화학

창조 위키
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화학과학의 한 부분이다 그리고 구성물, 물질의 고유 성질, 물질의 구조 그리고 다른 물질들이 혼합 되었을때 생기는 반응과 관계있다. 화학은 변화와 관련 있는 학문이다 그리고 학문을 통해 지식을 얻거나 특정한 목적에 사용이 된다. [1]

화학이라는 학문은 주로 다섯개의 전통적인 분야로 나누어 진다. 화학은 유기체, 무기체, 생화학, 분해의 그리고 물질적인 분야로 나누어 진다. 무수히 많은 창조 과학자들은 여러 다른 분야에서 활동한다. 로버트 보일은 많은 화학을 설립한 시초 중 한명이다, 현대의 화학은 그의 작업, 저서 그리고 연구등에 고마움을 표현한다. 보일은 신의 진리를 좋아햇다, 신의 진리를 통해 연금술의 수 많은 이론의 오차를 발견 할 수 있게 되었다 그리고 그의 발견이 지금의 화학을 발달 할 수 있게 만들었다. [2]

분야

유기체 화학

A chemical experiment where a glycine-nitrate process is used to produce ultrafine metal oxide powder.

유기체 화학은 탄소의 혼합물을 연구하는 학문이다. (모든 유기체 탄소를 포함한 혼합물이다, 하지만 몇몇의 탄소 혼합물은 이산화탄소로 불린다. 이산화탄소는 무기체로 분류 되어 진다, 왜냐하면 이산화탄소는 단일 화학 접합체를 보함 하지 않는다, 이것은 탄소와 수소 사이에 존재한다. 비록 과학자들이 몇몇의 특정한 분야를 정할 수 있다, 다섯개의 중요한 경계선은 안정 되어 있지 않다. 오랜 시간 동안, 과학자들은 하나의 학문을 풀기 위해 다른 학문으로 뛰어 들기도 한다. 많은 유기체 화학자들은 유기체 화학 구성을 밝히기 위해 분해 화학을 사용한다.

무기체 화학

Inorganic chemistry puts emphasis on the study of synthesis, structure, thermodynamics, reactivity, spectroscopy, and bonding properties of compounds. In general, it is the study of chemicals that do not contain carbon. Inorganic chemicals are found in non-living things like rocks and minerals.[3]

This field covers all chemical compounds except the organic compounds containing C-H bonds. Those are subjects of organic chemistry. Although the two areas of study are supposed to be opposite, the studies sometimes overlap.[4]

The classes of inorganic compounds are the oxides, the carbonates, the sulfates and the halides. They in general have high melting points, and are not good conductors in the solid state.

Biochemistry

Biochemistry is the study of the chemicals of living systems and their interactions. It deals with the structure and function of cellular components, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules. Biochemistry studies the chemical properties of important biological molecules, in particular the chemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.

Some areas of biochemistry include the genetic code, protein synthesis, cell membrane transport, and signal transduction. A large study has been on cell metabolism and the endocrine system. They have been described in great detail.[5]

Analytical Chemistry

This program works closely with many analytical chemists to determine how much lead the water contains so that they can clear the lead from the water.

Analytical chemistry is the area of study that leans toward gaining knowledge of the composition of different kinds of matter. Unlike other areas of study like inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry, analytical chemistry is not restricted to any particular type of chemical compound or reaction. Properties studied in analytical chemistry include molecular morphologies, distributions of species, and composition and species identity.

This area of science asks a lot of questions, but the study generally ends once the questions have been answered. Analytical chemistry generally does not attempt to use chemistry or understand its basis, but it has had many outgrowths of discoveries after the "questions" were answered. A common question that a scientist in analytical chemistry would ask would be, "How much lead is in drinking water?"[6]

Physical Chemistry

Physical chemistry uses physics to study macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems. It traditionally uses the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, and kinetics.[7] It is the area that deals with the mechanism, the energy transfer, and the rate of matter as it is changing.

For example, a physical chemist might study factors that affect breathing rates during exercise. It is the goal of physical chemists to develop an understanding at the molecular and atomic level of how chemical reactions occur and materials behave. This kind of knowledge is essential to all areas of chemistry. After being asked how to describe what physical chemistry is like, Gilbert Newton Lewis, a well-known scientist said, "Physical chemistry is everything that is interesting!"[8]

Nuclear Chemistry

Main Article: Nuclear Chemistry

Nuclear chemistry is a sub-field of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties. Of particular interest are the process involved with the splitting and combining of atoms to make new substances and energy.

Laws

Main Article: Scientific laws
  • Avogadro's Law: Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules regardless of their chemical nature and physical properties.
  • Boyle's Law (Robert Boyle): In a gas, the product of pressure and volume remains constant.
  • Charles's Law: In gases, volume and temperature are directly proportional. Thus, for two cases, V1 / T1 = V2 / T2, where V1 and T1 are the initial volume and temperature of the gas, and V2 and T2 are the final volume and temperature of the gas.
  • Dulong-Petit Law: The gram-atomic heat capacity (specific heat times atomic weight) of an element is a constant. There are exceptions to this law, and it is not exact.
  • Fick's Law of Diffusion: The net diffusion rate of a gas across a fluid membrane is proportional to the difference in partial pressure, proportional to the area of the membrane and inversely proportional to the thickness of the membrane.
  • Fourier's Law: Heat flow through a homogenous solid is directly proportional to the area, A, of the section at right angles to the direction of heat flow, and to the temperature difference along the path of heat flow.
  • Graham's Law: The rate at which gases diffuse is inversely proportional to the square root of their densities.
  • Henry's Law: The mass of a gas which will dissolve into a solution is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas above the solution.
  • Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT where n = number of moles, R = universal gas constant = 8.3145 J/mol K; T = temperature.

History

Before major study was done in biochemistry, it was generally believed that life did not follow the laws of science the way non-living things did. It was thought that only living beings could produce living molecules, but that thought changed in 1828 when a German chemist named Friedrich Wöhler (1810-1882) published a paper on the synthesis of urea. It proved that organic compounds could be created artificially. Urea synthesis was very important for biochemistry because it showed that a compound known to be produced only by biological organisms could be produced in a laboratory, under controlled conditions, from matter that wasn't alive. He was originally studying organic chemistry, but his pioneering greatly impacted the study of biochemistry.[9]

Robert Boyle was a devout Christian who contributed much to the study of chemistry and is considered by many as the "father of modern chemistry". During the time when alchemy was very popular he made great advances in chemistry, and praised God for every discovery he made. Some of his major contributions were:

  1. He made a vacuum pump that he used to prove that air was important to transmit sound.
  2. He made the formulation of his gas law (called Boyle's law) which says that if the temperature is constant, pressure is inversely proportional to volume. (That means: as pressure increases, volume of a gas decreases and vice-versa.)
  3. He changed the way the modern world thought about chemical elements (that they are the smallest part of a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances).
  4. He created the scientific method.
  5. He helped others understand the difference between compounds and mixtures.

References

  1. Wilbraham, Antony C., Dennis D. Staley, Michael S. Matta, and Edward L. Waterman. Chemistry. Boston: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008. pg 9
  2. Boyle, Robert Wolfram Research
  3. Eisenberg, Robert, ed. Inorganic Chemistry Home Page. ACS Publications, American Chemical Society, n.d. Accessed August 20, 2008.
  4. Inorganic chemistry by Wikipedia
  5. Biochemistry by Wikipedia
  6. Analytical chemistry by Wikipedia
  7. Physical chemistry by Wikipedia
  8. "Physical Chemists Explore The Way Things Work." American Chemical Society, 2008. Accessed August 20, 2008.
  9. Friedrich Wöhler by Wikipedia


See also