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Talk:Created kind

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John Ray & Carl Linnaeus

I should do this myself, but my schedule doesn't permit right now. Seems it would be great to include info about creationist Ray father of modern biology being the first to attempt to scientifically define and use "species" within a biological context, and about creationist Carl Linnaeus, father of biological classification, further popularizing "species" by systematic use within taxonomy and who added "genera" (our genus), both of whom in their later work saw that variation occurred within species, and Linnaeus began to see genus as more likely representing with the created kind. Jerome used all three terms to translate the Hebrew in Genesis 1 and genus is also a Greek word. BobEnyart 08:18, 10 July 2012 (PDT)

Evowiki defines "kind"

Two individuals are of the same kind if, and only if, they share a common ancestor. This definition of 'kind' is not unreasonable; it even provides an implicit methodology for determining which 'kind' a creature belongs to -- just figure out which critters do or do not share ancestors in common with the creature you're interested in. Sadly, Creationists will never use this definition, for their dogma demands that humans have an origin completely separate and distinct from any and every other life form on Earth, and the evidence at hand clearly indicates that the species homo sapiens shares ancestors in common with a number of other species. Creationists refer to the vague (undefined) version of 'kind' as cited in Genesis 1.''

It is unreasonable until a accurate method of determining common ancestor is developed. According to evolution, all living things share a common ancestor, and therefore are one kind. PrometheusX303 21:31, 28 December 2005 (GMT)

I disagree. That is a reasonable definition of the created kind. Our ability to identify them, should not effect our definition of them. The original definition on the page was incorrect. It said "the original forms of life as they were created by God." It is arguable that no organism today exists in the form as they were originally created. They have in fact changed so much we cant use morphological characteristics to identify the kinds. We cant use reproductive incompatibility to exclude them either. I have changed the short and sweet definition to " Created kinds are organisms that share a common ancestry." --Chris Ashcraft 22:02, 28 December 2005 (GMT)


"Kinds" is still a vague concept for me. According to Genesis, animals on the ark are representatives of their kind, therefore their decendents are of that kind. I agree that, due to adaptation and speciation few, if any, organisms exist as the original kind. In retrospect, I also agree with the "short and sweet" definition. I think I was comparing created kinds with evolutionary ancestors. PrometheusX303 23:06, 28 December 2005 (GMT)

Question

Therefore, it is believed to be assumable that any organism alive today, which has obvious ancestors in the fossil record, is a created kind.

Wouldn't the opposite be true? If an organism has obvious ancestors then the DNA of the organism living today must have been selected from the original ancestors. Or am I wrong?

-- RichardT

Types of Core Species

I started a discussion on this at evcforum.net:

http://www.evcforum.net/dm.php?control=msg&t=16400

Someone wanted to know what the core created species were so I did a quick analysis comparing Genesis 1 to Leviticus 11. Here it is. Does anyone think some of this might be useful for inclusion in the article somehow?


Someone asked me recently (see here) what the core created species are in the book of Genesis. So I thought I'd suggest a new topic with some quick research on what these would be according to Genesis 1 and Leviticus 11 for discussion of what parent species would be according to the Bible.

I provide the Hebrew words and explanation of what affects translation for the core species. Interlinear pages for seeing the original Hebrew text are available at BibleStudyTools.com, BibleTools.org, InterLinearBible.org, QBible.com, Scripture4All.org, or one can use software like the PowerBible 90 day demo or eSword. For the families within them I just provide KJV translations which, while perhaps incorrect, will give a quick possibility for what the correct translation might be.

PLANTS

Genesis 1:11-12 gives 3 core species of plants:

  • 'Deshe - It is usually translated "grass" by the KJV but sometimes "herb" as well. It was the 1st of the plant types mentioned and was created the 3rd day. (vv. 11-12)
  • 'Eseb Zara' Zera' - Three Hebrew words are used, 'Eseb meaning plant (KJV herb or grass), Zara' meaning to sow (KJV sow), and Zera' meaning seed (KJV seed), thus Seed-Sowing Plant. It is the 2nd plant mentioned in Genesis 1 and was created the 2nd day. (vv. 11-12)
  • Periy 'Ets - The Hebrew words used are Periy meaning fruit and 'Ets meaning Tree. It is specifically said to have seed within itself. It was the 3rd of God's created plants mentioned in Genesis 1 and was created the 3rd day. (vv. 11-12)

LIFE

Concerning other life, the apparent core species appear to exist according to Genesis 1:

  • Mayim Sherets - The Hebrew word Sherets is often translated creeping thing, and is used with another Hebrew word Mayim meaning waters, thus effectively referring to small marine life. It is the first creation mentioned in Genesis 1 and was made the 5th day (thus including marine life). (v. 20) In Leviticus 11:10 the marine life was specifically said to be everything without fins and scales in the seas and rivers.
  • 'Owph - This Hebrew word is often translated "fowl" by the KJV but simply refers to flying creatures, both birds and insects, and appears the best defined of the Biblical families. They are the second creation mentioned in Genesis 1 and were made the 5th day. (vv. 20-22, 26, 28, 30) Specific bird families mentioned include nesher (KJV eagles), perec (KJV ossifrage), 'ozniyah (KJV ospray), da'ah (KJV vulture), 'ayah (KJV kite), 'oreb (KJV raven), bath ya'anah (KJV owl), tachmac (KJV night hawk), shachaph (KJV cuckow), nets (KJV hawk), kowc (KJV little owl), shalak (KJV cormorant), yanshuwph (KJV great owl), tanshemeth (KJV swan), qa'ath (KJV pelican), racham (KJV gier eagle), chaciydah (KJV stork), 'anaphah (KJV heron), duwkiyphath (KJV lapwing), and 'atalleph (KJV bat). (Leviticus 11:13-19)
The group also appears to have included insects as a subgroup, 'Owph Sherets, or Flying Creeping Things. Specific families named included 'arbeh (KJV locusts), col'am (KJV bald locusts), chargol (KJV beetles), and chagab (KJV grasshoppers). Insects were divided into two groups, one okay for eating (Clean), and one not okay (Unclean), with the difference those which had 4 legs as opposed to a different number. (Leviticus 11:21-25)
  • Tanniyn - This Hebrew word is translated first as "great whales" but usually is translated as "serpent" or "dragon", and once even "sea monster". It appears to involve some kind of huge reptiles of uncertain origin, perhaps dinosaurs. It is the 3rd creation mentioned in Genesis 1 and was created the 5th day. (v. 21) A specific family appears to be the livyathan (KJV leviathan, also called piercing serpent). (Isaiah 13:22)
  • Mayim Chay - Chay is often translated "life", whereas Mayim refers to waters, thus Marine Life. It appears a major category for fish and larger marine life. It is the 4th creation mentioned in Genesis 1 and was created the 5th day. (vv. 21-22) It appears grouped together with 3 of the 4 previously mentioned core species (minus 'Owph) as Dagah Yam (KJV fish of the sea) later in the chapter. (vv. 26, 28) They appear to be defined as having fins and scales in Leviticus 11:9.
  • 'Erets Chay - Two Hebrew words are used here, Chay often translated "life" by the KJV, and 'Erets meaning Earth, in other words, Earth Life (KJV beasts of the earth). They are the 5th creation mentioned and were created the 6th day. (v. 24, 25, 28, 30) They were mentioned twice in v. 24 and thus may include two primary kinds. They appear to have been divided by those which went on their paws on all fours, and those which did not. (Leviticus 11:27-28)
  • Behemah - The Hebrew word is always translated by the KJV as "beast" or "cattle" and appears to involve the idea of cattle. They are the 6th creation mentioned and were created the 6th day.(vv. 24-26) They were defined in two groups, those with parted hooves/cloved feet which chewed the cud, and those which did not.(Leviticus 11:4) Specific families appear to include chamowr (KJV ass), showr (KJV ox), seh (KJV sheep), gamal (KJV camel), shaphan (KJV coney), 'arnebath (KJV hare), and chaziyr (KJV swine). (Exodus 22:10, Leviticus 11:4-8)
  • Remes - Remes is usually translated "creeping thing" by the KJV, and the word appears to mean Reptile or Lizard. It doesn't appear to involve insects, which are mentioned instead as Owph in Leviticus 11:20-23. This is the 7th creation of Genesis 1 and was created the 6th day. (vv. 24-26) It appears to be also described as Sherets 'Erets in Leviticus 11:29, in describing creeping things of the earth, with specific families said to be 'akbar (KJV mice), tsab (KJV tortoise), 'anaqah (KJV ferret), koach (KJV chameleon), lata'ah (KJV lizard), chomet (KJV snail), and tanshameth (KJV mole). (Leviticus 11:29-35).
  • 'Adam - Meaning man. They were the 8th and last of God's creations made in Genesis 1, and were created on the 6th day; designated as caretakers of the other creations. (vv. 26-30)


When separating by groups was done, it was for purposes of safety in eating, according to Leviticus 11. Creatures were divided into groups of Clean vs. Unclean, those which were safe for eating vs. those which were not to be eaten. The chapter was written to ensure Israelites ate only that which was okayed by God, perhaps for their own safety. (vv. 47-48) Distinctions mentioned in the chapter include:

-Insects were defined as clean if they had 4 legs (v. 21) but unclean otherwise. Those which touched the dead bodies of unclean ones were to wash their clothes. (vv. 24-25) Anything which crawled on the earth or had extra legs appeared forbidden as unclean in general. (vv. 41-42) -Flying creatures (Owph) were defined as unclean by specific families rather than having defined criteria, which is why so many specific types are mentioned in the Bible. (vv. 13-19) -Marine life was defined as unclean if it did not have fins or scales. Israelites were told not to touch the dead bodies of unclean ones. (vv. 9-12) -Earth life was defined as unclean if it went on its paws on all fours. Israelites were told not to touch the dead bodies of unclean ones and to wash their clothes if they did. -Cattle were defined as unclean if they chewed the cud or had cloven hooves. Israelites were told not to touch their dead bodies. (vv. 3-8, 26) -Reptiles were defined as unclean, like birds, by specific families, rather than defined criteria. Those mentioned were considered so dangerous that anything they fell on (wood, clothing, tools, seed, etc.) had to be cleaned with water and purified. Vessels they fell into were to be broken. Probably a precaution against venomous ones like snakes. (vv. 29-38)


I am thinking this might be well included in the Scriptural Accounts section but it would conflict with some information there, like the Creation section saying there isn't much detail. I suppose I will just put the information there and revise the section.

--Jzyehoshua 16:18, 27 May 2012 (PDT)

Research Tool Used

Also, in case anyone is wondering, I am personally using a program called PowerBible CD. It has a free demo but now you have to contact them for it, so I'm not sure how easy it is to obtain still (I actually bought a copy of the full version at a summercamp called The Wilds back in 2003 that I've been using but the demo works just as well). Plus it only lasts 90 days now whereas before it was unlimited. At any rate, I use the interlinear tool on it to see all the original Hebrew/Greek words overlapped on the KJV text, and can click any one to see the Strong's definition for that word, and even search for the original Hebrew/Greek word throughout the Bible. That's how I'm able to search so easily in seeing how the Hebrew words are used throughout the Bible like this. As you can see, I'm providing online Strong's links though to the words to try and provide the best online resources I can for the original Hebrew words, however. Just wanted to explain what my main research tool was. --Jzyehoshua 19:59, 27 May 2012 (PDT)

I right-click on the screen to bring up menus that let me turn on or off things like Interlinear, Cross-References, and Footnotes. I'll also search for the exact phrase instead of just all the words using the search tool, so as long as I remember lesser-used phrases or words in Bible verses, I can easily find pretty much any given verse in the Bible within seconds. If I am in doubt about what a Hebrew or Greek word means in the Interlinear, I can just click on it to bring up the Strong's page for that word, and from there use the link to "Search for 01320 in KJV". Then I'll see all the places that word is used in the Bible. Anyway, I've gotten pretty good at using the program since 2003 when I bought it, and it's what lets me research areas like Genesis easily. There should be a free demo at www.PowerBible.com still, but again, they no longer have an easy download link for it, but require contacting them - plus it lasts just 90 days now. E-Sword is another free Bible search program that should have Interlinear Hebrew searching as well I believe, but I haven't tried it in years (not really a need with PowerBible). --Jzyehoshua 20:32, 27 May 2012 (PDT)

Deletions

Is everyone okay with my deleting the Deuteronomy 14 section and some of the Flood section?[1] I revamped the section to involve Genesis 1, Leviticus 11, and Deuteronomy 14, making the Deuteronomy 14 section redundant. I basically merged information from Deuteronomy 14 into the main section and made it a primary source since it is similar to Leviticus 11 in naming key families, and even names some that Leviticus 11 does not. I also removed some information from the Flood section that was more narrative than informative, and conflicted with the new material I just added. --Jzyehoshua 18:00, 27 May 2012 (PDT)

NO - again you should propose deletions.
These deletions confused the issue. The references you have added are not to created kinds, but to broad categories of organisms (agricultural plants, fruit trees, flying creatures) - not created kinds (or baramin) as used by creation biologists. The created kinds are those from which other species have evolved, and thus provide the basis for creation phylogenies. --Ashcraft - (talk) 18:33, 27 May 2012 (PDT)
Oh. Okay... I'm a bit confused as to what the difference is between these created kinds in Genesis 1 and the baramin then. I wasn't aware there was a difference. Is there a better place for this information then? --Jzyehoshua 18:44, 27 May 2012 (PDT)
Yes - Give me a moment and I will reedit the page, retaining much of your additions, while avoiding the use of the word "kinds" when referring to these broad categories. --Ashcraft - (talk) 18:33, 27 May 2012 (PDT)
I've never come across a wiki before where instant deletion isn't allowed as long as there's a reason for it, and will make sure to use this proposal system from now on. Sorry about the deletions, I am just not accustomed to this editing format and will make sure I propose deletions from now on rather than just making them first. I guess I got too used to Wikipedia's "Edit Boldly" format in the past. --Jzyehoshua 18:48, 27 May 2012 (PDT)
The deletion policy is probably more necessary here because of differing views (old earth, young earth, etc.). See: Guidelines - It is not permitted to delete content where you are at odds. For example: old earth creationists should not edit young earth content or vice versa. Instead you should simply add to what has been previously written with explanatory headings. If the author's meaning is changed by making a deletion then it should be first proposed. In this case, you were effectively changing the definition of the "created kind". According to creation biologists there are many created kinds in each of these categories as was noted in one of the sections you deleted.
Summary of the original kinds detailed in the creation account found within Genesis 1 .
  • Many kinds of plants bearing fruit;
  • Many kinds of trees bearing fruit;
  • Many kinds of great sea creatures;
  • Many kinds of sessile and mobile aquatic organisms;
  • Many kinds of birds;
  • Many kinds of livestock;
  • Many kinds of insects, and;
  • Many kinds of wild animals. --Ashcraft - (talk) 19:53, 27 May 2012 (PDT)
Ah, okay. I consider myself a Young Earth Creationist just because I do think life on earth was created recently, but I've never been much of one for labels, I just read the Bible for myself and reach my own conclusions. I'm not sure what my technical identification is.
I thought my points were consistent with Genesis 1 so I put them in, and figured they'd be consistent with the baramin concept used by creation biologists as well. It seemed like the section had a lack of detail in how these kinds were divided so I thought my information would prove useful in providing specifics that weren't yet mentioned. I didn't realize it would cause a problem.
I just made some of the deletions because they made it sound like the core created kinds couldn't be determined from Genesis 1 when an interlinear reading of the text for me appears to show very clear divisions of what those core kinds are - and comparing to Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14 shows even further divisions into clean and unclean types, as well as specific families within the core species. --Jzyehoshua 20:05, 27 May 2012 (PDT)
I wasn't trying to discuss Baraminology at all, actually. I use the term Core Created Species a lot but don't engage in Baraminology at all - or at least, if so, I've never called it that. I refer to the "kinds" in the book of Genesis as species, and created kinds I'm familiar with, but I'd never heard of Baraminology before. I deliberately avoided the page on Baraminology because I just wanted to discuss core created species, not baraminology - which I'm not familiar with. I just know about core created species per Genesis. --Jzyehoshua 20:08, 27 May 2012 (PDT)
Understood - it made for a nice addition.--Ashcraft - (talk) 20:11, 27 May 2012 (PDT)
Okay, thanks. I guess the thing is, I am a Creationist because I believe what the Bible says, not because I'm associated with the Creationist movement. I've never really followed too closely what Creationists said, which is why all of my points are so unique. I defend what the Bible says and the concept of core created species and young life on earth, but if there are technical terms for this I am not familiar with them, that's all. I don't know what typical Creationist theory is on this, and have kind of done my own research rather than looking at what other Creationists were doing. --Jzyehoshua 20:14, 27 May 2012 (PDT)
I would discourage you from using the phrase "core created species". That could be a source of much confusion when trying to defend the Biblical young earth view. I have edited those statements out of the page. Based on the scientific definition, these names are certainly not references to species, but large groups of organisms with a great many species in each. --Ashcraft - (talk) 20:38, 27 May 2012 (PDT)
Okay, good point. I guess Created Kind is the term being used here and I need to make sure that's the term I use instead. The term Kind in Genesis 1 isn't heard that often though so I started using the term core created species to make it clearer what I was talking about. I hadn't realized these concepts of Created Kinds and Baramins are very different concepts. --Jzyehoshua 21:20, 27 May 2012 (PDT)
I am referring to the Kinds seen in Genesis 1. I guess this term Created Kind is something used in Baraminology that is different so maybe the information is more applicable on a page about the Genesis 1 kinds instead. --Jzyehoshua 21:25, 27 May 2012 (PDT)

What 'Kinds' Are?

I just thought of an interesting study - seeing where the Hebrew word "miyn" translated "kind" is used. So looking at Genesis 1 for the Interlinear, I see the following:

Genesis 1:1 ¶ In the beginning <re'shiyth> God <'elohiym> created <bara'> <'eth> the heaven <shamayim> and <'eth> the earth <'erets>.
2 And the earth <'erets> was <hayah> without form <tohuw>, and void <bohuw>; and darkness <choshek> was upon the face <paniym> of the deep <tehowm>. And the Spirit <ruwach> of God <'elohiym> moved <rachaph> upon <`al> the face <paniym> of the waters <mayim>.
3 ¶ And God <'elohiym> said <'amar>, Let there be <hayah> light <'owr>: and there was light <'owr>.
4 And God <'elohiym> saw <ra'ah> <'eth> the light <'owr>, that <kiy> it was good <towb>: and God <'elohiym> divided <badal> <beyn> the light <'owr> from <beyn> the darkness <choshek>.
5 And God <'elohiym> called <qara'> the light <'owr> Day <yowm>, and the darkness <choshek> he called <qara'> Night <layil>. And the evening <`ereb> and the morning <boqer> were the first <'echad> day <yowm>.
6 ¶ And God <'elohiym> said <'amar>, Let there be a firmament <raqiya`> in the midst <tavek> of the waters <mayim>, and let it divide <badal> the waters <mayim> from the waters <mayim>.
7 And God <'elohiym> made <`asah> the firmament <raqiya`>, and divided <badal> the waters <mayim> which <'aher> were under <tachath> the firmament <raqiya`> from the waters <mayim> which <'aher> were above <`al> the firmament <raqiya`>: and it was so <ken>.
8 And God <'elohiym> called <qara'> the firmament <raqiya`> Heaven <shamayim>. And the evening <`ereb> and the morning <boqer> were the second <sheniy> day <yowm>.
9 ¶ And God <'elohiym> said <'amar>, Let the waters <mayim> under the heaven <shamayim> be gathered together <qavah> unto <'el> one <'echad> place <maqowm>, and let the dry <yabbashah> land appear <ra'ah>: and it was so.
10 And God <'elohiym> called <qara'> the dry <yabbashah> land Earth <'erets>; and the gathering together <miqveh> of the waters <mayim> called <qara'> he Seas <yam>: and God <'elohiym> saw <ra'ah> that it was good <towb>.
11 And God <'elohiym> said <'amar>, Let the earth <'erets> bring forth <dasha> grass <deshe'>, the herb <`eseb> yielding <zara`> seed <zera`>, and the fruit <periy> tree <`ets> yielding <`asah> fruit <periy> after his kind <miyn>, whose <'aher> seed <zera`> is in itself, upon the earth <'erets>: and it was so.
12 And the earth <'erets> brought forth <yatsa'> grass <deshe'>, and herb <`eseb> yielding <zara`> seed <zera`> after his kind <miyn>, and the tree <`ets> yielding <`asah> fruit <periy>, whose seed <zera`> was in itself, after his kind <miyn>: and God <'elohiym> saw <ra'ah> that it was good <towb>.
13 And the evening <`ereb> and the morning <boqer> were the third <sheliyshiy> day <yowm>.
14 ¶ And God <'elohiym> said <'amar>, Let there be lights <ma'owr> in the firmament <raqiya`> of the heaven <shamayim> to divide <badal> the day <yowm> from the night <layil>; and let them be for signs <'owth>, and for seasons <mow`ed>, and for days <yowm>, and years <shaneh (in pl. only),>:
15 And let them be for lights <ma'owr> in the firmament <raqiya`> of the heaven <shamayim> to give light <'owr> upon the earth <'erets>: and it was so.
16 And God <'elohiym> made <`asah> two <shenayim> great <gadowl> lights <ma'owr>; the greater <gadowl> light <ma'owr> to rule <memshalah> the day <yowm>, and the lesser <qatan> light <ma'owr> to rule <memshalah> the night <layil>: he made the stars <kowkab> also.
17 And God <'elohiym> set <nathan> them in the firmament <raqiya`> of the heaven <shamayim> to give light <'owr> upon the earth <'erets>,
18 And to rule <mashal> over the day <yowm> and over the night <layil>, and to divide <badal> the light <'owr> from the darkness <choshek>: and God <'elohiym> saw <ra'ah> that it was good <towb>.
19 And the evening <`ereb> and the morning <boqer> were the fourth <rebiy`iy> day <yowm>.
20 ¶ And God <'elohiym> said <'amar>, Let the waters <mayim> bring forth abundantly <sharats> the moving creature <sherets> that hath <nephesh> life <chay>, and fowl <`owph> that may fly <`uwph> above <`al> the earth <'erets> in the open <paniym> firmament <raqiya`> of heaven <shamayim>.
21 And God <'elohiym> created <bara'> great <gadowl> whales <tanniyn>, and every living <chay> creature <nephesh> that moveth <ramas>, which the waters <mayim> brought forth abundantly <sharats>, after their kind <miyn>, and every winged <kanaph> fowl <`owph> after his kind <miyn>: and God <'elohiym> saw <ra'ah> that it was good <towb>.
22 And God <'elohiym> blessed <barak> them, saying <'amar>, Be fruitful <parah>, and multiply <rabah>, and fill <male'> the waters <mayim> in the seas <yam>, and let fowl <`owph> multiply <rabah> in the earth <'erets>.
23 And the evening <`ereb> and the morning <boqer> were the fifth <chamiyshiy> day <yowm>.
24 ¶ And God <'elohiym> said <'amar>, Let the earth <'erets> bring forth <yatsa'> the living <chay> creature <nephesh> after his kind <miyn>, cattle <behemah>, and creeping thing <remes>, and beast <chay> of the earth <'erets> after his kind <miyn>: and it was so.
25 And God <'elohiym> made <`asah> the beast <chay> of the earth <'erets> after his kind <miyn>, and cattle <behemah> after their kind <miyn>, and every thing that creepeth <remes> upon the earth <'adamah> after his kind <miyn>: and God <'elohiym> saw <ra'ah> that it was good <towb>.
26 ¶ And God <'elohiym> said <'amar>, Let us make <`asah> man <'adam> in our image <tselem>, after our likeness <demuwth>: and let them have dominion <radah> over the fish <dagah> of the sea <yam>, and over the fowl <`owph> of the air <shamayim>, and over the cattle <behemah>, and over all the earth <'erets>, and over every creeping thing <remes> that creepeth <ramas> upon the earth <'erets>.
27 So God <'elohiym> created <bara'> man <'adam> in his own image <tselem>, in the image <tselem> of God <'elohiym> created <bara'> he him; male <zakar> and female <neqebah> created <bara'> he them.
28 And God <'elohiym> blessed <barak> them, and God <'elohiym> said <'amar> unto them, Be fruitful <parah>, and multiply <rabah>, and replenish <male'> the earth <'erets>, and subdue it <kabash>: and have dominion <radah> over the fish <dagah> of the sea <yam>, and over the fowl <`owph> of the air <shamayim>, and over every living thing <chay> that moveth <ramas> upon the earth <'erets>.
29 ¶ And God <'elohiym> said <'amar>, Behold <hinneh>, I have given <nathan> you every herb <`eseb> bearing <zara`> seed <zera`>, which is upon the face <paniym> of all the earth <'erets>, and every tree <`ets>, in the which is the fruit <periy> of a tree <`ets> yielding <zara`> seed <zera`>; to you it shall be <hayah> for meat <'oklah>.
30 And to every beast <chay> of the earth <'erets>, and to every fowl <`owph> of the air <shamayim>, and to every thing that creepeth <ramas> upon the earth <'erets>, wherein there is life <chay> <nephesh>, I have given every green <yereq> herb <`eseb> for meat <'oklah>: and it was so.
31 ¶ And God <'elohiym> saw <ra'ah> every thing that <'aher> he had made <`asah>, and, behold, it was very <me`od> good <towb>. And the evening <`ereb> and the morning <boqer> were the sixth <shishshiy> day <yowm>

I highlighted places where "miyn" is used. Maybe these show what some of the Created Kinds are? --Jzyehoshua 21:44, 27 May 2012 (PDT)

I notice it's used of the following:
  • Fruit Trees (vv. 11, 12)
  • Seed-Sowing Plants (v. 12)
  • Marine Life (v. 21)
  • Flying Creatures (v. 21)
  • Earth Life (v. 24)
  • Beast of the Earth (vv. 24-25)
  • Cattle (vv. 24-25)
  • Creeping Things on Earth (vv. 24-25)
There definitely appear to be some categories at work though as described by the word kind. The only thing though is the word kind is used just once in v. 21 in describing both Marine Life and Huge Dragons, so perhaps those are one kind instead of two. Also, the word kind is used of only Fruit Trees and Seed-Sowing Plants in vv. 11-12, so maybe grass just means plants covering both of them, and those two are the Kinds for plants. Still, there clearly appear to be a minimum of 2 Plant Kinds and 6 Life Kinds (excluding humans, of which the word kind is not mentioned in Genesis 1). --Jzyehoshua 21:54, 27 May 2012 (PDT)
I just highlighted in two colors, red to show where the Hebrew word "miyn" is used that gets translated "Kind", and in green to show where names of possible kinds are at.

──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── These same words are used in Leviticus 11 too, as seen from highlighting them there also:

Leviticus 11:1 ¶ And the LORD <Yehovah> spake <dabar> unto Moses <Mosheh> and to Aaron <'Aharown>, saying <'amar> unto them,
2 Speak <dabar> unto the children <ben> of Israel <Yisra'el>, saying <'amar>, These <zo'th> are the beasts <chay> which ye shall eat <'akal> among all the beasts <behemah> that are on the earth <'erets>.
3 Whatsoever parteth <parac> the hoof <parcah>, and is clovenfooted <shaca`> <sheca`>, and cheweth <`alah> the cud <gerah>, among the beasts <behemah>, that shall ye eat <'akal>.
4 Nevertheless <'ak> these shall ye not eat <'akal> of them that chew <`alah> the cud <gerah>, or of them that divide <parac> the hoof <parcah>: as the camel <gamal>, because he cheweth <`alah> the cud <gerah>, but divideth <parac> not the hoof <parcah>; he is unclean <tame'> unto you.
5 And the coney <shaphan>, because he cheweth <`alah> the cud <gerah>, but divideth <parac> not the hoof <parcah>; he is unclean <tame'> unto you.
6 And the hare <'arnebeth>, because he cheweth <`alah> the cud <gerah>, but divideth <parac> not the hoof <parcah>; he is unclean <tame'> unto you.
7 And the swine <chaziyr>, though he divide <parac> the hoof <parcah>, and be clovenfooted <shaca`> <sheca`>, yet he cheweth <garar> not the cud <gerah>; he is unclean <tame'> to you.
8 Of their flesh <basar> shall ye not eat <'akal>, and their carcase <nebelah> shall ye not touch <naga`>; they are unclean <tame'> to you.
9 ¶ These shall ye eat <'akal> of all that are in the waters <mayim>: whatsoever hath fins <cenappiyr> and scales <qasqeseth> in the waters <mayim>, in the seas <yam>, and in the rivers <nachal>, them shall ye eat <'akal>.
10 And all that have not fins <cenappiyr> and scales <qasqeseth> in the seas <yam>, and in the rivers <nachal>, of all that move <sherets> in the waters <mayim>, and of any living <chay> thing <nephesh> which is in the waters <mayim>, they shall be an abomination <sheqets> unto you:
11 They shall be even an abomination <sheqets> unto you; ye shall not eat <'akal> of their flesh <basar>, but ye shall have their carcases <nebelah> in abomination <shaqats>.
12 Whatsoever hath no fins <cenappiyr> nor scales <qasqeseth> in the waters <mayim>, that shall be an abomination <sheqets> unto you.
13 And these are they which ye shall have in abomination <shaqats> among <min> the fowls <`owph>; they shall not be eaten <'akal>, they are an abomination <sheqets>: the eagle <nesher>, and the ossifrage <perec>, and the ospray <`ozniyah>,
14 And the vulture <da'ah>, and the kite <'ayah> after his kind <miyn>;
15 Every raven <`oreb> after his kind <miyn>;
16 And the owl <bath> <ya`anah>, and the night hawk <tachmac>, and the cuckow <shachaph>, and the hawk <nets> after his kind <miyn>,
17 And the little owl <kowc>, and the cormorant <shalak>, and the great owl <yanshuwph>,
18 And the swan <tanshemeth>, and the pelican <qa'ath>, and the gier eagle <racham>,
19 And the stork <chaciydah>, the heron <'anaphah> after her kind <miyn>, and the lapwing <duwkiyphath>, and the bat <`atalleph>.
20 ¶ All fowls <`owph> that creep <sherets>, going <halak> upon all four <'arba`>, shall be an abomination <sheqets> unto you.
21 Yet these may ye eat <'akal> of every flying <`owph> creeping <sherets> thing that goeth <halak> upon all four <'arba`>, which have legs <kara`> above <ma`al> their feet <regel>, to leap <nathar> withal <hen> upon the earth <'erets>;
22 Even these of them ye may eat <'akal>; the locust <'arbeh> after his kind <miyn>, and the bald locust <col`am> after his kind <miyn>, and the beetle <chargol> after his kind <miyn>, and the grasshopper <chagab> after his kind <miyn>.
23 But all other flying <`owph> creeping things <sherets>, which have four <'arba`> feet <regel>, shall be an abomination <sheqets> unto you.
24 And for these ye shall be unclean <tame'>: whosoever toucheth <naga`> the carcase <nebelah> of them shall be unclean <tame'> until the even <`ereb>.
25 And whosoever beareth <nasa'> ought of the carcase <nebelah> of them shall wash <kabac> his clothes <beged>, and be unclean <tame'> until the even <`ereb>.
26 The carcases of every beast <behemah> which divideth <parac> the hoof <parcah>, and is not clovenfooted <sheca`> <shaca`>, nor cheweth <`alah> the cud <gerah>, are unclean <tame'> unto you: every one that toucheth <naga`> them shall be unclean <tame'>.
27 And whatsoever <kol> <hem> goeth <halak> upon his paws <kaph>, among all manner of beasts <chay> that go <halak> on all four <'arba`>, those are unclean <tame'> unto you: whoso toucheth <naga`> their carcase <nebelah> shall be unclean <tame'> until the even <`ereb>.
28 And he that beareth <nasa'> the carcase <nebelah> of them shall wash <kabac> his clothes <beged>, and be unclean <tame'> until the even <`ereb>: they are unclean <tame'> unto you.
29 These also shall be unclean <tame'> unto you among the creeping things <sherets> that creep <sharats> upon the earth <'erets>; the weasel <choled>, and the mouse <`akbar>, and the tortoise <tsab> after his kind <miyn>,
30 And the ferret <'anaqah>, and the chameleon <koach>, and the lizard <leta'ah>, and the snail <chomet>, and the mole <tanshemeth>.
31 These are unclean <tame'> to you among all that creep <sherets>: whosoever doth touch <naga`> them, when they be dead <maveth>, shall be unclean <tame'> until the even <`ereb>.
32 And upon whatsoever any of them, when they are dead <maveth>, doth fall <naphal>, it shall be unclean <tame'>; whether it be any vessel <keliy> of wood <`ets>, or raiment <beged>, or skin <`owr>, or sack <saq>, whatsoever vessel <keliy> it be, wherein any work <mela'kah> is done <`asah>, it must be put <bow'> into water <mayim>, and it shall be unclean <tame'> until the even <`ereb>; so it shall be cleansed <taher>.
33 And every earthen <cheres> vessel <keliy>, whereinto any of them falleth <naphal> <tavek>, whatsoever is in it shall be unclean <tame'>; and ye shall break <shabar> it.
34 Of all meat <'okel> which may be eaten <'akal>, that on which such water <mayim> cometh <bow'> shall be unclean <tame'>: and all drink <mashqeh> that may be drunk <shathah> in every such vessel <keliy> shall be unclean <tame'>.
35 And every thing whereupon any part of their carcase <nebelah> falleth <naphal> shall be unclean <tame'>; whether it be oven <tannuwr>, or ranges <kiyr> for pots, they shall be broken down <nathats>: for they are unclean <tame'>, and shall be unclean <tame'> unto you.
36 Nevertheless a fountain <ma`yan> or pit <bowr>, wherein there is plenty <miqveh> of water <mayim>, shall be clean <tahowr>: but that which toucheth <naga`> their carcase <nebelah> shall be unclean <tame'>.
37 And if any part of their carcase <nebelah> fall <naphal> upon any sowing <zeruwa`> seed <zera`> which is to be sown <zara`>, it shall be clean <tahowr>.
38 But if any water <mayim> be put <nathan> upon the seed <zera`>, and any part of their carcase <nebelah> fall <naphal> thereon, it shall be unclean <tame'> unto you.
39 And if any beast <behemah>, of which ye may eat <'oklah>, die <muwth>; he that toucheth <naga`> the carcase <nebelah> thereof shall be unclean <tame'> until the even <`ereb>.
40 And he that eateth <'akal> of the carcase <nebelah> of it shall wash <kabac> his clothes <beged>, and be unclean <tame'> until the even <`ereb>: he also that beareth <nasa'> the carcase <nebelah> of it shall wash <kabac> his clothes <beged>, and be unclean <tame'> until the even <`ereb>.
41 And every creeping thing <sherets> that creepeth <sharats> upon the earth <'erets> shall be an abomination <sheqets>; it shall not be eaten <'akal>.
42 Whatsoever goeth <halak> upon the belly <gachown>, and whatsoever goeth <halak> upon all four <'arba`>, or whatsoever hath more <rabah> feet <regel> among all creeping things <sherets> that creep <sharats> upon the earth <'erets>, them ye shall not eat <'akal>; for they are an abomination <sheqets>.
43 ¶ Ye shall not make <shaqats> yourselves <nephesh> abominable <shaqats> with any creeping thing <sherets> that creepeth <sharats>, neither shall ye make yourselves unclean <tamah> with them, that ye should be defiled <tame'> thereby.
44 For I am the LORD <Yehovah> your God <'elohiym>: ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves <qadash>, and ye shall be holy <qadowsh>; for I am holy <qadowsh>: neither shall ye defile <tame'> yourselves <nephesh> with any manner of creeping thing <sherets> that creepeth <ramas> upon the earth <'erets>.
45 For I am the LORD <Yehovah> that bringeth <`alah> you up out of the land <'erets> of Egypt <Mitsrayim>, to be your God <'elohiym>: ye shall therefore be holy <qadowsh>, for I am holy <qadowsh>.
46 This is the law <towrah> of the beasts <behemah>, and of the fowl <`owph>, and of every living <chay> creature <nephesh> that moveth <ramas> in the waters <mayim>, and of every creature <nephesh> that creepeth <sharats> upon the earth <'erets>:
47 To make a difference <badal> between the unclean <tame'> and the clean <tahowr>, and between the beast <chay> that may be eaten <'akal> and the beast <chay> that may not be eaten <'akal>.

I basically just cross-checked these two passages at first, and later Deuteronomy 14, to get a sense of which were the core species everything else was falling into. --Jzyehoshua 23:08, 27 May 2012 (PDT)

Further Categories?

Key verses for me include the following, to see whether the 7 types of life (apart from humans) fall into further headings like Fish of the Sea, Fowl of the Air, Creeping Things, and Beasts of the Earth. These are key verses for me since they appear to name all types of life, and categorize them under certain headings:

Genesis 1:26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
28 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.
Leviticus 11:46 This is the law of the beasts, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every creature that creepeth upon the earth:
47 To make a difference between the unclean and the clean, and between the beast that may be eaten and the beast that may not be eaten.
Genesis 9:2 And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea; into your hand are they delivered.
Psalms 8:6 Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of thy hands; thou hast put all things under his feet:
7 All sheep and oxen, yea, and the beasts of the field;
8 The fowl of the air, and the fish of the sea, and whatsoever passeth through the paths of the seas.

Deuteronomy 4:16 Lest ye corrupt yourselves, and make you a graven image, the similitude of any figure, the likeness of male or female,

17 The likeness of any beast that is on the earth, the likeness of any winged fowl that flieth in the air,
18 The likeness of any thing that creepeth on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is in the waters beneath the earth:

Psalms 148:7 Praise the LORD from the earth, ye dragons, and all deeps:

8 Fire, and hail; snow, and vapour; stormy wind fulfilling his word:
9 Mountains, and all hills; fruitful trees, and all cedars:
10 Beasts, and all cattle; creeping things, and flying fowl:
11 Kings of the earth, and all people; princes, and all judges of the earth:

1 Kings 4:33 And he spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall: he spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes.

34 And there came of all people to hear the wisdom of Solomon, from all kings of the earth, which had heard of his wisdom.

Job 12:7 But ask now the beasts, and they shall teach thee; and the fowls of the air, and they shall tell thee:

8 Or speak to the earth, and it shall teach thee: and the fishes of the sea shall declare unto thee.
Ezekiel 38:20 So that the fishes of the sea, and the fowls of the heaven, and the beasts of the field, and all creeping things that creep upon the earth, and all the men that are upon the face of the earth, shall shake at my presence, and the mountains shall be thrown down, and the steep places shall fall, and every wall shall fall to the ground.

However, given the might of the Tanniyn, specifically the Leviathan, seen in Job 41, one wonders whether these verses would all apply to such a Created Kind, since (a) it was so mighty one wonders if man was given dominion over it, and (b) since it was virtually invulnerable one wonders whether it would be included in the Leviticus 11 regarding diet since it likely wouldn't be killed for food easily.

At any rate, apart from the Tanniyn, the above verses should help decipher what the broad categories are for kinds.

  • Genesis 1:26 mentions 5 categories, fish of the sea, fowl of the air, cattle, all the earth, and creeping things.
  • Genesis 1:28 mentions 3 categories, fish of the sea, fowl of the air, and living things on the earth.
  • Leviticus 11:46 mentions 4 categories, beasts, fowl, living creatures in the waters, and creatures creeping on the earth.
  • Genesis 9:2 mentions 4 categories, beasts of the earth, fowl of the air, moving things on the earth, and fish of the sea.
  • Psalms 8:6-8 mentions 3-5 categories, sheep and oxen (cattle), beasts of the field (possibly paired with the previous), fowl of the air, fish of the sea, and whatever passes through the sea's paths (possibly paired with previous)
  • Deuteronomy 4:16-18 mentions man and 4 other categories, beasts on earth, fowl in the air, creeping things on the ground, and fish in the waters.
  • Psalms 148:7-11 mentions man and 6 other categories, dragons, deeps (ocean life?), beasts, cattle, creeping things, and flying fowl.
  • 1 Kings 4:33 mentions 4 categories, beasts, fowl, creeping things, and fishes.
  • Job 12:7-8 mentions 4 categories, beasts, fowls of the air, the earth, and fishes of the sea.
  • Ezekiel 38:20 mentions man and 4 other categories, fish of the sea, fowls of heaven, beasts of the field, and creeping things on the earth.

Two categories that always seem to get mentioned are fish of the sea and fowl of the air. And man is another definitely separate category for life. That makes 3. So apart from those:

  • Creeping things on the earth are mentioned as an additional category to beasts or other creatures of the earth 7 times (Gen. 1:26, Lev. 11:46, Gen. 9:2, Gen 4:16-18, Ps. 148:7-11, 1 Ki. 4:33, and Ezek. 38:20). Job 12:7-8 may mention them as "the earth".
  • Cattle are mentioned as an additional category 3 times (Gen. 1:26, Ps. 8:6-8, Ps. 148:7-11).
  • An additional marine life category is mentioned 2 times, once said to be Tanniyn. (Ps. 8:6-8, Ps. 148:7-11)

Creeping things appear to be a definite 4th category separate from a 5th category of beasts of the earth. Whether Cattle should be considered a 6th category or part of beasts is harder to tell. And Tanniyn are mentioned so rarely it's tough to tell where exactly they fit in. --Jzyehoshua 01:53, 28 May 2012 (PDT)

Have you considered the two additional categories of plants mentioned in Genesis 2:5 (KJV)? They may or may not be subcategories of those mentioned as being created on Day Four (oops) Three. ~ Webster (talk) 18:38, 21 August 2012 (PDT)
Just noticed your comments. Interesting points though. The same word 'eseb is used in both Genesis 1 and 2 as translated herb so those might be identical, although I suppose there is that word sadeh translated field as well in Genesis 2.
Genesis 1:12 And the earth <'erets> brought forth <yatsa'> grass, <deshe'> and herb <`eseb> yielding <zara`> seed <zera`> after his kind, <miyn> and the tree <`ets> yielding <`asah> fruit, <p@riy> whose seed <zera`> was in itself, after his kind: <miyn> and God <'elohiym> saw <ra'ah> that it was good. <towb>
13 And the evening <`ereb> and the morning <boqer> were the third <sh@liyshiy> day. <yowm>
Genesis 2:5 And every plant <siyach> of the field <sadeh> before <terem> it was in the earth, <'erets> and every herb <`eseb> of the field <sadeh> before <terem> it grew: <tsamach> for <kiy> the LORD <Y@hovah> God <'elohiym> had not <lo'> caused it to rain <matar> upon the earth, <'erets> and there was not <'ayin> a man <'adam> to till <`abad> the ground. <'adamah>
Siyach is actually a rarely used word and is only found 3 other places besides Genesis 2:5.
Genesis 21:15 And the water <mayim> was spent <kalah> in <min> the bottle <chemeth>, and she cast <shalak> the child <yeled> under one <'echad> of the shrubs <siyach>.
Job 30:4 Who cut up <qataph> mallows <malluwach> by the bushes <siyach>, and juniper <rethem> roots <sheresh> for their meat <lechem>.
Job 30:7 Among the bushes <siyach> they brayed <nahaq>; under the nettles <charuwl> they were gathered together <caphach>.
The Job passages are of course most specific, mentioning it in connection with mallows (malluwach) and nettles (charuwl). Whatever these were they appear to have grown in desolate, deserted areas per the surrounding verses in Job 30.
It's hard to place a specific meaning on the word sadeh other than simply land. It is where Esau went to hunt, for example, and is contrasted with the city, so at first I thought it might mean wilds or wilderness. But in Exodus 22:5-6 it's used in reference to growing vineyards, keeping cattle, and cultivating corn, and in Leviticus 19:19 refers to sowing seed specifically. However, the word is translated as "wild" by the KJV in Leviticus 26:22 in reference to wild beasts. In the book of Ruth it's just translated as "country" by the KJV.
Genesis 27:5 And Rebekah <Ribqah> heard <shama`> when Isaac <Yitschaq> spake <dabar> to Esau <`Esav> his son <ben>. And Esau <`Esav> went <yalak> to the field <sadeh> to hunt <tsuwd> for venison <tsayid>, and to bring <bow'> it.
Genesis 34:28 They took <laqach> their sheep <tso'n>, and their oxen <baqar>, and their asses <chamowr>, and that which was in the city <`iyr>, and that which was in the field <sadeh>,
Exodus 22:5 If a man <'iysh> shall cause a field <sadeh> or vineyard <kerem> to be eaten <ba`ar>, and shall put <shalach> in his beast < b@`iyr>, and shall feed <ba`ar> in another man's <'acher> field <sadeh>; of the best <meytab> of his own field <sadeh>, and of the best <meytab> of his own vineyard <kerem>, shall he make restitution <shalam>.
6 If fire <'esh> break out <yatsa'>, and catch <matsa'> in thorns <qowts>, so that the stacks of corn <gadiysh>, or the standing corn <qamah>, or the field <sadeh>, be consumed <'akal> therewith; he that kindled <ba`ar> the fire < b@`erah> shall surely <shalam> make restitution <shalam>.
Leviticus 19:19 Ye shall keep <shamar> my statutes <chuqqah>. Thou shalt not let thy cattle < b@hemah> gender <raba`> with a diverse kind <kil'ayim>: thou shalt not sow <zara`> thy field <sadeh> with mingled seed <kil'ayim>: neither shall a garment <beged> mingled <kil'ayim> of linen and woollen <sha`atnez> come <`alah> upon thee.
Leviticus 26:22 I will also send <shalach> wild <sadeh> beasts <chay> among you, which shall rob you of your children <shakol>, and destroy <karath> your cattle < b@hemah>, and make you few in number <ma`at>; and your high ways <derek> shall be desolate <shamem>.
Ruth 1:1 Now it came to pass in the days <yowm> when the judges <shaphat> ruled <shaphat>, that there was a famine <ra`ab> in the land <'erets>. And a certain man <'iysh> of Bethlehemjudah <Beyth Lechem> <Y@huwdah> went <yalak> to sojourn <guwr> in the country <sadeh> of Moab <Mow'ab>, he, and his wife <'ishshah>, and his two <sh@nayim> sons <ben>.
2 And the name <shem> of the man <'iysh> was Elimelech <'Eliymelek>, and the name <shem> of his wife <'ishshah> Naomi <No`omiy>, and the name <shem> of his two <sh@nayim> sons <ben> Mahlon <Machlown> and Chilion <Kilyown>, Ephrathites <'Ephrathiy> of Bethlehemjudah <Beyth Lechem> <Y@huwdah>. And they came <bow'> into the country <sadeh> of Moab <Mow'ab>, and continued there.
Anyway, from what I can tell the word sadeh is just a generic term that means "land" rather than referring to fields specifically. If so Genesis 2:5 would seemingly just be referring to land-based plants specifically, not marine plants. --Jzyehoshua 12:08, 3 August 2014 (EDT)
Just because "sadeh" is used in different ways does not mean that we can blend all those apparent meanings together to give a single simple definition: context is key. Even in English, we have a similar range of meanings for "field", referring sometimes to semi-wild places (as where Esau went to hunt) and sometimes to cultivated locations (as in the Exodus passage). In this case, part of the context for Gen 2:5, which says that the "sadeh" categories of plant had not yet grown up, is Gen 1:12, which says that various categories of plants were "brought forth" from the land (which had just been separated from the water, physically and semantically). Gen 2:5 also referred to the lack of cultivation, which few plants need. I'm not sure what the right answer is, but I think you dismiss the question to easily. ~ Webster (talk) 19:11, 9 August 2014 (EDT)