Ontologia

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A ontologia está intimamente ligada com a metafísica sobre a natureza e as relações do ser e da existência especificamente. Essencialmente a teoria do ser ou o estudo da existência. Os ontologistas não necessariamente se envolvem na tentativa de definir o que é existir, mas sim de forma abrangente abordar o que realmente existe. A ontologia não lida com as especificidades da existência como ver se uma espécie de pássaro é existente, nem a ontologia endereça a categoria ainda mais ampla dos pássaros. A ontologia realmente lida com as noções de se alguma coisa até mesmo existe, propriedades e relações imateriais, materiais, mundos possíveis e como são todas as áreas de estudo dentro a ontologia.[1] É impossível fazer ciência sem pressupor algum tipo de ontologia metafísica. Por exemplo teístas e ateus cada um mantém uma ontologia muito diferente. Enquanto o primeiro vê o cosmos como uma construção ordenada de um ser divino, e o ser humano constituindo uma realidade imaterial, o último (ateísmo) assume o Universo como apenas o caos material e aleatório. Da mesma forma, o evolucionista percebe a humanidade como nada mais do que um animal, enquanto os criacionistas se referem a humanidade como criada à imagem de Deus.[2] Visualizações ontológicas fornecem uma parte de um pressuposto subjacente (filosofia) que rege as teorias da ciência que pretendem interpretar alguns aspectos do mundo natural.

A questão sobre a natureza básica da realidade tem sido usualmente chamada “ontologia,” a partir da palavra grega ontos (seres). A ontologia é o estudo dos seres, o estudo do que é. A questão sobre por que o universo existe por séculos tem sido regulada para uma segunda área da metafísica, "teologia filosófica," após a palavra grega theos paradivindade.[3]

Argumento Ontológico

Versão Modal

Este argumento usa a lógica modal para provar a existência de Deus. Argumenta que a própria possibilidade de sua existência prova a sua existência. O argumento afirma:

1. É possível que Deus exista.

2. Se Deus é possível, então ele existe em um mundo possível.

3. Se Deus existe em um mundo possível, então ele existe em todos os mundos possíveis.

4. Se Deus existe em todos os mundos possíveis, então ele existe no mundo real.

5. Se Deus existe no mundo real, então Deus existe.

6. Portanto, Deus existe.

O argumento não afirma que mundos possíveis existem na realidade. Na lógica modal, eles são usados para explicar as coisas. Por exemplo, algo é possível se ele existe em um mundo possível. A declaração não afirma que eles realmente existem, mas é como sabemos que eles são possíveis.

Premise 1 states it is possible that God exists. This is to be accepted as true unless it is proven false. There's absolutely no reason to deny the possibility of his existence, which is a valid reason to accept he is possible. It you object to that, then you must provide evidence for atheism because you object to assuming anything at all without evidence.

Premise 2 is true by the definition of possible in metaphysics. A statement or thing is only possible if it exists in one possible world. As God is possible, we know this premise is true.

Premise 3 is true by the definition of God. It is better to be necessary(As in, exists in all possible worlds.) than to exist contingent.(As in, exists in only some worlds.) This is also consistent with God being omnipresent. God is by definition, omnipresent, meaning he exists everywhere. That would mean he exists in all of the possible worlds.

Premise 4 is true because, if God exists in all possible worlds, and we exist in a possible world,(The actual world.) Then God exists in out world.

Premise 5 is axiomatically true.

Premise 6 follows all of the premises.

Existence

Existence is being in relation to a property which is called the predication relation. Because there is actual difference between existence and non-existence that difference is not the same as the property of being red. When something comes into being or comes into existence it has to have at least one property. This follows that if a human being is born than the one property is human.

Nothingness

Nothingness, philosophically speaking, has no properties and since it has no properties there is no existence. Nothingness properly understood would mean non-being or non-existence, literally nothing. Zeus and other Greco-Roman nature gods and goddesses created by man do not actually have existence and are cases of nothing because there are no real properties.

Biblical Ontology

Biblical ontology is concerned with the nature of God, Jesus, Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden, the universe, humanity before or after the fall, and the Bible itself. Views on the ontology of God are:

  • Deism: God as separate from the physical universe, and not interacting with it;
  • Theistic dualism: God as separate from our physical universe, and interacting with it;
  • Immanentism: God as inseparable from the universe itself;
  • Corporealism: Jehovah as a corporeal being, head of the counsel of Elohim;

God

The monotheistic religions hold to one sacred doctrine, God is one and there is only one God. During Biblical times, this view was in stark contrast to the polytheistic religions (many Gods) practiced by the Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians.

Trinitarianism

Main Article: Trinity

The Trinity of God is central to Christianity. It is a word from the Latin Predefinição:Latin Name2, meaning "threeness". Neither that word nor any equivalent occurs in the Bible, but the doctrine is logically derived from many statements spread throughout the Scripture.

The very first word used for God, at the beginning of Genesis, is (Predefinição:Hebrew Name), which is a plural word, literally "gods". While the Hebrew word Elohim is plural, it is usually followed by a singular verb when referring to YHWH as in Predefinição:Bible ref where the verb Predefinição:Hebrew Name2 is singular — literally meaning "He created", possibly insinuating the mystery of the Blessed Trinity, while Elohim when referring to pagan gods is generally followed by a plural verb. There are exceptions to this rule as Elohim, when referring to YHWH, is followed by a plural verb in Predefinição:Bible ref, Predefinição:Bible ref, Predefinição:Bible ref, and Predefinição:Bible ref and it can be used to refer to a single non-Israelite god, as in Predefinição:Bible ref, Predefinição:Bible ref, Predefinição:Bible ref, and Predefinição:Bible ref. The plurality and unity of God are both evident at the very beginning.

Predefinição:Bible quote

Old Testament

The covenant established between God and Israel is reliant upon the recognition by His people that God is the one and only God, and strong warnings were given in the Old Testament against making and worshipping idols - a practice which was common at the time even among the Israelites.

Predefinição:Bible quote

The importance of this law is illustrated by its being the first command of the Ten Commandments given to Moses. It should be noted that the "other gods" warned against here are not gods at all, but substitutes for God (idols), or simply mythological.

Predefinição:Bible quote

Predefinição:Bible quote

Predefinição:Bible quote

New Testament

The New Testament also echoes this central theme.

Predefinição:Bible quote

The "Shield of the Trinity", which portrays the components of God and their relationship.

Humanity

Views on human ontology and the mind:

  • Materialism: Humans are material and only material organisms. What we experience as the "mind" is only a consequence of the chemical interactions in our bodies;
  • Dualism: Humans are more than the sum of their physical parts. In addition to our physical properties, we bear a soul, distinct from our bodies;

Imagem de Deus

Humans are described in the Biblical book of Genesis as being made in the image of God.

Predefinição:Bible quote

The ontology of humans must be defined with regard to this aspect of God which humans now possess. In The Genesis Record, Henry Morris describes these attributes as follows:

In any case, there can be little doubt that the “image of God” in which man was created must entail those aspects of human nature which are not shared by animals - attributes such as a moral consciousness, the ability to think abstractly, an understanding of beauty and emotion, and, above all, the capacity for worshiping and loving God.[4]

There are 2 basic definitions of the image of God.

  • Spiritual image: Adam was created to reflect the spiritual nature of Elohim;
  • Physical image: Adam was created to reflect the physical appearance of Elohim;
Spiritual

Adam was created to reflect the spiritual nature of Elohim. This belief, by far the most widespread among theists, holds that Adam was created in God's spiritual image, to reflect his reason and personality and ability to communicate. However, it is not believed that Adam was created in God's physical image, because it is believed that God has no physical existence or appearance.

Physical

Adam was created to reflect the physical appearance of Elohim. This view, much less common than the spiritual view, provides that Adam was created in the physical image of Elohim. It is often said that this view is based in part on corporealism, or the belief that God has a physical body. However, God in His omnipresence is not corporeal, but is Spirit (John 4:24).[4]

Arguments for this view include:

Predefinição:Bible quote

  • Elohim is plural, derived from the many references to such with phrases of; "Let Us make Man in our image," implying that the Elohim is plural, to include YHWH Elohim and the Sons of God, as well as the Holy Spirit decided to create man in their image.
  • YHWH Elohim (translated in this instance as "Lord of the gods") is described as physically walking through the garden.

"And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden." - {{{2}}} {{{3}}}

"Now when Abram was ninety-nine years old, the LORD appeared to Abram and said to him, "I am God Almighty; Walk before Me, and be blameless'; {{{2}}} {{{3}}}

"Now the LORD appeared to him by the oaks of Mamre, while he was sitting at the tent door in the heat of the day." - {{{2}}} {{{3}}}

In The Genesis Record, Henry Morris summarizes:

We can only say that, although God Himself may have no physical body, He designed and formed man’s body to enable it to function physically in ways in which He Himself could function even without a body. God can see (Genesis 16:13), hear (Psalm 94:9), smell (Genesis 8:21), touch (Genesis 32:32), and speak (2 Peter 1:18), whether or not He has actual physical eyes, ears, nose, hands, and mouth. Furthermore, whenever He has designed to appear visibly to men, He has done so in the form of a human body (Genesis 18:1, 2); and the same is true of angels (Acts 1:10). There is something about the human body, therefore, which is uniquely appropriate to God’s manifestation of Himself, and (since God knows all His works from the beginning of the world -Acts 15:18), He must have designed man’s body with this in mind. [4]

Ver também

Referências

  1. John W. Carroll and Ned Markosian, An Introduction to Metaphysics (Cambridge University Press 2010), pg. 12
  2. Genesis 1:26
  3. Quentin Smith and L. Nathan Oaklander, Time, Change and Freedom: An Introduction to Metaphysics (Routledge University Press 2005), pg. 2
  4. 4,0 4,1 4,2 Morris, Henry M., The Genesis Record. Grand Rapids MI: Baker Books, 1976. p.74.

Ligações externas