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The coat of the Arctic fox, white in winter, will turn to brownish in the summer.

The environment or biophysical environment of an organism is comprised of all the factors and phenomena outside the body affecting him, and which can be physical, chemical or other living organisms.[1] The environment is very complex, consisting of all influences external to an organisms. Most organisms live in environments that vary predictably (seasonal cycles), and therefore must adjust to maximize survival over this wide range of environmental conditions.[2] The coat of the Arctic fox, for example, varies according to the season, white in winter and brownish in summer.


Main article: Ecology

Ecology is the scientific study of relations of the organism to the surrounding environment.[3] The study of the effects of environmental factors on processes in organisms is called physiological ecology and, sometimes, environmental physiology.[4]


  1. Begon, Michael; Townsend, Colin R.; Harper, John L (2006). Ecology: From Individuals to Ecosystems (4th ed.). Blackwell Publishing. p. xi. ISBN 978-1-4051-1117-1. 
  2. Sutherland, William J.; Newton, Ian; Green Rhys E (2004). Bird Ecology and Conservation: A Handfull of Techniques. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 222. ISBN 0-19-852086-7. 
  3. Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Beck, Erwin; Mçller-Hohenstein, Klaus (2005). Plant Ecology. Berlin/New York. p. 1. ISBN 3-540-20833-X. 
  4. Pfafflin, James R.; Ziegler, Edward N, ed. (2006). Encyclopedia of Environment Science and Engineering. 1. Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-8493-9843-8.