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A database is an organized collection of persistent data used by application systems.[1] Another definition states that a database is a collection of related data.[2] The collection of programs that allows one to manipulate a database is known as a database management system (DBMS).[3][4]

A bibliographic database is an organized digital collection of bibliographic records consisting of references to journals, newspaper articles, conference proceedings, reports, government and legal publications, patents, books, and so on. Examples of bibliographic databases are PubMed and Scopus.


  1. Date, C. J (2000). An Introduction to Database Systems (7th ed.). Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley. p. 10. ISBN 0-201-38590-2. 
  2. Elmasri, Ramez; Navathe, Shamkant B (2003). Fundamentals of Database Systems (4th ed.). Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley. p. 4. ISBN 0-321-12226-7. 
  3. Ullman, Jeffrey D (1980). Principles of Database Systems. Potomac, Maryland: Computer Science Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-914894-13-7. 
  4. Wiederhold, Gio (1983). Database Design (2nd ed.). Auckland: McGraw-Hill. p. 345. ISBN 0-07-070132-6.