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Cesium

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{{isotope-u|<sup>137</sup>|trace|30.07 y|β−|1.176|<sup>137</sup>Ba|}}
{{isotope-u|<sup>137</sup>|trace|30.07 y|β−|1.176|<sup>137</sup>Ba|}}
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== Introduction ==
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'''Caesium''' is a [[chemical element]] of the [[alkali metal]] group with symbol Cs. German chemists Robert William Bunsen and Gustav Robert Kirchhoffin discovered Cesium 1860 in mineral water from Dürkheim, German. This metal looks like silvery gold and is both soft and ductile. It occurs in several minerals such as lepidolite, pollucite, amazonite and people can easily find Caesium from Bernic Lake in Manitoba, Canada. It is also attached on to Lepidolite but we can separate it through electrolysis. In the past, Caesium had a high cost per gram. Today, it is used in many different ways which are Atomic clocks, Vacuum tubes and so on. However, it contains risk because it can be easily explosive and if it put in water it will change to stronger base.
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Caesium is an element of the alkali metal group. German chemists Robert William Bunsen and Gustav Robert Kirchhoffin discovered Cesium 1860 in mineral water from Dürkheim, German. Caesium is known as Cesium with symbol Cs. This metal looks like silvery gold and is both soft and ductile. It occurs in several minerals such as lepidolite, pollucite, amazonite and people can easily find Caesium from Bernic Lake in Manitoba, Canada. It is also attached on to Lepidolite but we can separate it through electrolysis.
+
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In the past, Caesium had a high cost per gram. Today, it is used in many different ways which are Atomic clocks, Vacuum tubes and so on. However, it contains risk because it can be easily explosive and if it put in water it will change to stronger base.
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[http://www.3rd1000.com/elements/Cesium.htm#Occurrence]
[http://www.3rd1000.com/elements/Cesium.htm#Occurrence]
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Caesium is the chemical element in the periodic table. It has an atomic number of 55. Caesium is known as Cesium with symbol Cs. This metal looks like silvery gold and is both soft and ductile. Caesium has a characteristic that compounds burn with blue color. When Caesium reacts with water, it becomes explosive. Caesium categorizes as a hazardous material because of high activity. Caesium manages by shipped in dry mineral oil or inert atmosphere, etc. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesium]
Caesium is the chemical element in the periodic table. It has an atomic number of 55. Caesium is known as Cesium with symbol Cs. This metal looks like silvery gold and is both soft and ductile. Caesium has a characteristic that compounds burn with blue color. When Caesium reacts with water, it becomes explosive. Caesium categorizes as a hazardous material because of high activity. Caesium manages by shipped in dry mineral oil or inert atmosphere, etc. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesium]
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Caesium is the most electropositive chemical element in the periodic table. Cesium’s melting point is 28.4°C. Caesium is instructed with 132.90 amu for atomic mass and it's hard to boiling because Caesium contain high boiling point which is 678.4°C. The crystal of structure is cubic with 1.873 g/cm3 density. [http://www.periodic-table.org.uk/element-caesium.htm]
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Caesium is the most electropositive chemical element in the periodic table. Cesium’s melting point is 28.4°C. Caesium is instructed with 132.90 amu for atomic mass and it's hard to boiling because Caesium contain high boiling point which is 678.4°C. The crystal of structure is cubic with 1.873 g/cm3 density.[http://www.periodic-table.org.uk/element-caesium.htm]
== Occurrences ==
== Occurrences ==
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== Uses ==
== Uses ==
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In the past, many people tried to find the important use of casium in research and development, but they didn't find anything until 1920s. Howver, today Cesium is used in many different ways in the world. It associated with many sources such as Atomic clocks,removes air traces in vacuum tubes, ion propulsions systems, photoelectric cells, and so on. Atomic clock is known as nuclear clock, it uses measure for risk of catastrophic destruction. A form of electric propulsion, ion thruster, used the Coulomb force. Photoelectric cell(solar cell) makes energy from sunlight directly into electricity.  
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In the past, many people tried to find the important use of caesium in research and development, but they didn't find anything until 1920s. However, today Cesium is used in many different ways in the world. It associated with many sources such as Atomic clocks,removes air traces in vacuum tubes, ion propulsion systems, photoelectric cells, and so on. Atomic clock is known as nuclear clock, it uses measure for risk of catastrophic destruction. A form of electric propulsion, ion thruster, used the Coulomb force. Photoelectric cell(solar cell) makes energy from sunlight directly into electricity.  
[http://www.periodic-table.org.uk/element-caesium.htm]
[http://www.periodic-table.org.uk/element-caesium.htm]
== Precautions ==
== Precautions ==
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Caesium is one of the alkali metals. All alkali metals are risky because they are one of the most reactive and explosive. When it comes into contact with water, the risk is increased. Caesium is very strong base, easily corrodes and it is sometimes get fired in air without catalyst. The hydrogen gas also reacts violent exploion by contact with water like other alkali metals. However, casium is more powerful by cold water or ice. Caesium also is most explosive metal, so it requires special care in its storage and transport.[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesium]
+
Caesium is one of the alkali metals. All alkali metals are risky because they are one of the most reactive and explosive. When it comes into contact with water, the risk is increased. Caesium is very strong base, easily corrodes and it is sometimes get fired in air without catalyst. The hydrogen gas also reacts violent explosion by contact with water like other alkali metals. However, caesium is more powerful by cold water or ice. Caesium also is most explosive metal, so it requires special care in its storage and transport.[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesium]
== References ==
== References ==
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* [http://www.periodic-table.org.uk/element-caesium.htm The Third Millennium Online]  C.R. Hammond, unknown publisher.
* [http://www.periodic-table.org.uk/element-caesium.htm The Third Millennium Online]  C.R. Hammond, unknown publisher.
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesium Caesium] Wikipedia.org, Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.  
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesium Caesium] Wikipedia.org, Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.  

Revision as of 20:31, 14 January 2010

Cesium
Cesium
General Info
Atomic Symbol Cs
Atomic Number 55
Atomic Weight 132.9054 g/mol132.905 amu
Chemical series alkali metals
Appearance silvery gold
150px
Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s
Electron configuration [Xe] 6s1
Electrons per shell 2,8,18,18,8,1
Electron shell caesium.png
CAS number 7440-46-2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density 1.93 g/ml
Melting point 28.44 °C301.59 K
83.192 °F
542.862 °R
Boiling point 671 °C944.15 K
1,239.8 °F
1,699.47 °R
Isotopes of Cesium
iso NA half-life DT DE (MeV) DP
133 100% 133Cs is stable with 78 neutrons.
134 syn 2.0648 y ε 1.229 134Xe
134 syn 2.0648 y β− 2.059 134Ba
135 trace 2.3x106 y β− 0.269 135Ba
137 trace 30.07 y β− 1.176 137Ba
All properties are for STP unless otherwise stated.

Caesium is a chemical element of the alkali metal group with symbol Cs. German chemists Robert William Bunsen and Gustav Robert Kirchhoffin discovered Cesium 1860 in mineral water from Dürkheim, German. This metal looks like silvery gold and is both soft and ductile. It occurs in several minerals such as lepidolite, pollucite, amazonite and people can easily find Caesium from Bernic Lake in Manitoba, Canada. It is also attached on to Lepidolite but we can separate it through electrolysis. In the past, Caesium had a high cost per gram. Today, it is used in many different ways which are Atomic clocks, Vacuum tubes and so on. However, it contains risk because it can be easily explosive and if it put in water it will change to stronger base. [1]

Contents

Properties

The stone and liquid Cesium

Caesium is the chemical element in the periodic table. It has an atomic number of 55. Caesium is known as Cesium with symbol Cs. This metal looks like silvery gold and is both soft and ductile. Caesium has a characteristic that compounds burn with blue color. When Caesium reacts with water, it becomes explosive. Caesium categorizes as a hazardous material because of high activity. Caesium manages by shipped in dry mineral oil or inert atmosphere, etc. [2]

Caesium is the most electropositive chemical element in the periodic table. Cesium’s melting point is 28.4°C. Caesium is instructed with 132.90 amu for atomic mass and it's hard to boiling because Caesium contain high boiling point which is 678.4°C. The crystal of structure is cubic with 1.873 g/cm3 density.[3]

Occurrences

Lepidolite mica on a Tourmalated(Elbite) Smokey Quartz.

An element of the alkali metal group, Cesium participates with Earth crust. It occurs in several minerals such as lepidolite, pollucite, amazonite, etc. One of the most important of these metals are located in Bernic Lake in Manitoba, Canada. In there, it is assumed to contain 350,000 metric tons of pollucite ore. [4] Among several minerals, Silicate mineral, and Lepidolite contain a lot of Cesium. It can be isolated by electrolysis. By electrolysis Lepidolite, we can get pure and gas-free Caesium. In 1970s, Cesium was very expensive, its price was almost $30 per gram.[5]

Uses

In the past, many people tried to find the important use of caesium in research and development, but they didn't find anything until 1920s. However, today Cesium is used in many different ways in the world. It associated with many sources such as Atomic clocks,removes air traces in vacuum tubes, ion propulsion systems, photoelectric cells, and so on. Atomic clock is known as nuclear clock, it uses measure for risk of catastrophic destruction. A form of electric propulsion, ion thruster, used the Coulomb force. Photoelectric cell(solar cell) makes energy from sunlight directly into electricity. [6]

Precautions

Caesium is one of the alkali metals. All alkali metals are risky because they are one of the most reactive and explosive. When it comes into contact with water, the risk is increased. Caesium is very strong base, easily corrodes and it is sometimes get fired in air without catalyst. The hydrogen gas also reacts violent explosion by contact with water like other alkali metals. However, caesium is more powerful by cold water or ice. Caesium also is most explosive metal, so it requires special care in its storage and transport.[7]

References

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