Samaritan peoples speak of King Solomon as a real person. The Samaritans split away from Judeans centuries before the Jewish exile in Babylonia.


  • - Summary and conclusion: There is strong archaeological evidence to indicate his father King David existed and evidence to support the existence of his son Rehoboam and there is definite archaeological evidence that his Great-Great-Great-grandson (G3-grandson) Jehoram existed. This just adds weight to case of King Solomon's existence. The evidence matches the quantum leap of prosperity during the time period of his reign and the Bible's accurate record of King Solomon's existence.
  • - The Israelites were always skilled record keepers. The Israelites unlike of some the neighbor were a literate (reading and writing) people. To the critics who claim the records David and Solomon were during Babylonian exile note: even ignore the holes in the theory it was only 400-500 years prior to the exile. Additionally, to the Israelites being a literate people, keeping extensive records and also handed down oral traditions and living descendants. The descendants of the David (the Davidic dynastic) existence is well attested to. Artifacts from the first temple (in Jerusalem) dated to the eighth century have been found.
  • - The absence of any known inscription and confirmed inscription mentioning Solomon's existence doesn't disprove his existence. Inscriptions a lot of times related to war. Since Israel was at peace during the reign of Solomon there would no inscriptions relating to war. Trade alliances occurred between Tyre and Sheba with Israel at that time. However, little is known during about that time period about these two countries. Additionally if records were preserved on Papyrus or vellum they mostly likely were they would not have survived. The Dead Sea scrolls are a rare exception they were: stored in caves, in jars, in linen, in the driest and hottest part of Israel. Even then a lot scrolls were bad shape.
  • - King Solomon was viewed as a real historical figure to the Israelite people. - Ezra 2:55, 58; Nehemiah 11:3; Acts 7:47.

Solomon's ruling comtempraries

  • - Disclaimer: This user does not guarantee that the following individuals are or are not actually ruling comtemporaries of King Solomon.The information is based on a general consensus of secular historians to establish the dates of reigns of kings. The source material is Wikipedia.


  • - Ammonite:
  • - currently unknown.







  • - Hittite:
  • - currently unknown.



  • - Moabite:
  • - currently unknown.




  • - Sheba:
  • - currently unknown.



  • - Syrian:
  • - currently unknown.


  • - Tarshish:
  • - currently unknown.

1077 B.C.E - 607 B.C.E. - Judean Kings

  • - David - (Reign 1077-1037 B.C.E)
  • - (1077 B.C.E (King of Judah), 1070 B.C.E - 1037 B.C.E. (King of Israel)

  • - Solomon - (Reign: 1037 B.C.E. - 997 B.C.E)


  • - Abijah. - (Reign: 980 B.C.E. - 977 B.C.E.)

  • - Asa. - (Reign: 977 B.C.E. - 936 B.C.E.)

  • - Jehoshaphat. - (Reign: 936 B.C.E. - 913 B.C.E.)



  • - Jehoash. - (Reign: 898 B.C.E. - 876 B.C.E.)

  • - Amaziah. - (Reign: 876 B.C.E. - 829 B.C.E.)






  • - Amon. - (Reign: 661 B.C.E. - 659 B.C.E.)

  • - Josiah. - (Reign: 659 B.C.E. - 628 B.C.E.)

  • - Jehoahaz. - (Reign: 628 B.C.E. - 620 B.C.E.)

  • - Jehoiakim. - (Reign: 620 B.C.E. - 618 B.C.E.)


  • - Zedekiah. - (Reign: 617 B.C.E. - 607 B.C.E.)

Kings of the Northern Kingdom

  • - House of Jeroboam:
  • - Jeroboam I - (Reign: 997 B.C.E. - circa 976 B.C.E.)
  • - Nadab - (Reign: circa 976 B.C.E. - circa 975 B.C.E.)

  • - The House of Baasha:
  • - Baasha of Israel. - (Reign: circa 975 B.C.E. - circa 952 B.C.E.)
  • - Elah - (Reign: circa 952 B.C.E. - circa 951 B.C.E.)

  • - The house of Zimri:
  • - Zimri - (Reign: 951 B.C.E.)


  • - The House of Jehu:
  • - Jehu. (Yehu ben Nimshi) - (Reign: circa 905 B.C.E. - 876 B.C.E.)
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Obelisk)
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tel_Dan_Stele)
  • - Jehoahaz. (Yeho’ahaz ben Yehu) - (Reign: circa 876 B.C.E. - circa 859 B.C.E.)
  • - Jehoash (Joash). - (Reign: circa 859 B.C.E. - circa 844 B.C.E.)
  • - Jeroboam II - (Reign: circa 844 B.C.E. - circa 792 B.C.E.)
  • - Zachariah - (Reign: circa 792 B.C.E. - circa 791 B.C.E.) (a six month reign)

  • - House of Shallum:
  • - Shallum - (Reign: 791 B.C.E.)

  • - House of Menahem:
  • - Menahem - (Reign: circa 791 B.C.E. - circa 780 B.C.E.)
  • - Pekahiah - (Reign: circa 780 B.C.E. - circa 778 B.C.E.)


  • - The House of Hoshea:
  • - Hoshea - (Reign: circa 758 B.C.E. - 740 B.C.E. the Assyrians subjugate Israel)
  • - Mentioned in an ancient Assyrian inscription of Tiglath-Pileser III (see below)
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoshea#cite_note-2)

607 B.C.E - 539 B.C.E. - Babylonian Exile

  • - 607 B.C.E. (See: The Watchtower October 1, 2011 pages 26-32 and November 1, 2011 pages 22-28 and a brief summary in December 15, 2011 page 31.)
  • - Nabopolassar. - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nabopolassar)
  • - Nebuchadnezzar II. - (2 Kings; 1 Chronicles; 2 Chronicles; Ezra; Esther 2:6; Jeremiah; Daniel)
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebuchadnezzar_II_of_Babylon)
  • - Daniel 3:1-6; 4:30 - "Not until modern times have archaeologists confirmed that Nebuchadnezzar was indeed behind a great deal of the building done in Babylon. As to boastfulness—why, the man had his name stamped on the very bricks! Daniel’s critics cannot explain how their supposed forger of Maccabean times (167-63 B.C.E.) could have known of such construction projects—some four centuries after the fact and long before archaeologists brought them to light." - Pay Attention to Daniel’s Prophecy! (2006) publish by the Watchtower Bible and tract society.


  • - Nebo-sarsechim - (A Babylonian prince) "A Babylonian prince who was among the first to enter Jerusalem after the army broke through the walls in the summer of 607 B.C.E." - Insight on the scriptures, published by Jehovah's Witnesses. - Jeremiah 50:2. - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebo-Sarsekim_Tablet)
  • - Seraiah ben Neriah (Jeremiah 51:59)
  • - Evil-Merodach (see above) - (2 Kings 25:27-30; Jeremiah 52:31-34) "There is also archaeological testimony concerning Evil-merodach (Awil-Marduk, Amil-Marduk). For example, an inscription on a vase found near Susa reads: “Palace of Amil-Marduk, King of Babylon, son of Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon.” (Mémoires de la mission archéologique de Susiane, by V. Scheil, Paris, 1913, Vol. XIV) Berossus, quoted by Josephus, attributes to him a reign of two years. Josephus himself assigns him 18 years. Supposedly slain as the result of a plot, Evil-merodach was replaced by Neriglissar (Nergal-sharezer). Reliable confirmation of these details is lacking." - <source>

539 B.C.E. - 332 B.C.E. - Persian Rule

  • - Daniel 6:7-9 "To the Medes and the Persians, however, fire was sacred. So they turned to other vicious forms of punishment. Hence, the pit of lions comes as no surprise." - Pay Attention to Daniel’s Prophecy! (2006) published by the Watchtower Bible and tract society. The Medes and the Persians were Zoroastrians.
  • - Palace at Shushan: "excavated by French archaeologists between 1880 and 1890. (Es 1:2) The royal palace of Xerxes, covering about 1 ha (2.5 acres), was uncovered, revealing the splendor and magnificence of the Persian kings. The finds confirmed the exactitude of details set down by the writer of Esther as relating to the administration of the Persian kingdom and the construction of the palace. The book The Monuments and the Old Testament, by I. M. Price (1946, p. 408), comments: “There is no event described in the Old Testament whose structural surroundings can be so vividly and accurately restored from actual excavations as ‘Shushan the Palace.’" (Where Queen Esther entered)
  • - The Language of the day:
  • - The Aramaic used at the time. "Some documents written on papyrus in the Aramaic language were found at Elephantine, an island in Egypt’s Nile River. These documents demonstrate the accuracy with which the Bible writers Ezra and Nehemiah depict both conditions and official communication during Persian rule. In Biblical Archaeology, Professor G. Ernest Wright states: “Now . . . we are able to see that the Aramaic of Ezra is precisely that of its age, while the government documents are of the general type which we have become accustomed to associate with the Persian regime.” One of the documents contained a royal Persian order concerning the Passover celebration by the Jewish colony in Egypt." <source> - (Ezra, Nehemiah)

331 B.C.E. - 30 B.C.E. - The Grecian empire

  • - The Grecian empire and the start of Hellenism


  • - Symbols:
  • - The abdomen and thighs of copper on the "immense image". - Daniel 2
  • - The Winged leopard. - Daniel 7
  • - The he-goat. - Daniel 8



  • - Greece was a world world from: 331 B.C.E. - 30 B.C.E.

2 B.C.E. - 33 C.E. - Christ Jesus:

  • - The Historicity of Jesus Christ:
2 Peter 1:16: "No, it was not by following artfully contrived false stories that we acquainted you with the power and presence of our Lord Jesus Christ, but it was by having become eyewitnesses of his magnificence." 2013 revised edition 2 Peter 1:16 (NWT 2013 revised edition)


The Bible proves outstanding evidence, Jesus Christ was indeed a real person. First, the Bible speaks of Christ Jesus as real and historical and, describes much of his life in great detail. There are eight different writers who were inspired to record and preserve information now contained in the Bible. These people were comptempories to Christ Jesus himself. One of these eight individuals investigated Jesus' life and interviewed eyewitnesses (Luke 1:1-4). At least five knew Jesus personally, and three of them were of the "12 apostles" Jesus selected. The details in their writings testify to their First Century origin.


Additionally, some of the oldest of these manuscripts were dated by (source citation needed) to circa 25-50 years after they were to originally penned. These different writers provided differing glimpses into the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. This speaks volumes in the validity or historicity of person Jesus Christ.




  • - Inspired Bible Writers:



  • - Matthew: Mattithyahu Lewi ben (Alpheus).
  • - Time of completion: circa 41 C.E.? based on subscriptions at the end of some manuscripts).
  • - Some of the earliest preserved manuscripts: Papyri 104 located at the Ashmolean Museum which is dated circa 150 C.E.)
  • - Relation: An eyewitness, a very close disciple and companion selected as a chosen Apostle.
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_New_Testament_papyri)




  • - Mark: Yehohanan Marcum.
  • - Time of completion: circa 60–65 C.E.
  • - Some of the earliest preserved manuscripts: ---
  • - Relation:




  • - Luke: Loukan.
  • - About Luke: Luke was an outstanding historian. Luke was well educated and was a practising physician. Luke thoroughly interviewed eyewitnesses and close companions of Jesus Christ. And under holy spirit recorded the book of Luke.
  • - Time of completion (for the Gospel of Luke): Circa 56–58 C.E. - Completed the gospel of Luke.
  • - Time of completion (for the book of Acts): 61 C.E. - Completed the book of Acts 61 C.E.
  • - Some of the earliest preserved manuscripts: Papyri 4 dated presently located at the National Library of France which is dated to circa 175-250 C.E.)
  • - Relation: a early disciple of Christianity, a physician and a historian.




  • - John: Yehohanan ben Zebedee.
  • - Circa 96 C.E. - Completed the writing the book of Revelation
  • - Circa 98 C.E. - Completed the gospel of John and the three other books bearing his name.
  • - Some of the earliest preserved manuscripts:
  • - Relation: an eyewitness, a close disciple and companion to Jesus and possibly a relative.




  • - Paul: Shaul Ha-Tarsi
  • - Time of completion:
  • - Relation: a contemporary to Jesus and a later convert to Christianity.




  • - James:Ya‛aqov ben Yosef.
  • - Time of completion (the book of James): before 62 C.E.)
  • - Some of the earliest preserved manuscripts:
  • - Relation: an eyewitness and a relative to Jesus.




  • - Jude: Yudah ben Yosef.
  • - Time of completion (book of Jude) circa 65.
  • - Some of the earliest preserved manuscripts:
  • - Relation: an eyewitness and a relative to Jesus.




  • - Peter: Shimon "(Kephas)" bar Yonah.
  • - Time of completion (book of Jude) (Circa 62–64 C.E.)
  • - Some of the earliest preserved manuscripts:)
  • - Relation: An eyewitness, a close disciple selected as a choosen Apostle, and companion to Jesus.




Acts 2:22:“Men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus the Naz·a·reneʹ was a man publicly shown to you by God through powerful works and wonders and signs that God did through him in your midst, just as you yourselves know.'" 2013 revised edition Acts 2:22 (NWT 2013 revised edition)


After the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 C.E. many of non-Christian eyewitnesses of Christ Jesus died; numerous records, some possibly even referring to Jesus, were no doubt lost/destroyed. Following that a large-scale genocide, were many of the Jews were slaughtered occurred. However, even still glimpses that attest to the historicity of Christ Jesus still emerge from outside of Bible.


  • - Food for thought
  • - Would it sound logical for these writers to depicted an individual they supposedly made up: his baptism, washing the feet of his disciples, his execution on a torture stake?
  • - The 27 books of the "New Testament" alone provides documentation from 8 individuals living in the First Century to Jesus Christ.
  • - Check out:
  • - Greenleaf's testimony.
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Testimony_of_the_Evangelists)




  • - Some of the references to Jesus - outside of the Bible:



  • - Yosef ben Matityahu ("Falvius Josephus"). Josephus was Levite priest and a Jewish historian.
  • - (37 – Circa 100 C.E)
  • - (date/s composed... earliest manuscripts)
  • - See: the discussion of the "Testimonium Flavianum")
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Testimonium_Flavianum)

















  • - Archaeology in the First Century:
























  • - People of the day: political rulers:





  • - "Gospel writer Luke mentions seven ruling officials -whose names have been corroborated by secular historians." - Luke 3:1, 2, 23 - April 1, 2012, The Watchtower, page 5, paragraph 1.
  • - Augustus (Octivan) Caesar. - Luke 2:1.
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus_Caesar)
  • - The Herodian Dynasty
  • - See:
  • - (The Herodian dynasty was of Idumaean (Edomite) decsent):








  • - People of the day: religious leaders:








  • - Prophecy



  • - Daniel 9
  • - Seventy weeks of years = 490 years:
  • - Start point: After the decree to rebuild Jerusalem.
  • - Daniel 9:25
  • - Jesus was baptized early autumn of 29 C.E. and anointed with holy spirit. - (His arrival)
  • - Christ Jesus was executed 33 C.E. - (His death)




  • - Questions



  • - Why haven't archaeologists found proof to supports the historicity of "massacre of the innocents"?
  • - According to critics: " Bethlehem was a small village, the number of male children under the age of two might not exceed 20, and this may be the reason for the lack of other sources for this history." We should remembered that King Herod was known a cold-blood murder; who killed his own sons, and any others he felt could get in his way.


  • - Differences between the genealogies in the gospel accounts of Matthew and Luke?
  • - Matthew traces Joseph's line, while Luke follows the ancestry of Mary.


  • - Going to Bethlehem (Joseph's ancestral town) to register:
  • - Raymond E. Brown suggested that "One cannot rule out the possibility that, since Romans often adapted their administration to local circumstances, a census conducted in Judea would respect the strong attachment of Jewish tribal and ancestral relationships." - Wikipedia.
  • - Also see: Bethlehem seal dated to 800-700 B.C.E.
  • - What made these individuals confident even to the face of death about Christ Jesus life, death and resurrection?


  • - If scholars have entire departments set up for the studies of the Classics ... <more to come>


  • - Who were the "magi"?
  • - The ancient Greek text of Matthew mention: "Magi" in a Matthew chapter two. The Magi were (In antiquity speaking) a class of a heredity priesthood of the Medes (an Iranian peoples). Their religious beliefs and practices have been associated with ancient Iranian religious belief systems. The term "magi" also occurs in the Hebrew Scriptures predating the Christian-era too. In Jeremiah 39:3, 13, it mentions an individual named Nergal-Sharezer who held the title of: Rab′mag (chief Magi), the footnote in 2013 revised edition of The New World Translation of the Holy scriptures states it also rendered alternatively as: “the chief magician (astrologer).” The term can broken up into two parts: Rab (Meaning: chief, think of title Rabbi) + Mag (Magi/magician). Since Nergal-Sharezer the Rab-Mag (Chief of the magi) was a Babylonian 'prince' (the term for an official of the Babylonian royal court) is therefore evident the term isn't therefore necessary strictly limited to in either the Hebrew-Aramaic or Christian Koine Greek languages to a particular Iranian religious chaste. However, it should noted these men ca"
  • - See:
  • - (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magi)
  • - (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biblical_Magi)
  • - (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adoration_of_the_Magi)
  • - (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthian_Empire)
  • - (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Indo-Iranian_religion)
  • - (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jyotish)


  • - The gospel of Matthew identifies these men as being from "from the East." Although some (e.g., ...) has proposed the men could have came from the Yemen-Oman area which is techinally eastwards of the land of Israel, in my humble opinion it does not seem likely, as same gospel writer (Matthew) describes the Queen of Sheba (Yemen-Oman area) as the "Queen of the South" in Matthew 12:42.
  • - The Delitzch Hebrew Gospels (1877-1889) Hebrew text: "(Malkath Taiman)" Vine of David rendered literally into English as: "Queen of Teiman"
  • - Therefore from a Hebraic perspective it seems evident that the Yemen-Omam area would have been more chacterized by it dominant Southward nature then it techinally being a bit east of the land of Israel. It seems plausible the "magi" were possibly the connected with region known as Parthia.


  • - Q. What are some reasons the First Century Jews might have been in expectation of the foretold Messiah.
  • - A.


  • - (Luke 2:10)
  • - 33.5 years old...




  • - Luke 9:59 "Likely reflects the practice of secondary burial" - The Jesus Discovery.


  • - NISAN 15
  • - NISAN 16 The resurrection.
  • - NISAN 17 (Genesis 8:4)

Hebrew, An Antidiluvian Language?'

  • - Q. Was the language which is now known as Hebrew, the one language spoken before the lingual confusion at Babel?
  • - A.


  • - 1.) The usage of Hebrew poetry and word coinage contained in:
  • - Genesis 1:26 (The word/name Adam)
  • - Genesis 2:22-24 (the ish-shah, compare verses: Genesis 18-22)
  • - Genesis 3:20 (the Hebrew name of Eve: Chawwah)
  • - Genesis 4:23, 24.


  • - 2.) Other names:


  • - Cain ('something produced').
  • - Enoch ('one trained up; inaugurated; that is dedicated,'...).
  • - Irad (...), Mehujael ('struck by God').
  • - Methushael ('Man of God').
  • - (Lamech (his two wives: A′dah (Decked) & Zil′lah ('shadow, shade'),
  • - Ja′bal (son of Lamech and A'dah), Tubal-Cain, son of Lamech and Zilah and the brother of Naamah (pleasant) his sister.
  • - Abel: ('exhalation').
  • - Seth ('appointment, put, or set').
  • - Enosh ('Mortal man').
  • - Cainan.
  • - Mahalaleel.
  • - Jared
  • - Enoch ('one trained up; inaugurated; that is dedicated,'...),
  • - Methuselah.
  • - Lamech
  • - Noah (rest).



  • - 3.) The names proceeding the flood but previous to the language change have Hebrew meanings:


  • - Tarshish, son of Javan, son of Japheth: "scatter" (Genesis 10:4)
  • - Havilah, son of Cush, son of Ham: "region of sand" (Compare with: Genesis 2:11; 10:7)
  • - Shem and thereby his descendants were blessed by Noah. - (Genesis 9:26.)
  • - Although Shem was Abraham's great-great-great-great-great-great-great- (7 Greats) grandfather. He was also his contemporary living ten years after the marriage of Isaac and Rebekah (1878 B.C.E.). Shem would have evidently spoke the same language as Noah and Abraham and Isaac would evidently spoke the same language of Shem. - (Genesis 11:10, 11.)

  • - 4.)


  • - The name of Babel has a Hebraic meaning. "That is why its name was called Ba′bel (Bab (gate) + Hebrew: el (God) Akkadian : ilu (God) Arabic: il (God)), because there Jehovah had confused (ba·lal′) the language of all the earth, and Jehovah had scattered them from there over all the surface of the earth." - Genesis 11:9, NWT.

  • - 5.)


  • - Circumstantial evidence. The Hebrew text at Genesis chapter 3, uses the plural form you. - (Circumstantial evidence)
  • - Genesis 1:5, 8, 10. "...calling the light Day, but the darkness he called Night." - (Circumstantial evidence)
  • - That "lack of emphasis on verbal time may reflect the outlook of man in his perfection." - Insight on the scripture volumes 1, under Hebrew, page... - (Circumstantial evidence)

  • - The question also arises where did Abraham gain his understanding of God? His father Terah does not seem a to likely source by any means. Terah (Abram/Abraham's father) was a idolatrous polytheist. - Joshua 24:2.

  • - Where Abraham family was:
  • - Haran (36°51'54.86"N 39° 1'27.03"E) is place of Abraham's family and relatives live. Abraham referred to it as "my country" - Genesis 24:4.
  • - Haran is about 340 miles away from Mount Ararat* (39°43'1.59"N 44°17'28.74"E).
  • - Haran is about 220 miles W of Nineveh (36°31'12.70"N 43° 2'37.73"E) which in turn is some 230 miles SSE of Mount Ararat.
  • - A radius of 550 miles around Haran (36°51'54.86"N 39° 1'27.03"E) includes all locations and sites in Israel, the region of Ararat, and all of Mesopotamia.
  • - Evidence indicates Ur in the land of the Chaldeans was not near Haran, - (Acts 7:4)

  • - To put this into perspective:
  • - Iraq is "slightly more than twice the size of Idaho." - CIA factbook.
  • - And Jordan "slightly smaller than Indiana." - CIA factbook.
  • - Secular understanding of the development Semitic languages is limited. There is not much information on Semitic languages prior to the 15 century B.C.E., with the exception of Akkadian. - See: Akkadian dictionary: (http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/07/science/07dictionary.html) 21 volume, 28,000 word. It should Akkadian shows Sumerian influence.
  • - Aramaic: "evidence the earliest use of the language, dating from the 10th century B.C.E." - Wikipedia.
  • - Arabic, Old North: "dating ... roughly the 6th century B.C.E " - Wikipedia.
  • - Arabic, Old South: "1000 B.C.E-1200 B.C.E"
  • - Ugaritic: "The Ugaritic language is attested in texts from the 14th through the 12th century B.C.E."

  • - Sample comparing similarities of Ancient Hebrew and Akkadian
  • - Greeting: - Ancient (pre-Biblical) Hebrew: Shalām. (SH-L-M) - Akkadian: Shalāmu. (SH-L-M)
  • - Head: - Biblical Hebrew: Rēsh (R-SH). - Akkadian: Rēshu. (R-SH)
  • - Father: - Biblical Hebrew: Ab (A-B) - Akkadian: Ab (A-B).
  • - Mother: - Biblical Hebrew: Uma - Akkadian: ummu.

  • - To test the claim of considerable degree of mutual intelligibility
  • - Hebrew language (lang-A)
  • - Other ancient Semtic language (lang-B)

  • - Factors to consider:
  • - Exposure factors: A person's familiarity with the language (lang A or B) due to exposure.
  • - Distinguishing the differences between the literary and spoken form. Which has a greater degree of mutual intelligibility to lang-A?
  • - Everyday speech (spoken) as opposed to regular speech. Does regular everyday speech reflect a greater degree of mutual intelligibility to lang-A? Factors like the non-technical speech or advance vocabulary etc.,
  • - Asymmetric intelligibility. Does a speaker of lang-A understand lang-B better or does a speaker of lang-B understand lang-A better?

Hebrew, A Living Language Of The First Century:



  • - Hebrew literature:


The "Dead Sea Scrolls," the Masada letters, the Simon bar Kochba letters, etc adds weigh to Hebrew at a the very least Judeans would be fluent in ancient Hebrew for liturgy purposes especially considering the role in Judaic life.


It should also be noted that The Tanakh (e.g., 2 Kings 18:17, 18, 26), the Dead Sea Scrolls/Qumran writings, the works of Flavius Josephus (Jewish Antiquities, X, 8 [i, 2]), and the Talmadic writing distinguish between the Hebrew and Aramaic languages.

  • - The Dead Sea Scrolls/Qumran writings dated to circa. 408 B.C.E. to 318 C.E. (According to Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dead_Sea_Scrolls) these scrolls were in Hebrew, Koine Greek, Jewish Palestinian Aramaic and Nabataean (a type of Western Aramaic)


  • - The Bible referencing the Hebrew in the First Century
  • - John 19:20 "Written in Hebrew" (sign on the impalement). - Location in Jerusalem.
  • - Acts 21:40; 22:2 "in the Hebrew language" (the apostle Paul speaking to Jews). - Location in Jerusalem.
  • - Acts 26:14 "in the Hebrew language" (Christ speaking to the apostle Paul)

Christ Jesus was born to Judean parents. Joseph's hometown was Bethlehem of Judea (neighboring nearby Jerusalem). And at least one of Jesus' uncles (a Levite priest) and cousins (John the baptist) were Kohanim Levites (Aaronic priests). When Christ Jesus was 12 years old the Bible speaks of him conversing with religious teachers at the temple in Jerusalem. - Luke 2:39-52. Jesus read the scroll of Isaiah in the synagogue. - Luke 4:16, 17.



  • - In the "New Testment":


  • - "Bethzatha" - (meaning: House of olives) – (Hebrew)
  • - John 5:2 - Location in Jerusalem.
  • - "Talitha cumi" (meaning: "Little girl, I say to you, Get up!" - NWT, 2013.) - (Semitic)
  • - Mark 5:41
  • - 'Gabbatha" – (גֻּלְגֹלֶת) - (Hebrew)
  • - John 19:13 - Location in Jerusalem.
  • - 'Golgotha" (meaning: skull place) – (Hebrew)
  • - Matthew 27:33; John 19:17; Mark 15:22 - Location: Jerusalem.
  • - "Rabboni" – (meaning: my (great) teacher) - (Hebrew)
  • - Mark 10:51; John 1:38; 20:16
  • - "Eli Eli lama sabachthani" – (אלהי אלהי למה שבקתני or אלי אלי למה שבקתני) - (Probably late vernacular Hebrew) (The only word seemly in question was "Sabachthani" and "Sabachthani" is found in Mishanaic Hebrew),
  • - Matthew 27:46; Mark 15:34 (See: Psalm 22:1). It seems Christ Jesus was using a form of vernacular Hebrew. - Location spoken: Jerusalem.
  • - "Abaddon" – (meaing: Destruction) - (Hebrew)
  • - Revelation 9:11
  • - "Har-magedon" – (meaning: mountain of Megiddo) - (Hebrew)
  • - Revelation 16:14, 16

Evidence indicates that gospel of Matthew was originally penned in Hebrew.


According to Wikipedia, "The Gospel of Matthew is anonymous: the author is not named within the text, and the superscription "according to Matthew" was added some time in the second century. The tradition that the author was the disciple Matthew begins with the early Christian bishop Papias of Hierapolis (circa 100-140 C.E.), who is cited by the Church historian Eusebius (260-340 C.E.)."


Christ Jesus no doubt could speak both in the Hebrew language (1) Classical, 2) Rabbinic 3) And the colloquial dialects of that time period) and the Galilean Aramaic dialect and according to scriptures, he evidently read Classical Hebrew. Both Hebrew and Aramaic are Northwest Semitic languages.

After his baptism the heavens were opened up to (Matthew 3:16). Thus after his baptism he evidently had access to the memories of his pre-human existence. With this knowledge he would know all the languages of the day - (Aramaic, Latin, Greek and others).

The group known as: "The Vine of David" comments regarding Franz Delitzsch: "Delitzsch held the view that "the Hebrew remained, even after the exile, the language of Jewish literature." Citing numerous examples, he states, "The Shemitic woof of the New Testament Hellenism is Hebrew, not Aramaic. Our Lord and his apostles thought and spoke for the most part in Hebrew." So Delitzsch’s work, on some level, attempts to reconstruct the actual teachings of Yeshua in Hebrew." - Source: - (http://vineofdavid.org/resources/dhe/)

Hebrew, Learning Biblical Hebrew:

  • - Spoken Hebrew: - <more to come>
  • - Written Hebrew: - <more to come>


  • - ʔ, b/v, g/d͡ʒ, d/ð, h, w, z, ħ, ť, j (y), k/x, l, m, n, s, ʕ/ɣ, p/f, t͡sˤ, ɾ, q, s/ʃ, t/θ.
  • - Vowels:


  • - Classical Hebrew, e-teacher course


  • - Pros:
  • - Teachers actually know Hebrew and live in Israel.

  • - Cons:
  • - Needed to incorporate the "four strands" ()

  • - Format:

  • - Level A (1):
  • - Level B (2):
  • - Level C (3):
  • - Level D (4):
  • - Level E (5): One academic year.


  • - Hebrew helpers:


  • - Hebrew follows: VSO (Verb + subject + object)
  • - Read + the teacher + the book. - In English: The teacher read the book.
  • - Ate + the boy + the apple. - In English: The boy ate the apple.


  • - Dagesh:


  • - "Weak dagesh:" only effects the letters: Behth, Gimel, daleth, kaf, pe', taw.
  • - B/V.
  • - G/GH.
  • - D/DH.
  • - K/KH.
  • - P/PH.
  • - T/TH.
  • - "Strong dagesh"
  • - Cannot begin a word or end a word.


  • - The Shewa:


  • - Moving shewa:
  • - 1.
  • - 2.
  • - 3.
  • - 1.
  • - 2.
  • - 3.
  • - When two shewas go walking the 2nd one does the talking.


Hebrew vs. Arabic. Which is Older?:

  • - Is Arabic older than Hebrew? Debate...
  • - Which language is older is the subject of debate, since they both share the same origin. Further complicating it is how an individual would determine what is constitutes what as being older. What aspects a person uses to measure one language older than another vary. (case system, phonology, articles, vocabulary, word meaning)
  • - We have not discovered tablets or inscriptions in “Proto-Semitic” yet. So therefore what “Proto-Semitic” is based only educated guesses.
  • - Simplified English is still English.


  • - Hebrew and it's relatives: Ancient Semitic Languages:


  • - Akkadian. "East Semitic."
  • - Arabic, North. "Central."
  • - Arabic, South. ("South"):
  • - Aramaic.
  • - Eblaite language (""), "ancient city of Ebla, at Tell Mardikh Eblaite is an Eastern Semitic language like Akkadian, indeed it may be identical to pre-Sargonic Akkadian." - Wikipedia.
  • - Hebrew ("Central Semitic, North-West Semitic"): (Oldest inscriptions date to...)
  • - Ugaritic.
  • - Where did the "Proto-Semitic" language come from? The Bible shows it came from a northern location: specifically from the region of what is now Southern Turkey and Northern Syria (the approximate area of the 37th parrallel) as opposed to proposed secular theory of a southern location in Arabia.


  • - Places and their associated Semitic languages:


  • - Aleppo, Northern Syria: Aramaic
  • - Byblos, Northern Lebanon: Phoencian.
  • - Ebla, Northern Syria: Syrian Akkadian.
  • - Haran, Southern Turkey: Ancient Proto-Hebrew? - the land of Abraham's family.
  • - Mari, Syria: Ugaritic.
  • - Nineveh, Northern Iraq: Assyrian Akkadian.

References To The Cross:

  • - A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Original Greek Words with their Precise Meanings for English Readers (under the word stau•ros´).
  • - A Greek-English Lexicon, by Liddell and Scott (under the word xy´lon).
  • - An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words, by W. E. Vine. (London, 1962), W. E. Vine, p. 256 and 1981, Vol. 1, p. 256.
  • - Die Geschichte Jesu, (The History of Jesus), Vol. 2, Tübingen and Leipzig, 1904, pp. 386-394,
  • - Die kirche der Heimat, (The Church of the Homeland), issue of August 2, 1951.
  • - Das Kreuz und die Kreuzigung, (The Cross and Crucifixion,) by Hermann Fulda.
  • - Dictionnaire Encyclopédique Universel (Encyclopedic Universal Dictionary).
  • - Dual Heritage—The Bible and the British Museum.
  • - History of the Christian Church - (New York, 1897), J. F. Hurst, Vol. I, p. 366.
  • - Gibbon’s History of Christianity, Eckler’s edition, 1891.
  • - La Nación, (newspaper) writer José Alberto Furque
  • - Letters from Rome, Dean Burgon.
  • - Strange Survivals.
  • - Symbols Around Us, Sven Tito Achen, Danish historian.
  • - The Ancient Church, by clergyman W. D. Killen says (1859 edition, page 316).
  • - The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 4, p. 191
  • - The Catholic Encyclopedia, edition of 1908, Vol. 4, page 517; the footnote on pages 312, 313.
  • - The Catholic Digest magazine, May, 1948, page 108.
  • - The Chambers’s Encyclopaedia, (1969 edition).
  • - The Companion Bible (published by the Oxford University Press, London, 1885), Appendix No. 162, on page 186 in the “Appendixes”.
  • - Cyclopædia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature.
  • - Dictionary of Subjects & Symbols in Art, J. Hall .
  • - The Ecclesiastical Review, of September, 1920, No. 3, of Baltimore, Maryland, page 275.
  • - The Encyclopædia Britannica (1946 edition), Vol. 6, p. 753. and Vol. 1, page 666)
  • - The Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition, Volume 7, p. 506.
  • - The Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics.
  • - The Encyclopedia Americana.
  • - The Greek Septuagint version.
  • - Great Religions of the World.
  • - The Imperial Bible-Dictionary.
  • - The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, (under stau•ros´)
  • - The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1979)
  • - The Latin dictionary by Lewis and Short, (under crux).
  • - The New Encyclopædia Britannica.
  • - The New Catholic Encyclopedia, (1967), Vol. IV, p. 486.
  • - The New Schaff & Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge.
  • - The Non-Christian Cross, by J. D. Parsons (London, 1896) pp. 133-141.
  • - A discussion on the origin of the cross introduction into worship.
  • - Amulets and Talismans, Sir E. A. Wallis Budge.
  • - A Short History of Sex-Worship (London, 1940), H. Cutner, pp. 16, 17;
  • - Curious Myths of the Middle Ages.
  • - Daily News, Ted Noffs, a Methodist minister in Sydney, Australia comments.
  • - Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine, by Cardinal Newman.
  • - Essays on the Worship of Priapus, by Richard Payne Knight.
  • - History of the Christian Church, J. F. Hurst, Vol. I, p. 366.
  • - History of the Conquest of Mexico, by William H. Prescott.
  • - Funeral Tent of an Egyptian Queen, by Villiers Stuart.
  • - Masculine Cross and Ancient Sex Worship, by Sha Rocco.
  • - M’Clintock and Strong’s Cyclopœdia, Vol. 4, page 503.
  • - New Light on the Most Ancient East, by archaeologist V. Childe (1957, p. 185).
  • - Presenze giudaiche e cristiane a Pompei (Jewish and Christian Presences in Pompeii)
  • - Sex and Sex Worship by O. A. Wall states on page 359.
  • - The Ancient Church by clergyman W. D. Killen says (1859 edition, page 316).
  • - The book Indian Antiquities.
  • - The Cross in Ritual, Architecture, and Art (London, 1900), G. S. Tyack, p. 2.
  • - The Mythology of All Races.
  • - The Rigvedic Culture of the Pre-Historic Indus.
  • - The Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology and Legend
  • - The Worship of the Dead (London, 1904), Colonel J. Garnier, p. 226.
  • - Two Babylons, by Alexander Hislop. (page 245, footnote).
  • - (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CROSS_Sacral_Stavros_from_the_Temple_Repositories_of_Knossos_1600_BCE_Heraclion_Museum_Greece.JPG)
  • - ::The book Great Religions of the World says: “Cortés and his followers recoiled from human sacrifices of the Aztecs and what seemed like satanic parodies of Christianity: . . . venerating crosslike symbols of wind and rain gods.”
  • - Check out the Native American/First Nation peoples' traditional "medicine wheel." The representing "four winds."
  • - I agree regarding the book entitled the Two Babylons, but I am menetioning a wide range of historic content & information. As for some the sources being older, it only ephasizing the point it has long known by scholars. It in no cancels the information. The reality is also the list is far from exhaustive. Plus, not all others are that old. And even the fact modern encyclopedias are repeating the same information shows much of that information has remained the same, and been information has still very consistent.
  • - “On the eve of the Passover Yeshu [Jesus] was hanged." _ Babylonian, Talmud.--Anaccuratesource (talk) 02:58, 18 August 2009 (UTC)
  • - Compare: Galatians 3:13; and Deuteronomy 21:22, 23.
  • - Compare: John 3:13-15; and Numbers 21:4-9.
  • - Stau·ros: in both the classical Greek and Koine carries no thought of a “cross” made of two timbers.
  • - Xylon: also occurs in the Greek Septuagint at Ezra 6:11, where it speaks of a single beam or timber on which a lawbreaker was to be impaled.
  • De cruce libri tres, Antwerp, 1629, p. 19, one such (non-cross) instrument of torture is illustrated by Justus Lipsius - 1547-1606.
  • by Varus (Jos. Ant. XVII 10. 10), by Quadratus (Jewish Wars II 12. 6), by the Procurator Felix (Jewish Wars II 15. 2), by Titus (Jewish Wars VII. 1). Quote a reference source: "Anything other than a simple hanging is ruled out by the wholesale manner in which this execution was often carried out: 2000 at once by Varus"

--Anaccuratesource 22:10, 13 September 2010 (PDT)

The Era of the Apostles

  • - Andrew:
  • - Bartholomew (Nathanael):
  • - James, son of Alphaeus:
  • - James (son of Zebedee):
  • - John:
  • - Judas Iscariot: (expelled and replaced)
  • - Matthew:
  • - Matthias:
  • - Peter:
  • - Philip:
  • - Simon ("Cananaean."):
  • - Thaddaeus (Judas, son of James):
  • - Thomas:

  • - Paul


  • - Did Peter really go to Babylon? "Jesus assigned Peter to concentrate his preaching on the circumcised Jews." - Galatians 2:9. "In Mesopotamia, Media and Babylonia lived the descendants of members of the kingdom of the ten tribes [of Israel], and of the kingdom of Judah, once deported there by the Assyrians and the Babylonians." - The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (175 B.C.–A.D. 135) Flavius Josephus mentioned that the Jews in the first century C.E. who "dwelt about Babylonia" numbered into the tens of thousands. The chief centres of Jewish population outside Palestine were in Syria, Asia Minor, Babylonia, and Egypt, each of which is estimated to have had at least 1,000,000 Jews." - The New Encyclopædia Britannica. "In the third to the fifth centuries C.E., these Jewish communities produced the work known as the Babylonian Talmud."


The following files are subject files

Aboriginal peoples of the Americas

  • - Questions:


  • - Where did the Inuit and First Nations and Meso-American tribes & peoples come from?


  • - What does the cultural teach us about their origins?


  • - Can all trace their ancestry to Asia?


  • - Did some come by boat?


  • - Who did the indigenous Americans descend from?



(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yeniseian_languages#Den.C3.A9.E2.80.93Yenisean), (http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-6050673836854498204#)


  • - What does linguistics evidence (accurate and profession) say?


  • - What does the archaeology show?


  • - What would be an exhaustive list of the oral traditions our the origin of the indigenous peoples?





  • - What's the truth?


  • - Un-deciphered:



  • - Some of the plant-based food sources for the Anishinaabe people:


  • - Some things of interest:
  • - The Creator: The Great Spirit (causing of our being). – (Genesis 1:1; 2:4; Exodus 3:14)
  • - Ancient spirit-beings. – (Genesis 1:26; Job 1:6; 38:7; 1 Peter 3:19, 20; 2 Peter 2:4, 5; Jude 6, 7)
  • - The earth; Mother-earth (Adamah). – (Genesis 2:7)
  • - The first man and woman. – (Genesis 2:7)
  • - Food a gift from the Creator. – Tree, fruits, seeds, grass. – (Genesis 1:29; 9:3, 4).
  • - Sense of stewardship. – (Genesis 1:29; 9:3, 4)
  • - Living off the land. – (Genesis 1:29)
  • - Family. – (Genesis)
  • - Time of harmony. – (Genesis 1-2)
  • - The tree of life. – (Genesis)
  • - The trickster. – (Genesis 3)
  • - Serpent. – (Genesis 3)
  • - Music: Flute, drum, rattle. – (Genesis 4:21)
  • - A time of fighting. – (Genesis 6:11)
  • - Shape-shifting spirits. – (Genesis; Jude)
  • - Giants. – (Wiindigoog) – (Genesis 6:1-4; Numbers 13:33)
  • - Flood. – (Nanabozo) living creatures spared by wooden structure so life was preserved. (creatures as Bagwajiwininiwag) - (Genesis 6-8)
  • - Raven. – (Genesis 8:7)
  • - A Language change. – (Genesis 11:1)
  • - Usage of flint. – (Exodus 4:25)
  • - Incense; associated with prayer. – (Exodus 25:6, compared with Genesis 8:21; 37:25) (compare with: "smudging:" sage, "cedar", tobacco, etc.,)
  • - Eagle. – (symbol of wisdom) – (Job 39:29) (Also see: Deuteronomy 32:11; Psalm 103:5; Proverbs 23:5; 30:17, 18; Obadiah 1:4; Micah 1:16; Habbukkuk 1:8; Revelation 4:7)
  • - Wisdom valued.
  • - Animals used as teach lessons. – (Genesis)
  • - Stories to teach lessons. – (Genesis-Revelation)
  • - Thanks-giving. – (Genesis 4:3; 8:20)
  • - Injustice. – (Ecclesiastes 8:9)
  • - Bear symbolism:
  • - Deer (Roebuck and stag) symbolism:
  • - Lion symbolism:
  • - Wolf symbolism: Genesis 49:27; Isaiah 1:6; 11:6; 65:25; Ezekiel 22:27; Matthew 7:15; John 10:12.
  • - What is the model of stages (Paleo, archaic and post-archaic) based on? "Present One of the most enduring classifications of archaeological periods & cultures was established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips' 1958 book Method and Theory in American Archaeology. They divided the archaeological record in the Americas into 5 phases. These divisions have been replaced in most of North America by more local classifications with a more elaborate time breakdown".
  • - Common secular views:
  • - "The earliest firm evidence of a human presence in North America occurs ca. 13,000 years ago with the arrival of a group known by archaeologists as Palaeo-Indians (or Clovis)... the archaeological evidence of the approximate date of their arrival is about as incontrovertible as it gets from a scientific perspective, and is supported by thousands of independently-run radiocarbon dates.There is some evidence of earlier occupations in Alaska ca. 14-15,000 years ago, and perhaps as far south as Chile, though these are generally ephemeral and sometimes disputed by archaeologists. Indeed, controversy surrounding Pre-Clovis peoples prior to ca. 13,000 years ago is the primary point of debate regarding early peoples in the Americas, not if they arrived later. - Matt Betts.
  • - Secular range:
  • - 13,000 (Matt Brett).
  • - 14,000 (Matt Brett), (CBC 2012 article)
  • - 15,000 - (Matt Brett), (Science Daily, 2012 article), (Nature, 2012 article), (Francis Collins)
  • - 16,000 (Nature)
  • - 17,000 - (Science Daily).
  • - 20,000.
  • - The above is a range of (7,000 years)
  • - These dates are largely based on soil levels and radiocarbon dating.

  • - Acclaimed ancient pre-historic sites:
  • - Chile (Mounte Verde)
  • - New Mexico (Clovis)
  • - Oregon (paisley caves)
  • - Know if the understanding of Bible chronology present above is correct, were talking approx. their arrival happening in about a third of the time (1/3).


The early aboriginal first nation peoples settled in this land thousands of years ago.

These early inhabitants had a wealth of knowledge. They were able to live off the land.

They also brought plants as maize (corn), climbing beans, squash, and certain tubers and other grains.

I believe that the prickly Pear cacti was actually probably brought my aboriginal first nation peoples.

Many aboriginal first nation people used the cacti as a food source.


  • - European connection possibility and explorations of the Americas
  • - See: Mal'ta Siberia, Russia (Eurasia). (shortly after the flood)
  • - Solutrean possibility, (France, Basque, Spain, Portugal). (shortly after the flood)
  • - Greek possibility. (Plutarch)
  • - Irish possibly, Legend of St. Brendon.
  • - Vikings, Scandinavia (see: Sami people as well speaking of Scandinavia). (986 Bjarne Herjulfron, Eric the Red said to born in Bæren district of Rogaland, Norway, etc)
  • - Basque fishermen possibility. - Circa, 1300-1400s.
  • - Christopher Columbus. - 1492


  • - Mal'ta site in the Usolsky District, Irkutsk Oblast, Siberia, Russian Federation, Russia (nicknamed: MA-1). - (Y-Chromosome: R-M207, mitochondrial: Haplogroup U)
  • - Anzick, in southwestern Montana, United States of the America (nicknamed: Anzick-1). - (Y-Chromosome: Q-L54, mitochondrial: D4h3a)
  • - Hoyo Negro site,
  • - Evidence had shows that the ancestors of the known indigenous peoples* of the Americas (* peoples – because they were not simply just one people, but actually there are many peoples some of which very different languages) came from region of Eurasia (Far East Asia and Far East Europe) thousands of years ago to 'the Americas.' – It's evident: Aboriginal peoples/Nations were in 'the Americas' as long as there were people living in 'the Americas.' Numerous Aboriginal Nations including the Algic peoples (including the: Anishinaabee) traditionally associate their origins to events preceding and succeeding a Great Flood.
  • - The thing is: the term “here” gets into a semantic thing. Whether some want to admit it or not the term “here” is vague and subjective.
  • - Just a side note: even in the Beringia migration model, Beringia was part of "Turtle Island" (North America) actually. The USA 'bought' Alaksa from the Russian government and it became an American State in the 1867. Legends are important. However any intelligent person knows legends have their place though. Legends can prove invaluable especially in cultural understandings, oral sources provide a reservoir of knowledge on the usage of plants fro things like medicine, hygiene etc and can even insight historically as well at times. However, oral sources can also be problematic at times as some are contextually dependent, their origins are uncertain, others are contradictory and even sometimes biased and erroneous. That's why they should be weighed out and examined.


  • - 1)Examination of anthropological evidence Anthropologists have identified the features and traits that most Indigenous people have and are associated with people of East-Asian and other (North-Eastern) Eurasian peoples. These examples include:
  • - Thicker diameter out of all human hair
  • - More gracile skulls
  • - The measurements and shape the Zygomatic (cheekbones)
  • - The measurements and shape Rounder orbit (eye sockets)
  • - The Dentitions (the teeth): the sinodont and sundadont patterns.
  • - and the list goes on and on.


  • - 2)Examination of Genetic evidence:
  • - We have the examples of Y-DNA Haplogroup (C3, Q3, R1),
  • - MT-DNA
  • - Blood type.
  • - Y-DNA Haplogroup C and Q are present in highest frequencies in East-Asia and (North-East) Eurasia as well as the Americas. A side note the presence of the 9RA (9 repeat allele) doesn't disprove that. The 9RA (9 repeat allele) is actually documented to present among the Chukchi peoples (who live/lived around the sea of Okhotsk in particular Chukchi peninsula of Siberia, Russia) and Koryaks peoples (who live/lived in and around Kamchatka) indigenous peoples to Western Beringia. That particular “ allele was not identified in the large number of Asian populations tested (Perhaps because this is mutation that arose in populations as they approached” “...('Beringia') or because the sample size was not big enough to detect it”). I recommend research a thing called genetic drift. - Source material: (http://www.thegeneticgenealogist.com/200...


  • - Comparisons: had already proven successful with ancient DNA from a boy, Mal'ta site in the Usolsky District, Irkutsk Oblast, Siberia, Russian Federation, Russia (nicknamed: MA-1). - (Y-Chromosome: R-M207, Mt-DNA/mitochondrial: Haplogroup U), a boy from Anzick, in southwestern Montana, United States of the America (nicknamed: Anzick-1). - (Y-Chromosome: Q-L54, mT-DNA/mitochondrial: D4h3a) and a girl from Hoyo Negro site, in the Tulum Municipality, Quintana Roo, (Caribbean coast of the Yucatán Peninsula, in the Sistema Aktun Hu) Mexico (nicknamed: Naia). - (MT-mitochondrial: D1) to only name a few.


  • - 3)Examination of linguistic evidence.
  • - Preface: Linguistics has it challenges and limits for example:
  • - 1) There as not as many resources to study indigenous languages or its possible distant Eurasian/so-called 'Old World' relatives some which are extinct and or on the brink of extinction.
  • - 2) These languages split over thousands of years. That's thousands of years of evolving (and blending) languages. Even today many known related Languages are not mutually intelligible, from one to the other and although relared in origin as not very similar (although similar is kind of subjective term).
  • - 3) A lot indigenous language of the Americas and their possible candidates for distant Eurasian/ so-called 'Old World' language relatives did not have phonetic writing system. Which would make the arduous task the study and comparison between these languages much easier. Have let's not limit creativity. There's the possibility certain languages were artificially constructed/blended for trade and other purposes? Even still seeming progress is being made The Na-Dene languages.

Assyrian History:









  • - Shalmaneser III. - (...)




  • - Shamshi-Adad V.




  • - Semiramis (Shammu-ramat).







  • - Shalmaneser IV




  • - Ashur-dan III




  • - Ashur-nirari V




  • - Tiglath-Pileser III




  • - Shalmaneser V






  • - Sennacherib’s assassination: The Bible says that two of his sons, Adrammelech and Sharezer, put Sennacherib to death. (2 Kings 19:36, 37) Yet both the account attributed to Babylonian King Nabonidus and that of the Babylonian priest Berossus of the third century B.C.E. mention only one son as involved in the slaying. Which was correct? Commenting on the more recent discovery of a fragmentary prism of Esar-haddon, Sennacherib’s son who succeeded him as king, historian Philip Biberfeld wrote: “Only the Biblical account proved to be correct. It was confirmed in all the minor details by the inscription of Esar-haddon and proved to be more accurate regarding this event of Babylonian-Assyrian history than the Babylonian sources themselves. This is a fact of utmost importance for the evaluation of even contemporary sources not in accord with Biblical tradition." - "Life—How Did It Get Here? By Evolution or by Creation?", page 27, paragraph 27, published by Jehovah's Witnesses.







  • - Disclaimer this section is still under renovation.

Animal life
















Arguments I don't recommend using

  • - Quoting virtually anything from Ron Wyatt as a reliable source.
  • - Quoting Two Babylon, by Hislop.
  • - Appeal to psuedo-lingusitics.
  • - <More to come>

Bionics



















Book List:

  • - This is a list of books I heard some referenced to:
  • - Disclaimer: --
  • - The list:

Death:

  • - Sheol (she’o′lah): Hebrew verb sha·’al', meaning “ask; request.” A Compendious Hebrew Lexicon, Samuel Pike states “the common receptacle or region of the dead; so called from the insatiability of the grave, which is as it were always asking or craving more.” — Genesis 37:35; Proverbs 30:15, 16 (The passage in Proverbs is a beautiful scripture highlighting this point).
  • - Condition of the death: Genesis 3:19; Ecclesiastes 9:5, 10; Psalms 146:4. The English expression: "pushing daisies" does not mean English speakers necessary believe the some spirit of the deceased is literally pushing daisies upward from the ground. "As the last enemy, death is to be brought to nothing." - 1 Corinthians 15:26, NWT.

Discussion with Philip J. Rayment

if that was the case.

Your opinion on what God would have done, without good reasoning as to why ("to avoid confusion" I think begs the question) is hardly a good argument.
You said that the physical effects of the flood couldn't have been so great as to destroy those rivers. The other way of looking at it is that the physical effects would have been sufficient to destroy those rivers, so they can't be the same rivers. It seems that you are forming an opinion on a major factor (the extent of change wrought by the flood) on a questionable detail (that the rivers out of Eden still exist), which seems back to front.
Philip J. Rayment 03:47, 19 January 2012 (PST)
  • - That’s the thing, we simply don’t know all the specifics. However there real reason to doubt it just because. God did inspire this text in which Moses to wrote: “And the name of the third river is Tigris (Hiddekel); it is the one going to the east of Assyria (Asshur). And the fourth river is the Euphrates (Pherath).
  • - If one said location x was located is the whereabouts of where the Blue Nile flows eastwards in the land of Sudan and the White Nile goes forth. What’s the logical conclusion? The person would be referring to a location in North-eastern Africa.
  • - Likewise, If a person said location x was located in the where the source of river Tigris flowed which is the east of land of Assyria and the Euphrates; at a time when these once shared one source. The logical conclusion? The Person would be referring to a location in Northern Mesopotamia.
  • - How the Euphrates and Tigris survived? We don’t know the details, but they evidently did. It's not a questionable detail. God gave a specific location the Israelites would understand.
  • - We know prior to flood that there were mountains, rivers and sea basins. – (Genesis 1-2, 7:19)
  • - The water drained somehow. – (Genesis 8:13)
  • - And at the same time the flood would created canyons and mountains and etc.
  • - No human alive today at this time would know the exact details and specifics.--Anaccuratesource 12:02, 19 January 2012 (PST)
I'm finding much of your reply hard to follow.
Your analogy with the Nile presumes that we know where the Niles start, and that they haven't changed.
Your conclusion of a Northern Mesopotamian location doesn't work for the Gihon going through Cush.
Finally, your claim that God gave a location that the Israelites would understand presumes that Moses was not using older documents, and that the original was therefore intended for the Israelites, a point that I have questioned.
Incidentally, two men called at the front door yesterday, and I asked them about the one day equals 7,000 years thing, and they agreed that this is what they used to believe, but have since changed their minds.
Philip J. Rayment 20:10, 24 January 2012 (PST)
  • - I did some research, and you're right that was an old understanding. We don't know for sure the exact length of a creative days. However, I would suspect (based on: Hebrews 4:4-6, 11) they probably last thousands of years.
  • - I'm not trying to argue.
  • - Moses could have used older documents. However, he at the same time seems to used language his readers would understand too. And another reason that I personally favor this understanding, that the Tigris and Euphrates, is in particular because the what Bible says: "...the name of the third river is Hiddekel (the Tigris); it is the one going to the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates." - (Genesis 1:14, NWT) Inductive reasoning (like the duck test) would seem to favor the location Eden having "the Tigris" which "the one going to the east of Assyria" (ancient kingdom which ruins are modern-day Northern Iraq) and the Euphrates.
  • - It might be possible Cush does not necessary refer to a region in Eastern-Africa. Many different places have been proposed to be the “land of Kush” referred to in this passage including ones in: Central-Asia, Mesopotamia, or Arabian Peninsula. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kassites) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Kush). and I was not arguing that the river courses would have changed. Also the river Gihon has not been identified with 100%. Although one possible candidate might be the Araxes.
  • - The LXX seems to favors the understanding the rivers Euphrates and the Tigris in Eden are the same Euphrates and Tigris that flowed through the Middle-East. Although "the land of Cush" was rendered the land of the Ethiopia, the river Gihon was not rendered as the Nile.
  • - Evidence indicates Hebrew was the first language. That being the case, if one rivers had a non-Semitic name it could favor one these rivers survived. Which I think would be exciting.
  • - The flood's power was great enough to change or destroy these rivers depending on the circumstances. However we don’t know all the details. We don’t know for a certainty all the details of how the flood flowed and drained.
  • - I'm not dogmatic on this, but we know this: that some plants (Genesis 8:11), sea basins and mountains seemed to have survived. So could it be plausible that two great rivers did too provided there source did?
  • - I don't believe we can say the creative days were 6 x 24 hr days. The term rendered "day" could mean many things which was even indicated by that article on "days of creation" which might I add is against any non-24 hr understanding. (See: Genesis 2:4)
  • - Adding weight to the contrary though, I will read this quote from a magazine: "Interestingly, while the Bible specifically mentions the end of each of the first six “days,” it makes no mention of the end of the seventh day. Why? That day is still in progress. Genesis 2:3; Hebrews 4:4-6, 11."--Anaccuratesource 12:56, 26 January 2012 (PST)

Divine Name:

  • - History: Genesis 2:4 is the first occurrence of the Divine name in the Hebrew Bible. The theoretical original pronunciation might have been "Yahueh" We have the possible Judean Pronunciation "Yahueh" or maybe Yahweh. Whereas we know the Samaritan pronunciation was "Yahbe/Yabe" (Samaritan pronounce the letter waw/waa as baa).
  • - Personally, although I am not being a scholar in Hebrew favor this theory: because of the existence of numerous Hebrew names containing the prefix/suffix: -Yahu-. Favorable Greek and Ethiopian transliterations: Iahueh and Iahbeh. Theory based on a musicological understanding of the Hebrew Ta'amim: all seem to favor a three syllable pronunciation. (Ya-hu-eh versus Yah-weh)
  • - A quote from the appendix of the revised: New World Translation, 2013 edition:
  • - "What is the meaning of the name Jehovah?In Hebrew, the name Jehovah comes from a verb that means “to become,” and a number of scholars feel that it reflects the causative form of that Hebrew verb. Thus, the understanding of the New World Bible Translation Committee is that God’s name means “He Causes to Become.” Scholars hold varying views, so we cannot be dogmatic about this meaning. However, this definition well fits Jehovah’s role as the Creator of all things and the Fulfiller of his purpose. He not only caused the physical universe and intelligent beings to exist, but as events unfold, he continues to cause his will and purpose to be realized. Therefore, the meaning of the name Jehovah is not limited to the related verb found atExodus 3:14, which reads: “I Will Become What I Choose to Become” or, “I Will Prove to Be What I Will Prove to Be.” In the strictest sense, those words do not fully define God’s name. Rather, they reveal an aspect of God’s personality, showing that he becomes what is needed in each circumstance to fulfill his purpose. So while the name Jehovah may include this idea, it is not limited to what he himself chooses to become. It also includes what he causes to happen with regard to his creation and the accomplishment of his purpose."


Clothing in Biblical times

Famines

  • - Circa 1943 B.C.E.
  • - Famine during Abraham's time. - (Genesis 12:10)

  • - Circa 1878 B.C.E - 1818 B.C.E.
  • - A famine during Isaac’s day. - (Genesis 26:1, 2)

  • - 1737 B.C.E.
  • - Seven years of plenty during, Joseph's time - (Genesis 41:54-57)

  • - 1730 B.C.E. - 1723 B.C.E.
  • - Seven years of famine, during Joseph's time - ( Genesis 41:54-57 )

  • - During Naomi's time. - (Ruth 1:1, 2)

  • - Circa 1070-1040 B.C.E.
  • - Three year During the time of David. - (2 Samuel 21:1-6 )

  • - Circa 940 B.C.E. - 936 B.C.E.
  • - A three and a half year famine during the prophet Elijah. - (1 Kings 17; James 5:17)

Finds:

  • - Khirbat en-Nahas/copper mines in Jordan (Edomites). (Canadian archeologist Russell Adams, along with Thomas Levy of the University of California at San Diego and Mohammad Najjar of the Jordanian Department of Antiquities) - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khirbat_en-Nahas)
  • - Interested in:

Hebrew, An Overview:

  • - "Hebrew is remarkable for its brevity, the frame of its structure allowing for such terseness. Aramaic, the closest to Hebrew of the Semitic tongues, is by comparison more ponderous, roundabout, wordy." - Insight on the scriptures, volume two, under Hebrew, page 1073.
  • - Brevity: "Concise and exact use of words in writing or speech. shortness of time. From Latin brevitas, from brevis 'brief.'" - Oxford.
  • - Terse: "Sparing in the use of words." - Oxford.


  • - Ancient Hebrew phonology:


  • - Alef (Ox). – (ʔ) (is not ayin)
  • - Bayit (House). – (b) - (Allophonically: v)
  • - Gamal (Camel? Foot?) – (g) – (Allophonically: ʒ)
  • - Dalet (Door?). – (d) – (Allophonically: ð)
  • - He' (Man: Behold). – (h) – (Allophonically: hh)
  • - Waw – (w) & (û) – (is not vav)
  • - Zan – (z)
  • - Heth – (ħ) & (χ)?
  • - Teth – (tʼ) – (is not taw)
  • - Yad (arm). – (j)
  • - Kaf (hand). – (k) (Allophonically: χ) - (not the same as qof)
  • - Lam (staff). – (l)
  • - Nun - (n)
  • - Mayim – (m)
  • - Samehh – (s)
  • - Ayn (eye). – (ʕ) – (is not aleph)
  • - Ghayn (twisted rope?). – (ɣ) – (this letter merged with Ayin)
  • - Pe' (mouth). – (p) – (Allophonically: f)
  • - Tsadheh – (t͡s)
  • - Quf – (q) – (not the same as kaf)
  • - Resh – (ɾ) – (tapped)
  • - Shin (two front teeth). - ʃ & (ɬ).
  • - Taw (mark). – (t) – (Allophonically: θ) - (is not teth)




  • - The Hebraic "family tree:"
  • - Proto-Semitic > Proto-Hebrew... (*Canaanite shift: a > o e.g., Shalam > Shalom. )
  • - PreExH/Pre-Exilic Hebrew
  • - Early...
  • - Judahite Hebrew - (JEH)...
  • - (Northern-Kingdom) Israelite Hebrew...
  • - Post-Exilic - (PostExH; Post-Exilic Hebrew)..
  • - Qumran - BHQum...
  • - Tiberian -
  • - Babylonian - BHPal - Biblical Hebrew pointed with Palestinian Vocalization (from c. 7th c. CE)
  • - Palestinian - BHBab - Biblical Hebrew pointed with Babylonian Vocalization (from late c. 9th c. CE)
  • - BHGk-Lat - Biblical Hebrew as reflected in Greek and Latin transcriptions (mainly 3rd c. BCE-4th c. CE)...
  • - MidH - Medieval Hebrew. Various forms of Hebrew c. 1000-c. 1850 C.E.
  • - Rabbinic Hebrew...


  • - Modern Dialects:
  • - Ashkenazi Hebrew.
  • - Italian Hebrew.
  • - Mizrahi Hebrew.
  • - Modern Israeli Hebrew. - (Aleph and Ayin.)
  • - Samaritan. (Waw is baa)
  • - Sephardi Hebrew.
  • - Yemenite Hebrew (e.g., Sana'ani and 'Adeni dialects).
  • - Wrong pronunciation = An unauthentic sound, a loss of the original rhythm, and a loss of poetic rhymes.


  • - There's no proof that Moses' wife Zipporah died and re-married a Cushite woman. - Habakkuk 3:7.
  • - According to the Bible, the Biblical Levite priests descended from Aaron (the brother of Moses). - Leviticus 10:1-11
  • - Not every single person in a court or region has baring on the language worked. - ...
  • - According to the Bible, Jerusalem was choosen by God. - Genesis 14:17, 18; 22:2; Deuteronomy 12:5; 26:2; 2 Chronicles 7:12; Psalms 76:2; 78:68.
  • - "Pachad" - Job 4:14.
  • - "Garfinkel bases his identification on a three-letter verb from the inscription meaning to do, a word he said existed only in Hebrew." - (http://www.haaretz.com/jewish-world/news/have-israeli-archaeologists-found-world-s-oldest-hebrew-inscription-1.256305)
  • - Genesis 41:51 nashani (see Arabic).


  • - Earliest Hebrew in scripture: 1513-1473 B.C.E. – Genesis, Job, Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, Psalm 90 & possibly Psalm 91. - (Source...)
  • - "The vigorous authentic style of Hebrew poetry used in the book of Job makes it evident that it was an original composition in Hebrew,..." - (Source...)
  • - "It could not have been a translation from another language such as Arabic." - (Source...)


  • - Interesting facts:
  • - There are 8674 different Hebrew words in the Bible. - <source>
  • - The Hebrew word Yadh literally meaning arm with it's different uses is translated in over 40 different way in most English Bible translations. This is because words share concepts. - <source>
  • - Makes it practical...
  • - New reader...
  • - It's Biblical Hebrew let's get serious. - (Muslims have tajweed)


  • - 'Aleph is
  • - Behth.
  • - Ayin
  • - Ghayin does exist!
  • - Waw is waw not vav.


  • - Make it practical...
  • - New reader...
  • - It's Biblical Hebrew let's get serious. (Muslims have tajweed)
  • - Songs.

History of Writing:



  • - History of Writing:


  • - Footnote: references to Holy bible are used in the proceedings.
  • - (Early references to writing In the bible)
  • - (Passages probably, alluding to writing: (Genesis 38:18, 25) time: circa 1750 B.C.E, “seal ring,” (Genesis 41:42), “signet ring,” time: 1737 B.C.E.)
  • - (Job 19:23, 24; 31:35) time period written circa 1613.
  • - (Dates mentioned are based on the the study of Biblical chronology, as presented in the book entitled: “All Scripture Is Inspired of God and Beneficial,” published by the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc.)
  • - It's remarkable the Biblical chronology indicates that circa 2269 B.C.E. the dispersing at Babel occurred. Secularist estimate the earliest human to be circa 3,200 B.C.E. Keeping in mind the later is what secularist guesstimate.
  • - "It seems ridiculous that we should be expected to believe man could not read or write for all that time, then suddenly within a very short time, perhaps not even a hundred years, he was writing all over the Middle East in a number of languages!" - David Livingston. (http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/am/v3/n2/cave-dwellers)


  • - Ancient lost literature:


  • - Numbers 21:14 - "the book of the Wars of Jehovah."
  • - Joshua 18:9 - described land "in a book."
  • - Joshua 10:13 and 2 Samuel 1:18. - "Book of Jasher."
  • - 1 Kings 11:41 - "Book of the Acts of Solomon."
  • - 1 Kings 14:19 - "Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel."
  • - 1 Kings 14:29 - "Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah."
  • - 1 Chronicles 27:24 - "Chronicles of King David"
  • - 2 Chronicles 12:15 - "Book of Shemaiah the prophet, and of Iddo the visionary by genealogical enrollment"
  • - 2 Chronicles 20:34 - "Book of Jehu, the son of Hanani - mentioned in the Book of the Kings of Israel."
  • - Esther 10:2 - "the Book of the affairs of the times of the kings of Media and Persia."


  • - Genealogical records:


  • - First-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, in his work The Life, "recorded in the public registers."
  • - "As to custody of the records of priestly families, Josephus, in his work Against Apion, stated that his nation gave the task to "men of the highest character."
  • - The Jewish Encyclopedia states: "A special officer seems to have been entrusted with these records, and a court of inquiry is mentioned as having been instituted in Jerusalem."
  • - "Non-priestly Jews would register in their fathers’ cities. (Luke 2:1-5) The resulting public archives were evidently consulted by the Gospel writers. Private records also seem to have been preserved by individual families." - The Watchtower...

Jehovah's Witnesses, Literature and Media on Creation:

  • - DVD: The Wonders of Creation Reveal God's Glory, made and produced by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. (2009)
  • - Brochure: The Origin of Life - Five questions worth asking, published by the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. (2010)
  • - Brochure: Was Life Created, published by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. - (2010)

Jonah

  • - Jonah referenced in the Holy Scriptures. - (Matthew 12:40)


  • - Question: Did Jonah die before the fish swallowed him?
  • - According to Jonah 2:1 Jonah prayed to Jehovah from the with the inwards* of the fish. - (* Note: that the original Biblical Hebrew word denoting "from the fish" literally signifies the bowels (innards) of the fish.) Since the Bible shows death as the opposite of life and dead being unconscious Jonah must have been alive within the fish.



  • - Traditional sites associated with the Prophet Jonah.
  • - Mosque of the prophet Jonah in Mosol, Iraq, attacked by ISIS in 2014. - (36°20'52"N 43°9'33"E)


  • - DISCLAIMER: Traditional sites are not always a reliable guide.

Music of the Bible

See the following articles:



  • - String instruments:
  • - Kinnor - (Lyre, "Harp") - (Genesis 4:21; 1 Samuel 16:16, 23) - The Kinnor is an ancient instrument mentioned in the Bible. And the Kinnor is often translated "harp" or "lyre" into English. - (the King James Version, The New World translation). Possibly bonded together with bitumen. - (See "Noah's ark", and "Moses"). Evidence shows it had a sound box, sound board, sound holes, two arms, a crossbar, a bridge, and strings probably made from gut and or vegetable fibers. - Sources: (http://www.rakkav.com/biblemusic/pages/instruments.htm) The Bible shows the even in antiquity the value placed on tonewood (e.g., Algum and Juniper). The Kinnor is similar to the Greek Kithara. "In about half of the 42 occurrences of kinnor in the Bible, the translators of the Septuagint rendered it by the Greek kithara." - (Insight on the scriptures, under harp, published by Jehovah's Witnesses). Greek: Kithara > Latin: Cithara > Andalusian Arabic: Qitara > Spanish: Guitarra, French: Guitare, and the German: Gitarre > English: Guitar.
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinnor)
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyre)
  • - (http://www.mid-east.com/Kinnor-Harp)

  • - Wind instruments:

  • - Percussion instruments:


  • - Musical terms in the Bible:
  • - See: (http://www.rakkav.com/biblemusic/index2.htm), (http://www.rakkav.com/biblemusic/pages/instruments.htm)
  • - Alamonth:
  • - (soprano)
  • - Gittith:
  • - Haïk-Vantoura said...
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hammered_dulcimer)
  • - Higgaion:
  • - "may signify either a solemn, deep-toned harp interlude or a solemn pause conducive to meditation." - Insight on the scriptutes, under, Higgaion.
  • - Shoshannim: (Lily) "From the character of the psalms mentioning it -- full demeanor (Ps. 45), desperate supplication (Ps. 60), tragic (Ps. 80) -- one might think of a [plucked] string instrument like a 'cello, or [perhaps] a long-necked lute [such] as existed in Asia Minor and in Egypt?" - Haïk-Vantoura [http://www.rakkav.com/biblemusic/pages/instruments.htm]
  • - Yeduthun: (Jeduthun) Haïk-Vantoura said: `Al-yedutun This "is most likely a stringed instrument known particularly to Jeduthun (1 Chron. 25:3), one of the three choir directors appointed by David. It is used in Ps. 39 (great sadness), Ps. 62 (despair), and Ps. 77 (fervent supplication). This instrument must have had a unique timbre like the modern viola, discrete but penetrating."
  • - Mahalath:
  • - "A term, evidently musical, found in the superscriptions of Psalms 53 and 88. It may be related to a Hebrew root verb meaning “grow weak; fall sick,” thereby suggesting a gloomy and sad tone, which would harmonize with the somber content of the two songs." - (Glossary, New World Translation 2014 Revised edition)
  • - (http://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1200002841#h=2:110-2:255)
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahalath)
  • - Maskil:
  • - "Maskil. A Hebrew term of uncertain meaning in the superscriptions of 13 psalms. It possibly means “contemplative poem.” Some think that a word similar in form, translated ‘serve with discretion,’ may be related in meaning.—2Ch 30:22; Ps 32:Sup." - (Glossary, New World Translation 2014 Revised edition)
  • - Miktam:
  • - "A Hebrew word used in the superscriptions of six psalms (Ps 16, 56-60). It is a technical term of uncertain meaning, though it may be related to the word “inscription.”" - (Glossary, New World Translation 2014 Revised edition)
  • - Muth-Labben: ("traditionally said to mean: "[concerning] the death of the son.” - Insight on the scriptures.)
  • - "Muth-labben. A term in the superscription of Psalm 9. Traditionally, it meant “concerning the death of the son.” Some suggest that it was the name or perhaps the opening words of a familiar melody to be used when singing this psalm." - (Glossary, New World Translation 2014 Revised edition)
  • - Selah: (found in Habbukkah) "Weigh this!"
  • - Sheminith: (“eighth”)
  • - (http://www.rakkav.com/biblemusic/pages/thekey.htm)
  • - Sheminith:
  • - "Sheminith. A musical term literally meaning “the eighth” that may refer to a lower musical register, or mode. For instruments, the word probably pointed to those that produced the bass tones of the musical scale. For songs, it likely referred to musical accompaniment in a lower range and sung accordingly. — 1 Chronicles 15:21; Psalms 6:Sup; 12:Sup." - (Glossary, New World Translation 2014 Revised edition)
  • - (http://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1001061175#h=300:0-300:335)
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_biblical_names_starting_with_S)
  • - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hammered_dulcimer

Nations of interest:

  • - The Abimael. (Son of Jokstan)
  • - The Ammonites.
  • - The Assyrians.
  • - The Arabs. (Ishmaelites, Joktan and others) - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etymology_of_the_word_Arab)
  • - The Amurru - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amurru_kingdom)
  • - The Babylonians. (Nebo-Sarsekim)
  • - The Canaanites.
  • - Those of Diklah. (Son of Jokstan)
  • - The Edomites.
  • - The Egyptians.
  • - The Greeks.
  • - Those of Havilah (Son of Jokstan)
  • - The Ishmaelites. (See: Kedar, Kedarites, Qedarire)
  • - The Kedar. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qedar)
  • - Those of Jobab. (Son of Jokstan)
  • - The Medes.
  • - The Moabites.
  • - The Midianites.
  • - The Nubians.
  • - Those of Obal.
  • - The Ophir. (See: Arabs; Son of Jokstan)
  • - The Persians.
  • - The Phoenicians.
  • - The Sabeans. (See: Arabs; Sheba was a son Joktan)
  • - The Samaritans.
  • - The Syrians.

Similarities between the Temple and the Garden of Eden

  • - Were places of worship the true God Jehovah.


  • - The Garden of Eden and the temples in Jerusalem were both: sanctuaries and symbolically a divine habitation (dwelling) to Jehovah God; a Holy place.


  • - "In the East": - a) the Garden of Eden and the entrance of the Garden were in the East. b) the temple in Jerusalem faced eastward and the entrance of the temple was also in the East.


  • - The Holy of Holies was separate; within from the Holy - The Garden of Eden was separate within the region of Eden.


  • - The "Holy Mountain of God" - (Mount Sinai, Mount Zion/Moriah)


  • - Symbols of Jehovah's authority: a) Tree of the knowledge of Good and bad b) The ark of the covenant; along.


  • - River - a) Eden had a river which split into four separate rivers. b) in a symbolic vision of the temple; a river of life issued out - Ezekiel 47:1 (Compare with: Revelation 22:1, 2). Water was associated with the Eden and temples.


  • - The Altar - a) Cain and Abel; outside of the garden of Eden. b) Temple courtyard.


  • - A side note: The incense was used in the temple in worship; the smoke is associated prayer; incense was composed or perfumes, some derived from resinous trees. And the iconography of temple include: cherubs, blossoms


  • - Cherubs, representative of Jehovah's presence: a) guard


  • - The ark of the covenant (with two cherubs on it).


  • - Two cherubs.


  • - Jehovah God's presence: a) direct communication. b) Shekinah light, the cloud.

Persons of Interest:

  • - "Y-chromosomal Adam."
  • - "Mitochondrial Eve."
  • - Pharaoh Sobekhotep III. [13th dynasty period, ancient Egyptian history]
  • - Rashi (Shlomo Itzchaki of Troyes) - A possible descendant from the tribe of Benjamin? - [26]
  • - Judah Lowe the Elder of Prague - [27]

  • - Joseph Dayan.

  • - Kohen. (Descent from antiquity: DFA)
  • - Samaritans peoples (which include):
  • - The Tsedakah lineage, claiming descent from the tribe of Manasseh - (Son of Joseph).
  • - The Joshua-Marhiv lineage, claiming descent from the tribe of Ephraim - (Son of Joseph).
  • - The Danfi lineage, claiming descent from the tribe of Ephraim - (Son of Joseph).
  • - The priestly Kohen lineage from the tribe of Levi. See: Kohen (Descent from antiquity: DFA) - (Sons of Levii)
  • - The Kohen are associated with Haplotype: J.

  • - Last common male ancestor (Y-Chromosome): Noah. Japheth, Shem, and Ham share the same biological father.
  • - Last common female ancestor (mithrocondical DNA): Probably Eve? This due to Mrs. Japheth, Mrs. Shem, and Mrs. Ham apparently did not share the same mother.

Plants of the Bible

  • - Almond - (Amygdalus communis)
  • - (The essential oil derived from Amygdalus communis is used in modern-day aromatherapy. It is usually used as a carrier oil.)







  • - Aloeswood - (Aquilaria agallocha)
  • - Aphrodisiac. - (Numbers 24:6; Psalms 45:8; Proverbs 7:17; Song of Solomon 4:14; John 19:39)







  • - Balsam - (Commiphora opobalsamum)
  • - (Song of Solomon 5:1, 13; 6:2?). In massage treatments. (Esther 2:12)






















  • - Cypress - (Cupressus sempervirens).
  • - (The essential oil derived from Cupressus sempervirens is used in modern-day aromatherapy)










  • - Judean sage (Salvia judaica)
  • - Note the similarity of the shape of the menorah.




  • - Juniper - (Juniperus excelsa) & (Juniperus phoenicia)
  • - (The essential oil derived from Juniperus excelsa is used in modern-day aromatherapy)










  • - Myrrh - (Commiphora Abyssinica).
  • - (The essential oil of Commiphora Abyssinica is used in modern-day aromatherapy)
  • - Incense (Exodus 30:23). Aphrodisiac. - (Psalms 45:8; Proverbs 7:17; Song of Solomon 1:13; 4:6, 13,14; 5:1, 5, 13) in massage (Esther 2:12) burial (John 19:39)







  • - Spikenard - (Nardostachys jatamansi)
  • - (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spikenard)
  • - An aphrodisiac. Also used in burial. - (Song of Solomon 1:12; 4:13, 14; Mark 14:3-9; Matthew 20:2; John 12:3-8)

"Relics" and "places" associated with Christ

  • - Disclaimer: This user makes no comment of whether any of these relics or sites are authentic or not. This user is just making mention if them for the sake of reference.



  • - Golgotha:


  • - Tomb of Christ:


The Temple

  • - Mount Moriah, Jerusalem, Judea:
  • - 1. Northern ("Dome of the spirits")
  • - 2. Central ("Dome of the rock")
  • - 3. Southern (El-Kas Fountain)
  • - 4. Southern (Al-Aqsa Mosque)
  • - 5. Off the Temple Mount (Ophel)



  • - Timeline
  • - B.C.E. - Abraham builds an altar on Mount Moriah:
  • - B.C.E. - Threshing floor:
  • - B.C.E. - Solomon:
  • - B.C.E. - Interfaith.
  • - 607 B.C.E. - Babylonians destroy the temple.
  • - B.C.E. - Zerubabel oversees the reconstruction of the temple.
  • - B.C.E. - Antiochus IV Epiphanes profaned the temple.
  • - B.C.E. - Herod expands the temple.
  • - 70 C.E. - Roman emperor Titus destroys the temple in Jerusalem. - (http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titus), (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Jerusalem_(70))
  • - Circa 135 C.E. - Hadrian builts temple to Jupiter on the site of temple.
  • - <...>


The Bible, It's Preservation and Biblical Texts:

  • - Josephus states (Against Apion, 1:42-43) "For we have not an innumerable multitude of books among us, disagreeing from and contradicting one another, [as the Greeks have,] but only twenty-two books, which contain the records of all the past times; which are justly believed to be divine; and of them five belong to Moses, which contain his laws and the traditions of the origin of mankind till his death... no one has been so bold as either to add any thing to them, to take any thing from them, or to make any change in them; but it is become natural to all Jews immediately, and from their very birth, to esteem these books to contain Divine doctrines, and to persist in them, and, if occasion be willingly to die for them."



  • - "And the wolf will actually reside for a while with the male lamb, and with the kid the leopard itself will lie down, and the calf and the maned young lion (DSS "will feed toether") and the well-fed animal all together; and a mere little boy will be leader over them." - Isaiah 11:26, NWT.


  • - Wadi Murabba'at, Wadi Sdeir, Nahal Hever, and Nahal Se'elim scrolls. (b. 135 C.E.)






sort=Contributor%2CImage_sequence_number%2CContributor_role%2CFolio)




  • - Masoretic codexes:



  • - Cairo Geniza 400 C.E. - (Some in Hebrew; some in Aramaic)

  • - Codex Hilleli, a lost manuscript of 600 CE, only a few sentences are preserved by Rabbinic literature.


  • - Codex Orientales 4445, dated between 820 C.E. and 850 C.E.; the manuscript contains Genesis-Deuteronomy 1:33 (less Numbers 7:47–73 and Numbers 9:12–10:18).

  • - Petersburg Codex of the Prophets - 916 C.E. (Later Prophets)


  • - Cairo Karaite Codex (Codex Cairensis) - 895 C.E. (Earlier and later Prophets)




  • - Latin Vulgate:


  • - How the Bible came to us
  • - Challenging theories undermining the inspired Word of God.

The Bible, Textual Criticism:



  • - Current Situation


  • - 1. Most Bible translations use a default text for translation; usually being the Masoretic text/Septuagint text.
  • - 2. Usually not enough attention is given to the Dead Sea scrolls and the Samaritan Torah.
  • - 3. Suzanne Haïk-Vantoura's thesis on understanding the ta'amim, if correct would have a huge impact on textual criticism and should seriously considered.
  • - 4. Recent discoveries and insights into our understanding of Hebrew and Bible. (e.g., the ancient Semitic snake spell found in Egypt and our understanding of the Hebrew text found at Isaiah 3:17. See; QDQD)

  • - 1. The Master text should be the closest thing possible to original autographs.
  • - 2. Properly use the tools at our disposal to detect when a textual mutation crept into newer manuscripts.
  • - 3. Examine and consider both the musical and poetic functions which would have present in the original text.
  • - 4. Use an up-to-date understanding to Hebrew to clarify the meaning of the text.
  • - 5. Looking for algorithms in: writing style and vocabulary, music and prose, the pattern of the known writers, etc.

  • - The yet to be discovered Biblical inscriptions and manuscripts and insights: Shechem? The Qumran caves? The locations on the copper scroll found at Qumran?


  • - Many factors play in textual criticism:


  • - The age of manuscript. - (which is older? e.g., DSS vs LXX).
  • - Possible source material of manuscript. - (which reflects what is older? e.g., DSS vs LXX).
  • - Frequency. - (How many manuscripts read that way? e.g., 4 vs. 3 ancient manuscripts).
  • - Possible reasons for textual variation (School of traditions, possible religious bias; Samaritans, Sopherim, Masoretes, Hellenistic influence, Catholic and Orthodox trinitarian dogma; language using in rendering).
  • - Poetic meter/musical value in the original language.


  • - Genesis-Malachi


  • - Dead Sea scrolls:


  • - Psalms: 39.
  • - Deuteronomy: 33.
  • - Genesis: 24.
  • - Isaiah: 22.
  • - Exodus: 18.
  • - Leviticus: 17.
  • - Numbers: 11.
  • - Minor Prophets 10.
  • - Daniel: 8.
  • - Jeremiah: 6.
  • - Ezekiel: 6.
  • - Job: 6.
  • - 1 & 2 Samuel: 4.
  • - Psalms 138:1 DSS reads, “I shall laud Jehovah with all my heart. In front of Jehovah God I shall make melody to you.” - Based on NWT rendering.


  • - Disclaimer this list was made in haste and might subject to error:


  • - Genesis (before the exile)
  • - Exodus (before the exile)
  • - Leviticus (before the exile)
  • - Numbers (before the exile) - (Oldest Hebrew text: Ketef hinnom inscription; Other old non-Hebraic manuscripts: Septugaint, langauge: Greek. Other manuscripts of interest: The Samaritan Torah)
  • - Deuteronomy (before the exile)
  • - Joshua (before the exile)
  • - Judges (before the exile)
  • - Ruth (before the exile)
  • - 1 Samuel (before the exile)
  • - 2 Samuel (before the exile)
  • - 1 Kings (after the exile)
  • - 2 Kings (after the exile)
  • - 1 Chronicles (after the exile)
  • - 2 Chronicles (after the exile)
  • - Ezra (after the exile)
  • - Nehemiah (after the exile)
  • - Esther (after the exile)
  • - Job (before the exile)
  • - Psalms (written after the exile: 137) - (c. 460 B.C.E. completed)
  • - Proverbs (before the exile)
  • - Ecclesiastes: (before the exile)
  • - The Song of Solomon (before the exile)
  • - Isaiah (before the exile)
  • - Jeremiah (before-after the exile, a passage in the book in Aramaic)
  • - Lamentations
  • - Ezekiel (after the exile, part of the book in Aramaic)
  • - Daniel (after the exile, part of the book in Aramaic)
  • - Hosea (Before the exile; to Samaritans)
  • - Joel (before the exile)
  • - Amos (before the exile)
  • - Obadiah (after the exile)
  • - Jonah (before the exile)
  • - Micah (before the exile)
  • - Nahum (before the exile)
  • - Habakkuk (before the exile)
  • - Zephaniah (before the exile)
  • - Haggai (after the exile)
  • - Zechariah (after the exile)
  • - Malachi (after the exile)


  • - (Jacob) Ben Chayyim's Second Rabbinic Bible.
  • - Meir ha-Levi Letteris (ta'amim)


  • - Matthew-Revelation


  • - Matthew:
  • - Ancient Greek Papyri (estimated dates come from Wikipedia):
  • - P64, 67: 200.
  • - P77: 200.
  • - P103: 200.
  • - P1: 250. - (Oxyrhynchus Papyri )
  • - P45: 250. - (Chester Beatty; Austrian National Library)
  • - P53: 250.
  • - P70: 250.
  • - P101: 250.


  • - About the Controversial Hebrew texts: ... <more to come>


  • - 1 John 5:7, 8 the spurious wording "in heaven, the Father, the Word and the holy spirit; and these three are one." is not contended in the earliest manuscripts occur in they introduced by later Greek manusripts and the Clementine recension of the Latin Vulgate. Excluded by: The Sinaiticus Codex, Alexandrinus Codex, Vatican manusscript 1209, Philoxenian-Harclean Syriac Version, the Coptic text. "These verses do not appear in any version of the text prior to the ninth century. " - Wikipedia. [29] [30]
  • - Sahidic Coptic text.

  • - Is the Tanakh better understood in Hebrew? Is Shakespeare better in English, Quran in Arabic anf Cervantes in Spanish, etc.,?


  • - About the Apocrypha:


  • - Not inspired!
  • - Tobit.
  • - Judith.
  • - Additions to the Book of Esther.
  • - Wisdom (of Solomon)
  • - Ecclesiasticus.
  • - Baruch (Including the Epistle of Jeremias).
  • - The Song of the Three Holy Children.
  • - Susanna and the Elders.
  • - The Destruction of Bel and the Dragon.
  • - First Maccabees.
  • - Second Maccabees.
  • - The so-called: The book of Jubilees.
  • - The so-called: History of the Captivity in Babylon.
  • - The so-called: Rest of the Words of Baruch (or Baruch 4)
  • - The so-called: The Martyrdom of Isaiah.
  • - The so-called: The book of Enoch.
  • - The so-called: The Gospel of Adam and Eve.
  • - The so-called: The book of Jannes and Jambres.
  • - The so-called: The book of Joseph and Aseneth.


  • - Gnostic literature:


  • - Not inspired:
  • - The so-called Gosepl of Thomas.
  • - The so-called Gospel of the Lord.
  • - The so-called Holy Book of the Great Invisible Spirit.
  • - The so-called Gospel of Mary Magdalene.
  • - The so-called Gospel of Thomas.
  • - The so-called Gospel of Truth.
  • - The so-called Gospel of Philip.
  • - The so-called Gospel of Judas.

The Bible: translation

  • - Translation "NT" into classical Hebrew
  • - Delitzsch's vs. Salkinson-Ginsburg.


Tombs of Interest:




  • - Joshua? Timnath-serah (Timnath-heres). - (32.119519, 35.157183) - (Joshua 24:29, 30)
  • - See:
  • - Othniel Ben Kenaz is located in Hebron in the H1 area.




















Women

  • - Abraham told to listen to Sarah. - (Genesis 21:12)
  • - Deborah <more to come>
  • - Huldah <more to come>
  • - Genesis 24:58 (choice)
  • - Proverbs 1:8
  • - 1 Kings 2:13-20
  • - Acts 21:9 Philip's daughters.
  • - (http://jehovah.to/exe/general/women.htm)
  • - <more to come>

Ziggurats and Pyramids:



  • - Africa:





  • - Americas:











  • - Asia:






  • - Asia, East





















  • - Oceania:





  • - Europe:




Ancient Aliens Debunked

Point of View

My user account is anaccuratecource on creationwiki. And I received an ultimatum from the user/administrator Temlakos regarding the expression of my displeasure against an unfair accusation against my belief. Sir, I want to assure you I mean no disrespect. And I don’t want to cause any trouble. I was only asking that the article please avoid falsely accusing us of attempting to merge our beliefs with evolution. (The article for “the Days of creation” which reads: “This view is derived from an attempt to reconcile the Bible with the theory of evolution.”) This isn’t true sir. I just wanted to clear the confusion. Sir, I am sure that if someone accused you of this, you would welcome the opportunity at least to explain your position or point of view, Wouldn’t you? I mean no harm. I am just asking that we please be given a fair opportunity to explain our position or the removal of the accusation, please. I do not want to be removed; please. I am a devote Bible believer and I don’t believe in evolution at all. And I have been on Creationwiki for about three years now and am passionate and take it very seriously. I’m writing in hopes you could please consider this sir. – Thank-you for your time.--Anaccuratesource 20:37, 14 January 2012 (PST) I post some information on my discussion page briefly outlining the situation under the section entitled "Creation". I hope that it better explains my stand and that this matter can be peacefully resolved. --Anaccuratesource 20:43, 14 January 2012 (PST)

You appear to have a unique view from that representing most Old Earth Creationists (seemingly a combination of Gap theory and Day age creationism). Nevertheless, the statement in question (This view is derived from an attempt to reconcile the Bible with the theory of evolution) is clearly true of most OECs. The OEC position generally accepts modern science assertions regarding the age of the Earth and evolution, and renders a Biblical interpretation under the assumption that the former teachings are true. There are of course differences among OECs as to the extent to which natural processes played a part in the creation of components, but the statement is true for the vast majority, and it is the majority CPOV that we want to represent.

In the Day of creation talk page you describe the age estimates of the Earth and cosmos as "scientific findings". These dates are not facts, but instead an interpretation of matter based on a philosophy of materialistic naturalism. These naturalists assume the cosmos formed through purely natural processes, and interpret all observations and measurements in support of their view. The important thing to ask yourself is "can the origin of a cosmos that was formed by the word of God be interpreted by scientists determine to explain it through philsophical naturalism"? I assert that it can not...

The creationwiki holds to young earth creation as its principal view (see CreationWiki:About), and the statement you appear most concerned about will stand on the days of creation articles. However, it is certainly possible and I would encourage you to create an article perhaps titled evidence against 24-hour day creation. We request that article content be supported by citations and encourage users to use the footnote referencing system. You may also place an editorial reservation on the article for 30 days to give you time to finish the work (see Creationwiki:template). Let me know if I can help further.--Ashcraft - (talk) 12:11, 16 January 2012 (PST)

I don't to want argue. I am not the greatest writer and I don't think I have the time to write an entire article. And in all honestly, I don't see how either has a baring on this accusation. My views may seem unique however there shared by at least 7-19 million people who firmly believe in creation and strongly oppose evolution doctrine. They believe in old earth (as indicated in Genesis 1,2). And that there's scriptural support for the creative days to be longer periods of time (Hebrew 4:4-6). Yet this article misrepresents this reality. It's a pretty outrageous claim! And if it's not accurate, why leave it there? To preserve a look? I don't want to argue, but I don't like this gross misrepresentation to so many people. I have given a scriptural support to this, these "scientific findings" merely corroborate with this understanding. --Anaccuratesource 14:26, 29 January 2012 (PST)

Too Many Quotes?

I saw your edit of the quotes page. I guess my editing of the Transitional form page may be using too many quotes, huh? I will look to reduce the quotations there that aren't absolutely needed, although some are just so useful for illustrating the controversies ongoing that it's hard to bear removing some. I will look for areas though where they aren't as necessary, and try to use fewer quotes in the future. --Jzyehoshua 13:01, 16 April 2012 (PDT)

Huh? I am confused sorry. Who was using too many quotes? --Anaccuratesource 13:53, 16 April 2012 (PDT)

Oh, wasn't sure if I'd used too many quotes on the Transitional form page. Do you think that will be okay, the edits I've made there? Some of the quotes are really relevant to the new, controversial discoveries being made. Because the material depends so heavily on the quotes made in authoritative science and news articles, I used more quotes on the page than I might otherwise. --Jzyehoshua 17:16, 16 April 2012 (PDT)

To be honest I don't why you're asking me. I love quotes. I believe they are a must have. I always try to reference my material. Practical is also key.

About contact

Do you have some sort of instant message on your computer? Would love to chat with you about all things CreationWiki related :).--Tsommer (Tony) 19:09, 5 March 2012 (PST)

I don't know what to say- kind of nervous to be honest. I love having interesting dicussions but I also my anonymous status and would not want to be put in an uncomfortable situation where someone just want to get me into a debate. I been there before and it's terrifying.


That's not my style, but if ever you wanna chat, let me know man.--Tsommer (Tony) 13:36, 6 March 2012 (PST)

I'd like that :)

Sure I would... Do you have Steam installed? If so add the user sub0187. If not what do you have in mind for us to chat?--Tsommer (Tony) 18:16, 15 January 2013 (PST)
I have Yahoo Messenger installed now under sommertony@ymail.com ... Go ahead and add me when you can.--Tsommer (Tony) 15:30, 17 January 2013 (PST)

World religions



















Re-organizing page

  • - Creation:
  • - Chronology:
  • - Pre-Flood:
  • - Flood:
  • - Post-Flood: (Table of Nations, Haplogroups, Linguistics)
  • - Patriarchs and Matriarchs:
  • - Pre-Exodus in Egypt:
  • - Exodus: (8-15km a day, 11 day journey from Kadesh-Barnea)
  • - Misc:
  • - Comparative religious studies:

((http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnic_religion)

  • - Music:
  • - Plants:
  • - The Bible: Divine name (Ya•hu•weh)
  • - Chronological:
  • - Unknown period:
  • - Conjecture
  • - Attested
  • - Controversial
  • - Contested
  • - Uncontested

The Holocaust

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