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'''Tiras''' ([[Hebrew]]: '''תּירס''', ''Tı̂yrâs''; "desire") was the seventh son of [[son of::Japheth]] mentioned in the [[Genesis|Book of Genesis]].
'''Tiras''' ([[Hebrew]]: '''תירס''', ''Tīrās''; "desire") was the seventh son of [[son of::Japheth]] mentioned in the [[Genesis|Book of Genesis]].
==The Descendants of Tiras==
==The Descendants of Tiras==
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To sum up, the American Indian tribes have a range of origins including Tiras, [[Canaan (man)|Canaan]], [[Esau]], and [[Magog]]. They are a diverse people and must not be thought to be descended from the same source.
To sum up, the American Indian tribes have a range of origins including Tiras, [[Canaan (man)|Canaan]], [[Esau]], and [[Magog]]. They are a diverse people and must not be thought to be descended from the same source.
== Related References ==
* [ In Search of ... the Origin of Nations] by C.M. White. History Research Projects 2003.
{{Bible portal}}
== See Also ==
== See Also ==
* [[Bible characters]]
* [[Bible characters]]
Line 233: Line 228:
* [[Japheth]]
* [[Japheth]]
* [[Biblical genealogy]]
* [[Biblical genealogy]]
{{Bible portal}}
== Related References ==
* [ In Search of ... the Origin of Nations] by C.M. White. History Research Projects 2003.
{{Bible navbox}}
{{Bible navbox}}

Revision as of 09:30, 26 November 2009

Tiras (Hebrew: תירס, Tīrās; "desire") was the seventh son of son of::Japheth mentioned in the Book of Genesis.

The Descendants of Tiras

Origins of the American Indians

There are scores of Indian tribes (somewhere in the vicinity of 178 major tribal grouping).[1] They cannot, must not, be lumped together under one description. They are very individualistic and do not all share common languages or customs.[2]

The Indian tribes have never been homogeneous. In California alone, there are distinctive types in head form, facial features, and the nose. Here we find the shortest and the tallest of all American Indians.[3] Unfortunately, many books lump them together with the Mongoloids but, many of them are so very different: They differ in features, skin coloring, blood groups and in other areas.[4]

In this section we shall discover the part Canaanite origins of the Sioux, Akiri, and Chivite Indians. Others in Alaska and in South America look much like the Mongoloids of Asia and no doubt either a branch of Tiras migrated via that route or peoples descended from Magog and the Turkic (Edomite) tribes migrated via that route. The fascinating migration of the Déné and Na-Déné from Asia is detailed in The Déné and Na-Déné Indian Migration - 1233AD by Ethel Stewart.

Ethel Stewart delves into the origin of the various American Indian tribes who were ousted by Genghis Khan but who fled to the Americas in the 13th Century. In this large book of over 500 pages, proofs utilized include linguistics, folklore, religion and knowledge of Central Asia whence they sprang. One of these tribes, the Navajo, may be a derivation of Nabajoth, whose sister, Esau married (Genesis 36:3). Nabajoth was a son of Ishmael and as such the family name may have carried also via Esau.

In fact, write Broek and Weber, many Indians look like south-east Asians.[5] They may have been referring to such tribes as the Navajo. Undoubtedly, there was a relationship between the American Indians and south-east Asia. The peoples of Milyaes were in south-east Asia; another branch may be in America today (the Dyakids of Borneo, for instance, have blow-guns and bird dances in similitude to certain South American tribes).

Physical anthropologists recognize the diverse origins of the Indians, and have thus attempted to classify them into three broad groups: Zentralid (Mexico, U.S.A.), Andid (Peru), Brasilid (Brazil).[6] From where did they originate? And why is there but, one brief reference to Tiras in the Bible and that is in the Table of Nations? He then disappears from Scripture, unlike the other nations, which persist in the Near East for some time. Is it because he disappeared so far from the Near East that he had no consequence on the course of events in the Old World? If this is the case, then we should look for a people far removed from the Old World.

The Red-Skins of Thrace

Baikie, in a book published in 1926, wrote of the ancient peoples of Thrace that they were of reddish-brown complexion with their long black hair done up in a crest.[7] How like the American Indian! But who was their forefather? Josephus tells us: "Tiras also called those whom he ruled over Thirasians; but the Greeks changed the name into Thracians."[8]

A city called Tiraspol exists today in Moldavia, near the Romanian border in the region of Ancient Thrace! Although it was built just over 200 years ago, in 1792, the name nevertheless seemingly recalls the early name of that region; and the River Tearus (Tiras) ran through the region of Thrace according to Herodotus.[9] This is where one branch of Tiras dwelt before migrating into central Asia.

Most Theologians cannot trace the descendants of Tiras. Professor Archibald Sayce makes a statement fairly indicative of most theologians and historians:

"Tiras is the only son of Japhet whose name continues to be obscure. Future research can alone be expected to settle the question."[10]

Well let us settle that question once and for all. Let us discover where the descendants of Tiras migrated to.

From whence sprang the Indians of the Americas? Who is their forefather in Genesis chapter 10? Is it at all possible to trace these amazing tribes and peoples to an ancient source in the Middle East?

The Ancient Minoan Civilization

Another branch of Tiras's descendants dwelt in the Aegean.

Archaeologists and historians attest to the fabulous Minoan civilization on Crete and on colonies in the nearby Aegean Islands. Due to cataclysmic disasters (c. 1450 BC) including earthquakes, poisonous ash from Thera or Santorini volcano and tidal waves, the civilization declined dramatically and within 50 years or so after the disasters it disappeared forever. The survivors were driven out by Mycenaean invaders from Greece and many appeared soon thereafter in Egypt before disappearing from the face of the earth. They brought with them precious objects. Indeed, Minoan civilizations was extremely wealthy and replete with gold. For instance, no human bones and very few golden objects have been found at the palace of Zakros despite the wealth of palace. These Minoans were related to the early Canaanite Hittites[11] who were broad-headed and allied with the Amazon tribes of that region[12] (it may be no coincidence that the name Amazon appears in South America). As a result of this vacuum in the region caused by these crises, the old Hittite Kingdom in Anatolia was invaded and the Phoenician enterprises beyond Gibraltar came to an end. This allowed the infamous sea peoples to invade the coastlands of the Near East.[13]

What did the Minoans look like?

"Judging from the surviving inscriptions, the Minoan men were bronzed, with dark hair and beardless faces."[14]

Also, the murals of the temple in Medinet Habu in Egypt, depicts them as people with features akin to the American Indians. Many Minoans also wore plumes:

"The tufts of feathers offer incontrovertible evidence, because no other people have worn them", writes one author.[15]

Both quotes reveal quite clearly that the Minoans were similar to American Indians. Here settled one branch of Tiras, the other, as already mentioned, lived in Thrace.

The Anchor Bible tells us that Tiras was probably the father of the Tyrsenoi on the Aegean Isles.[16] Another author, Graves, speaks of the people of Tiras being called Tarsha in a 13th century BC Egyptian document. These he equates with the Tyrsenians, a pirate people, who held certain islands in the Aegean.[17] We find the name throughout the Mediterranean: Tiryns in southern Greece, Torre in southern Italy and Tarraco in Spain although Torre may, alternatively, derive from Tyre.[18] The Romans called the descendants of Tiras Thirasians (Thracians), the Greeks Tyrsnoi and to the Egyptians they were known as Tusha or Turusha as we have seen.

What were the names of the islands of the Tyrsenoi? The names of these islands bear amazing resemblance to the names of various Indian tribes. Please notice first, that people of one race do not always call the people of another race by the same pronunciation and spelling of that race.

The White man, upon hearing the Indian names, arranged or re-arranged them according to the phonetic sounds of their own languages.[19]; for example, the Spaniards called the Sioux, "Xious" (Shooz). With that in mind, let us turn to the names of various islands in the Aegean, many of which were Minoan colonies and notice how similar they are to the names of certain Indian tribes:

Islands of the Aegean American Indian Tribal Names
Ios or Xious

Tenos (Tinos)








Anarfe (Anaphe)

Karpathos (Carpathos)


Aztecs (named their island in the midst of Lake Texcoco, Tenochtitlan)

Androa tribe in Oregon. The name means "One which lives amongst trees", as does Andros

Patoes tribe in Colombia

Lecos of Brazil

Piros of Chihuahua

The Hahos tribe

Aquios (Haquios) of Guatemala

The Siquias of Honduras

Anafes of Brazil

The Karpazos from Colorado

Could all this be mere coincidence? Surely not. Many (though not all) American Indians are ultimately from the Aegean Islands of the Tyrsenoi. Amongst other evidence a few are listed below.

  • The ancient peoples of the Aegean built mounds and painted themselves in a very similar fashion to those that built the civilizations of the Mississippi and Mexico.[20]
  • Mayan hieroglyphics show affinity with those of Egypt and also to Cretan scripts. Even certain Mayan names of days resemble the names of letters in the Phoenician alphabet.[21] Stone scripts with markings and language similar to the Minoan has also been found at Fort Benning, Georgia.[22]
  • The main streets of the Mayans were bordered by fountains from which sprung hot and cold water. Similar installations of like design have been found beneath the ruins of Minos's palace in Crete.[23]

These are just a few of the many proofs tying Crete and the Aegean to the Americas. Let us now return to Thrace and the migrations of the sons of Tiras from there to the Americas.

Indians in Ancient Scotland?

Tiras, like all other peoples, once lived in the Middle East, where they gave their name to the Taurus Mountains in southern Turkey.[24] When they migrated outwards, one branch settled in Crete and the Aegean, the other migrating towards the north, perhaps settled in Thrace. In those times the river running through Thrace was known as the Tyras River (modern Dniester), and the city at its mouth was called Tyra[25] or Tyras.

An early writer, Julius Firmicus, wrote:

"In Ethiopia all are born black; in Germany, white; and in Thrace, red."[26]

Could anything be clearer? The Thracians were a reddish-colored people. What became of them? Historians of old mention a warrior people in Western Europe being employed in the armies of "barbarians", as being fierce, swarthy, half-naked, tattooed and painted.

These dark, red-skinned, wild tribes were driven into the island of Britain. It is these who gave rise to the account of the primitive barbaric, British. In Britain they became known as Picts.

Where did the Picts originate? Wainwright in his The Problems of the Picts says they originated in Illyria and Thrace[27], though other traditions place them in Spain. The Picts tattooed themselves and even used the totem-pole in Scotland.[28]

Proof mounts upon proof. Voltaire wrote of these early tribes in Britain:

"When Caesar crosses into England he finds [some in] this island still more savage than Germany. The inhabitants scarcely covered their nudity with a few skins of beast. The women of a district belonged equally to all men of the same district. Their houses were huts made of reeds, and their ornaments were shapes that the men and women imprinted on the skin by pricking it and pouring on to it the juice of herbs, as the savages of America still do." [emphasis added]

One researcher relates how according to Danish tradition, the first Odin or Votan (Dan I) in c. 1040 BC, brought certain tribes from south-eastern Europe into Denmark.[29] They, along with other similar peoples, were called the Agathirsi and were settled in Scotland under their leader Cruithne, by Odin. They ruled over their fellow Pictish tribes and thereby also became known as Picts. The Picts and Thracians had a matriarchy (as do the Ohwachia Iroquois) and tattooed and painted themselves. In Scotland were geographical place-names such as the bay, town, and river of Thurso, Tharsuinn Mountain, and Tarras River.

The Original Picts Disappear

Most of the Picts suddenly disappeared in 503 AD with the arrival of the Milesians (Gaels). They left behind mounds of flint knives, stone-hewn tombs and carvings.

They were driven out of Britain and settled in Greenland for a time.[30] Some may have migrated directly to Central America. Toltec tradition say that they arrived in c. 503 AD to the already settled areas where Mexico City stands today.[31] It should be mentioned that there was not one, large monolithic movement of tribes to the Americas. Some would have settled shortly after the flood, with others continually arriving over the centuries.

The Toltecs were basically a people of White appearance, features and characteristics[32], while the nobility of the Aztecs were European-looking, not Indian and likely were descendants of Arpachshad. Undoubtedly many of the Caucasians who served under Dan I associated with the Picts and migrated with them. Histories record that some remained behind after 503 AD. There are several sources to prove that.[33] They refer to the original inhabitants of Scotland as very dark, wild people with prominent cheek bones, living in the islands off Scotland. They have either now died out or had left centuries ago.

Let us quote one source which states:

"Some were as black [i.e. dark] and wild in their appearance as any American savages whatever ... like wild Indians, that a very little imagination was necessary to give one an impression of being upon an American river"[34]

Anthropologists and historians speak in terms of a Turanid people which once populated Scotland.[35] Who are the Turanid or Turanian peoples today? These are the Edomite Turkic peoples which occupy central Asia and the territory north of the Caspian to the Black sea[36], bordering on Thrace. This is mentioned because certain Turkic or Turanid tribes of central Asia claim descent from Tiras.[37] If so, the small Tirasian element would be totally absorbed by now into the Turkic masses or migrated eastwards as we have seen above and made it via the Bering Strait into North America. Another scholar writes:

"Close to the Black Sea are the Kabards and Abkasians, who speak a curious agglutinative speech. Its nearest allies are in far-off North America, though Basque is slightly akin in structure ... These Caucasus people might be related to the North Amerinds ... It may be noted that Roland Dixon finds the same type of skull in those two regions."[38]

John Beddoe, famous anthropologist of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, wrote in the classic work The Anthropological History of Europe, that a Mongoloid race (i.e. Japetic, of which Tiras was a branch) once occupied Scotland as its earliest inhabitants.[39] Further, he mentioned that traces of Turanian speech are still evident in the Scottish Gaelic language.[40]

To Beddoe, it remains a mystery how these Picts suddenly disappeared.[41] To Beddoe and others, yes. But if we look long and hard enough, basing our our search on Holy Scriptures, we see that they migrated to the Americas, forming part of the early North Americans may be seen in the National Geographic magazine.[42]

It is relatively unknown among the public that they built thriving cities, raised huge mounds that rivaled the size of the pyramids in Mexico, and even sophisticated trade network extending from the Great Lakes all the way to the Gulf Coast.

No, not all Indian tribes were savage. Take for example the Zapotecs who constructed Monte Alban in southern Mexico. To construct it they had to level a mountain (this happened c. 1000 BC). The same tribe plotted the stars and devised one of the first calendars in the Americas. Their artwork is so exquisite as to be comparable to the craftsmanship of the finest works if the Egyptians, Greeks, and Chinese.[43]

White Visitors to the Americas

The sacred volume of the Popol Vuh of the Mayans kept by Quetzalcoatl, one of their priests, mentions that they

"came from the East ... they left there, from that great distance ... they crossed the sea".

They further claim that a great king, Votan, brought them over and settled them in Mexico c. 1000 BC. This can be none other than Dan I, mentioned earlier in this article. Dan I (Odin, Wotan, or Votan) ruled Denmark c. 1040-999 BC.

Perhaps the "forest of Dan"[44] in the land of Quiche Maya is named after him. The earliest capital built by these Indians, under foreign leadership was called Amag-Dan. They claim in their traditions to have been ruled over by fair-skinned persons, many of whom had fair hair. How could one argue with their histories? And many of the Mandan Indians of North Dakota were of mixed descent and blonde.[45] In fact, many of the Mandans still have blue eyes - and that is not due to recent Caucasian influences.[46] Is it mere speculation that the Mandans migrated out if Maya country, being in part, descendants of Dan and his party? All anthropologists can say with certainty is that the Mandans may be traced to the southern parts of the United States of America.

Long before Columbus, the Americas was visited by a fair-skinned people. Most people do not know that. The Toltecs and Dan I and his party have already been referred to. An Irish chronicle, the Imanas, makes references to the expeditions of St. Brendan the Navigator in 577 AD to the Americas with seventeen other monks on an evangelizing mission. Also, Erik Gnupson, Bishop of Greenland, visited the New World in 112 AD.[47] Previously, Leifr Eiríksson (c. 1001 AD) landed on the shores of Canada. Various Vikings explorers both preceded and followed him and remains of their settlements have been uncovered in Labrador.

"America" may have taken its name from these "Erics". "Amterica" in the ancient Scandinavian tongue means the "land of Eric" - "Amt" means land and "a" at the land of Eric denotes possession. This is what some of the Indians were calling the land when Amerigo Vespucci came there. His name in Italy was Marco and possibly he took his name from America rather than gave it to her, as is speculated. This, of course, is speculation, and is only one theory we might give consideration to. Yair Davidy of Israel has introduced other, just as legitimate, suggestions for the origin of the name. Multiple origins cannot be ruled out.

Reader's Digest's book, The World's Last Mysteries, mentions how many White, or part White, tribes have been found occasionally in Venezuela and other parts of South America.[48] One such tribe was found to be red-bearded. It was discovered by the builders of Brazil's Trans-Amazon Highway. Their name was the Assurinis.[49] They could be, in part, descendants of Assyrian traders or former Assyrian slaves in the ancient Middle East. It is known that some Canaanites in ancient Asia Minor were blonde[50], probably due to intermarriage and some Canaanite (Phoenician) tribes landed in America.

There is nothing new in the belief that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians settled in America. Samuel Bochart and Pierre Daniel Huet claimed this in the 16th century.[51] Anthropologists and historians will also tell you that, although the Minoans were mainly dark-haired and eyed, some had blonde hair[52] due to intermarriage with Indo-Europeans.

There is much evidence that the first settlers of the Americas were, in fact, Indo-Europeans from the region of France, who have been dubbed the Solutreans by archaeologists, are believed to have crossed a land bridge or perhaps a large ice sheet that once connected Europe and North America in the area of what is now known as the GIUK Gap, which is an area in the northern Atlantic Ocean between Greenland, Iceland, and the United Kingdom. Such is evidenced by the discoveries of the Kennewick Man in the state of Washington, the Spirit Cave Mummy in Nevada, the Wizards Beach Man also found in Nevada, and the Peñon Woman III found in Mexico City. All of these ancient human remains, which predate those of the ancestors of modern Amerinds, show clear Caucasoid racial traits suggesting that Indo-Europeans were, in fact, the first "Native Americans".[53]

The Missing Link

Why has it not been generally recognized that the American Indians originated in Thrace and in the Aegean? The major reason is that the bulk of evidence has been destroyed. The Santorini incident sunk much of the Minoan civilization to the bottom of the sea. Others have speculated that the lost continent of Atlantis situated just west of the Azores may indeed be the missing link between the American Indians, North-West Africa (the Mauri?) and the Aegean. Could this be the case?

Another territory off Heligoland, perhaps the original Thule, later became known as Atlantis.[54] This too, may be a missing link between Europe and the Americas, long since disappeared beneath the waters. Thule is mention by Ptolemy (AD 140) as being between Scotland and the Shetland Isles. Also, evidence of great human-built walls, now underwater, off the island of Bimini in the area of the Bahamas is further evidence of worldwide catastrophes which were unleashed upon planet Earth thousands of years ago.

One day, as technology improves, and we explore some of these underwater treasure-troves, historians and archaeologists will be forced to rewrite world history and admit that many of the American Indians came from the east, as their traditions say, and not the west alone.

Smith's Classical Dictionary tells us that the family of Tiras subdivided into various tribes. They are listed as follows:

  • Dyras
  • Amazons
  • Teres
  • Maias
  • Milyaes
  • Carians
  • Maori
  • Gasgars
  • Calybes (Caribes)
  • Thyni
  • Tauri

Others were Ketei, Tosk, and Moskas, similar to the names of the nations in Asia Minor. The name of the Moskas may derive from a branch of Tiras which dwelt next to the Moschi in Asia Minor[55], the Tosks from the Etruscans and Ketei from some of the Hittites. Perhaps there is even a relationship between the Tarascos of Michoacan, Mexico and Tuscarora Indians with a section of the Etruscans.

The Milyaes, Gasgars and Mauris have been absorbed into Elishah. The Carians may also have been absorbed by Elishah. But what of the rest?

The Dyras are called Dures and Dorasquas; Teres is named Turas; and Tauri is the Dauri in South America. Undoubtedly, the Trios and Atures Indian tribes are also related to Teres and Tauri. Calybes gave rise to the Calybes or Caribes in the Caribbean. The Tinne, called Thyni by the Greeks, are in Canada. The famous Amazons are to be found in South America. It may be that some of these were somehow related to those which allied with the Hittites against the Phrygians.[56]

Maias fathered the Mayans; Ketei, Tosk, and Moskas (called Ketei-Moskas by the Greeks) gave rise to the Chahta-Muskoki Indians in the United States. A tribe called the Tarasca dwell today in the Michoacan Province, southern Mexico.[57] They are named after their god, Taras[58], who can be no other than Tiras deified. Similarly we find the Touros in Brazil and Terrazas city in Mexico.

Surely, it could not be any plainer. The American Indians who built the civilizations of the Mississippi and founded the Mayan and Aztec Empires descend from Tiras, son of Japheth, son of Noah.

No mention is made of Tiras in prophecy. Why? Simply because God knew that they would be a subjected people; their lands swamped by other races.

Genetic Research

An interesting item appeared in a scientific journal in April 1998 on "Genes may link Ancient Eurasians, Native Americans" in Science journal by Virginia Morrell:

"Anthropologists have recently been puzzled by surprising features on a handful of ancient American skeletons those of Europeans rather than Asians, the presumed ancestors of the first people to cross the Bering Strait into the Americas.

Now a new genetic study may link native Americans and people of Europe and the Middle East, offering tantalizing support to a controversial theory that a band of people who originally lived in Europe or Asia Minor were among this continent's first settlers. The new data come from studies of a genetic marker called Lineage X, which has been found both in living Native Americans and in certain groups in Europe and Asia Minor, including Italians, Finns, and certain Israelis - but not in any Asian population."

The research referred to above and that by Cavalli-Sforza et al (The History and Geography of Human Genes) will not only assist in tracing the movements and migrations of tribes and nations, but also will provide further support to the Biblical record. Further work on human genetic history will no doubt give further credence and substance to this argument.

To sum up, the American Indian tribes have a range of origins including Tiras, Canaan, Esau, and Magog. They are a diverse people and must not be thought to be descended from the same source.

See Also

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Related References

  1. South American Culture in Perspective 1973:12
  2. Reynolds 1974:506
  3. ibid:511
  4. ibid:512
  5. Broek & Weber 1968:83
  6. Baker 1974:625
  7. Baikie 1926:74
  8. Josephus Antiquities 1:6:1
  9. Herodotus 4:89
  10. Mitchell 1976 vol 1:38
  11. McEvedy 1967:28
  12. McEvedy 1967:38
  13. Heyerdahl 1978:325
  14. Baikie 1926:212
  15. Rea 1968:14. See also Coon's excellent description (1948:141-42)
  16. Speiser 1964:66
  17. Graves 1964:124; Douglas 1972:1283
  18. Grant 1971:5
  19. Rea 1968:19
  20. ibid: 18
  21. Kolosimo 1970:177. See also "Newspaper illustrator Robert Ripley said the Greek alphabet was the same as a Mayan epic poem. " Creation Ex Nihilo, vol 15, no 3.
  22. ibid: 174
  23. Gordon 1971:82. Dr. Gordon even believes that the Minoans were related to the Phoenicians (pages 1-4, 20).
  24. Grant 1971:2
  25. Shepherd 1956:35
  26. quoted in Hoeh 1969 vol 2:86
  27. Wainwright page 132. Illyria is where Lud settled (a part of the Etruscans).
  28. Rea 1968:23
  29. quoted in Baker 1974:270
  30. Holmes page 388
  31. Hoeh 1969 vol 2:92
  32. ibid
  33. ibid:86-7. These works include Martin in Western Islands of Scotland (18th Century); Croker's Boswell (1848); Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal (no. VII) and Pennant's Second Tour (1772).
  34. Croker 1848:316, 352 quoted in Hoeh 1969 vol 2:87
  35. Lawless c1887:5
  36. Baker 1974:225
  37. The Nations of Genesis 10, page 2.
  38. Taylor 1937:214 See also page 170. Barry Fell in his America B.C. finds definite links between Basque and various Indian languages. According to Anderson's The Story of Extinct Civilizations of the West: "Whitney, an American scholar, concludes that 'No other dialect of the Old World so much resembles the American languages in structure as the Basque.'" (page 33-34)
  39. Beddoe 1912:160
  40. ibid:147
  41. ibid: 157
  42. Stuart 1972 "Who were the mound Builders?"
  43. Elliot 1972 "Monte Alban, City of the Gods"
  44. Bancroft 1875 vol 5:103, 549
  45. Coon 1956: plate 33
  46. Taylor 1937:246
  47. Hoeh 1969 vol 2:91
  48. World's Last Mysteries 1977:20
  49. Dankenbring 1978:89
  50. Heyerdahl 1978:339
  51. Poliakov 1974:141
  52. Coon 1948:141. The Eskimos of the Coppermine River are also blonde according to Taylor 1937:246
  53. Ice Age Columbus: Who Were the First Americans? DVD
  54. Rea 1968:13-14. See Scrutton 1977
  55. Rawlinson 1878:174
  56. McEvedy 1967:38
  57. Driver 1969: map 44
  58. Brinton 1891:136