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Standard Model theory

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The Standard Model of particle physics is the current leading scientific theory used to explain, based on indirect observation, what matter is made of and by some experimentation, how it interacts through symmetrical relationships in terms of formation, destruction and collisions.

Within the theory all matter is made of quarks and leptons. Quarks and leptons fall under the family of particles called fermions, or particles with half integer spins. Particles in relation to gravity however is rarely taken into account. Through the three main interaction forces of electromagnetism, weak and strong nuclear forces particles interact with each other. [1] The Standard Model can be classified under the unified field theory, as the model is consistent with two major theories of particle physics: quantum electroweak (electromagnetism and weak forces combined) and quantum chromodynamics (a theory of strong nuclear reactions between quarks). [2]

The Standard Model within creationism and evolution can be used equally within either one as an interpretation basis for the explanation, or definition of natural constants that govern matter as well as some chemical and decay processes. As for the origin of it, or the cause of its existence, to prescribe the assumed natural mechanism such as abiogenesis as evolutionists do is to take a stance no more scientific than thinking a supernatural force designed them.

Contents

History of the Theories Development

Quarks

The Quark class contains six particles which are considered elementary or fundamental in the makeup of matter and reside in hadrons through a strong force field, isolating them and essentially making measuring their individual mass almost impossible. Although indirectly we can determine what will happen to a quark when struck with a high energy photon for example. The mass of the quark becomes the controlling factor and through the acceleration or movement that happens when struck, an equation can be formed. [3]

A hadron is a subatomic particle effected by a nuclear force and consists of fermions and bosons. A specific boson particle, namely gluon is what causes the color force that binds the quark-antiquark relationship together. [4] There are six different types of quark pairs categorized in what are called flavors of up and down, charm and strange, top and bottom. A quark and an anti-quark when together become a meson, while three quarks sharing relationships are called a baryon. Mesons are bosons while the baryons are fermions. [5] Quarks are the only fundamental particles that actually interact with all four force carriers including gravity.

Quark Particle Flavor Weak
Isospin
Symbol e c-2 Antiparticle
Up Iz=+½ u +⅔ 1.5 – 4.0 Antiup
Down Iz=-½ d -⅓ 4 – 8 Antidown
Strange S=-1 s -⅓ 80 – 130 Antistrange
Charm C=1 c +⅔ 1150 – 1350 Anticharm
Bottom B'=-1 b -⅓ 4100 – 4400 Antibottom
Top T=1 t +⅔ 170900 ± 1800 Antitop [6]

Leptons

Lepton classification consists of six particles and their antiparticle. Along with quarks, leptons are elementary or fundamental constituents of matter and belong to the group fermions. Both quarks and leptons come in pairs but leptons do not experience strong nuclear forces.

The electron is a fundamental particle found throughout matter, is involved with chemical processes and can orbit the atomic nuclei. The Muon is heavier and can be observed to be the result of a high energy collision in an atomic accelerator or cosmic ray impacts. The Tau particle is heavier still and is involved with radioactive decay processes. Both the Muon and Tau are very unstable and only last short periods of time within natural conditions.

Neutrinos (Electron, Muon Tau neutrinos) are rarely involved with collisions. Electron neutrinos possess vast amounts of energy and have no electrical charge making them very hard to detect and ultimately observe. Muon and Tau neutrinos are the result of some decay processes.

Lepton Particle Mass (GeV/c2) Electrical Charge (e)
Electron 0.000511 -1
Muon 0.106 -1
Tau 1.7771 -1
Electron Neutrino <7 x 10-9 0
Muon Neutrino <0.0003 0
Tau Neutrino <0.03 0 [7]

Force Carriers

Force carriers or fundamental interactions between elementary or fundamental particles can explain every physical phenomenon we observe in nature. Within physics there are four interaction mechanisms; electromagnetic, weak and strong nuclear forces as well as gravitational forces. Within the Standard Model however gravitational forces are considered minor when compared to the high energy effects of atomic and subatomic forces.

Interaction Range of Interaction Exchanged Quanta
Electromagentic Long-range Photons (y)
Weak nuclear Short-range ≈10−18 m W+, Z0, W
Strong nuclear Short-range ≈10−15 m Gluons (G) [8]

Electromagnetic force

Main Article: Electromagnetism

The electromagnetic interaction is responsible for long-range repulsion of like, and attraction of unlike, electric charges. This is seen however as a secondary result of the primary process of emitting one or more photons (particles or quanta of light). This primary process is the acceleration of electric charge according to Maxwell's equations and the reabsorption of these quanta by another charged particle.

This force is extremely powerful compared to gravity and explains the underlying mechanisims from lasers to radios, from atoms to metals. [9]

Weak force

Weak nuclear force or interaction is responsible for the decay of a neutron into a proton, an electron, and an antineutrino.

Strong force

The overarching force between the forces of protons and neutrons. Usually associated with quarks rather than leptons.

References

  1. Particle Physics History
  2. Standard Model Answers
  3. Quarks by Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA
  4. Hadron by Wikipedia
  5. Hadrons, baryons, mesons
  6. Quark flavors by Wikipedia
  7. Subatomic particles by School for Champions
  8. Fundamental interactions Answers
  9. Fundamental interaction by Wikipedia

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